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Gubernia Kursk Gubernia Kaluga
First posted on February 18th 2008, last revised on July 20th 2010

History and Administrative Division . Established in 1778 as Oryol Namestichestvo, reorganized as Oryol Gubernia in 1796, dissolved in 1928. Oryol Gubernia bordered in the north on Smolensk, Kaluga and Tula Gubernia, in the east on Tambov Gubernia, in the south on Voronezh and Kursk Gubernia, in the west on Chernigov Gubernia. Oryol (Orel) Gubernia was divided in 12 districts (Uyezds) : Bolkhov, Bryansk, Dmitrovsk, Yelets, Karachev, Kromy, Livny, Maloarkhangelsk, Mtsensk, Orel, Syevsk, Trubchevsk.
The Zemstvo Laws passed in 1864 granted regional self-government on Gubernia and Uyezd level; the regional administrative bodies are refererred to as Zemstvos. The Zemstvos were abolished in the course of the October Revolution.

Population . The population in 1811 was 1,228,000, in 1840 1,410,300, in 1867 1,578,000, in 1885 1,963,700, in 1914 2,816,200 (Lahmeyer). The vast majority belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church, c. 1 % were Old Believers.

Economy . 62 % on the area was used as farmland, 20 % covered by forest, 12.5 % pastorage. The dominant agricultural products were grain and potatoes. In 1884 531 factories with a combined total of 16,777 industrial workers were counted. The leading industries were distillery, production of steel rails, oil production, grain milling, glass industry, hemp industry, leather industry (Meyer).

Oryol Gubernia within the RSFSR . Oryol Gubernia ceded territory to Bryansk Gubernia, annexed a small stretch of territory from Tula Gubernia. In 1926, Oryol Gubernia bordered on Kaluga, Tula and Ryazan Gubernia in the north, on Tambov Gubernia in the east, on Voronezh and Kursk Gubernia in the south and on Bryansk Gubernia in the west.

Population . The population in 1926 was 1,884,000, in 1840 1,410,300, in 1939 1,537,000 (Lahmeyer).

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
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P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current Article Oryolskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical Articles : Orel, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Historical Dictionary
Accounts of History
Economy & Finances List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Oryol Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Orel
Religion Article Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Article Raskolniks, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
History of Regions
Local History Articles Oryol : History, Bolkhov, Dmitrovsk, Livny, Maloarkhangelsk, Mtsensk, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia : Oryol

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Historical Maps Maps : Tula, (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Cities : Orel, from EB 1911
Articles Orel, Bolchow, Brjansk, Dmitrowsk, Jelez, Karatschew, Kromy, Liwny, Maloarchangelsk, Mzensk, Sjewsk, Trubtschewsk, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Geographical Das Gouvernement Orel, pp.436-440 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Das Gouvernement Orel, pp.109-112 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Orel p.31
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Oryol Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images, from Wikimedia

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Oryol
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h

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