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Gubernia Sankt Petersburg Gubernia Novgorod
First posted on February 21st 2008, last revised on July 15th 2010

History and Administrative Division . The territory which was to become Olonets Gubernia in 1708 was allocated to Ingermanland respectively Arkhangelsj Gubernia. In 1726 part of theterritory was ceded to Novgorod Gubernia. In 1773 Olonets Namestichestvo was created out of territory hitherto belonging to Arkhangelsk and Novgorod Gubernia. In 1796, it was elevated to Olonets Gubernia. Olonets Gubernia bordered on Arkhangelsk Gubernia in the North, on Vologda Gubernia in the southeast, on Novgorod Gubernia in the south, on Sankt Petersburg Gubernia in the southwest and on Finland in the west.
The capital of Olonets Namestichestvo in 1784 was moved to Petrozavodsk.
Olonets Gubernia was divided in 7 districts (Uyezds) : Petrozavodsk, Kargopol, Lodeinoye Pole, Olonets, Povyenets, Pudozh and Vytegra.
The Zemstvo Laws passed in 1864 granted regional self-government on Gubernia and Uyezd level; the regional administrative bodies are refererred to as Zemstvos. The Zemstvos were abolished in the course of the October Revolution.
During the Russian Civil War, an attempt was made to claim the region for Finland (Aunus Expedition, April 1919); while militarily defeated by the Red Army, the event gained some notoriety because of Finnish postage stamps overprinted 'Aunus' (the Finnish name for Olonets). In 1920, much of Olonets Gubernia was included in the Karelian ASSR, capital Petrozavodsk, areas in the southest annexed by Petrograd Oblast (later renamed Leningrad Oblast), in the east ro Vologda Oblast.

Population . The population numbered 321,250 in 1881, 367,902 in 1897, and 401,100 (estimate) in 1906. In 1883, the population consisted of 83 % Russians, 14 % Karelians, 2 % Estonians. By confession, the large majority was Russian Orthodox, c.9,000 were Old Believers, then there were c. 1,000 Protestants and 600 Catholics Meyer).

Economy . Many of Olonets Gubernia's 2000 lakes, in addition the Vidlitsa, Svir, Oyaty, Vytegra, Mega, Oshta, Andoma, Sunna, Onega, Voshma, Vyg are navigable. The Mariinsk Canal connects the Neva River system with the Volga River System. Onega Canal connected Onega River with the Dvina (the White Sea). Olonets Gubernia had ironworks, based on locally produced iron ore and bog iron; pearls were found in Onega River. Petrozavodsk was the center of the iron industry.
In 1883, 63 % of the area was covered by forest, only 2.5 % farmland, c.3 % pastorage, the remainder wasteland. The bulk of the population lived off forest industries, hunting and fishing. There were 281 fatories with a combined number of 1806 industrial workers. The leading industries were sawmills, distilleries, grain mills. (Meyer).

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Country Profiles Current Article Olonetskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Article Olonets Governorate, from Wikipedia
Historical Article : Government : Olonets, from EB 1911
Articles : Olonez, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Historical Dictionary
Accounts of History
Economy & Finances List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Olonets Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
J.C. Brown, Works on Forestry vol.8 : The Forests of Northern Russia (1883), posted on Internet Archive; on Olonets and Arkhangelsk Gubernia
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Olonets
Ethnography Karelians of the Olonets Gubernia, by Andrew Heninen
Religion Article Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Article Raskolniks, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
History of Regions
Local History Articles Olonets, Petrozavodsk : History, Kargopol, Lodeynoye Pole, Pudozh, Vytegra, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia : Karelia
Others Article Aunus Expedition, from Wikipedia

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Historical Maps Map : Olonetskaya Gubernia, from Wikimedia, in Russian
Maps : N Olonets, SW Olonets, SE Olonets, (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Governments : Olonets, Cities : Petrozavodsk, from EB 1911
Articles Olonez, Kargopol, Petrosavodsk, Wytegra, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Geographical Das Gouvernement Olonez, pp.377-381 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Das Gouvernement Olonez, pp.138-141 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Olonets p.31
Articles Olonetz, Onega, Wytegra, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues E. Rae, The White Sea Peninsula, a Journey in Russian Lapland and Karelia (1881), posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Olonets Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Penza
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h

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