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Gubernia Vyatka Gubernia Ufa
First posted on February 26th 2008, last revised on November 29th 2008

History and Administrative Division . Perm Gubernia was established in 1796. In 1923 it was integrated into Uralskaya Oblast, . Perm Gubernia was located between Orenburg Gubernia (SE), Ufa Gubernia (S), Vyatka Gubernia (W), Vologda Gubernia (NW), Tobolsk Gubernia (E).
Perm Gubernia was divided in 12 districts (Uyezds) : Irbit, Jekaterinenburg, Kamyschlow, Schadrinsk und Werchoturje (to the east of the Ural Mountains), Krassno-Ufimsk, Kungur, Ossa, Ochansk, P., Solikamsk und Tscherdyn (to the west of the Ural Mountains).
The Zemstvo Laws passed in 1864 granted regional self-government on Gubernia and Uyezd level; the regional administrative bodies are refererred to as Zemstvos. The Zemstvos were abolished in the course of the October Revolution.
Following the establishment of the RSFSR, Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk) Gubernia was split off in 1922. Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug within Perm Gubernia (since 1938 Perm Oblast).

Population . The population in 1815 was 1,113,000, in 1840 1,488,800, in 1867 2,173,500, in 1885 2,649,600, in 1915 4,083,200 (Lahmeyer). In 1870, less than 4 % of the population was Muslim, about 3 % Old Believers, the vast majority Russian Orthodox. The largest ethnic minority were the Bashkirs (c. 3 %), the Permyaks (c. 2 %) and the Volga Tatars (c.1 %) (Meyer).

Economy . Perm was the chief mining region of the Russian Empire, producing iron, silver, platinum, copper, nickel, lead, chrome, manganese, gold, iridium, osmium, rhodium, ruthenium, asbestos, precious stones, coal (EB 1911). Gold was discovered in 1745, gems in 1766. Ekaterinburg developed into a major center of mining and gem production. Solikamsk developed into a major producer of salt. The Transsiberian Railroad reached Perm in 1896; the railway line Perm-Ekaterinburg had been opened in 1881.
Agriculture dominated the professions (grain, hemp, potaoes), followed by animal husbandry (cattle, horses; the main sustenance of the Bashkirs), with mining and metalworks making rapid progress in the late 19th and early 20th century (EB 1911). In 1884, there were 1211 factories with a combined total of 12336 industrial workers (Meyer).

Historic Encyclopedias on Perm Gubernia, 1857-1915

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current Article Permskaya Gubernia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical Articles : Perm, from EB 1911
Articles : Perm, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Links General
on History
Historical Dictionaries
Accounts of History General
Specific Periods The Development of the Urals, from Gold Book of the Urals
Economy & Finances Ural & Transuralia, from Transsib
Brief History of Coalmining in Russia, from Russian Coal
History of Gold in Russia, by Vladimir Kroupnik
List of Match Factories in the Russian Empire : Perm Gubernia, from The Virtual Matchbox Label Museum, in Russian
Russia, from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB ; search for Perm
Ethnography Articles Bashkirs, Komi Peoples (Permyaks), Mansi (Voguls), Mari People (Cheremisses), Meshchera, Veps, Volga Tatars, from Wikipedia
Bashkirs, Komi, Mansi, Maris, Volga Tatars, from World Culture Encyclopedia
Religion Article Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Article Raskolniks, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
History of Regions Article Sverdlovsk Oblast : History, Perm Oblast, from Wikipedia
Local History Articles Perm : History, Yekaterinburg : History, Kungur : History, Okhansk, Solikamsk, from Wikipedia
Perm, from Famous Why; A Cultural History of Perm, by Petr Kozma; History of Perm, from Perm University; Historical Information on the Foundation of Perm, Photo Album Perm XIX-XXth Centuries, from Perm Online
Ekaterinburg History, from Ekaterinburg Travel, from Ekaterinburg Information Portal; Ekaterinburg - the Mining City, from Ural Line Tours
Ural Big Ring, from Tourism in Russia, on history of Nevyansk, Nizhni Tagil, Solikamsk, Cherdyn, Nyrob
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Russia : Perm Oblast, Sverdlovsk Oblast
History of Ural State Academy of Mining and Geology (of 1914)

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Russia, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Document Collections
Historical Maps Russian Empire - Central East (Blackie & Son 1882), posted by FEEFHS
Permskaya Gubernia, from Google Earth Community
Maps : Perm (Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910), posted by M. Witkam
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles : Government : Perm, Cities : Perm, Ekaterinburg, Ethnicities : Bashkirs, Cheremisses, Meshcheryaks, Syryenians, Tatars, Geographical Features : Ural Mountains, from EB 1911
Articles Perm, Baschkiren, Meschtscherjäken, Tataren, Teptjären, Tscheremissen, Wogulen, Irbit, Kamyschlow, Krassno-Ufimsk, Kungur, Ossa, Schadrinsk, Solikamsk, Tscherdyn, Werchoturje, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Geographical Das Gouvernement Perm, pp.538-541 in Th. Fr. Ehrmann, Neueste Kunde vom Russischen Reiche in Europa und Asien, vol.3 of Neueste Länder- und Völkerkunde, 1807, in German, GB
Government of Perm, pp.630-631 in vol.3 of J. Playfair, A System of Geography, ancient and modern, 1810, GB
Perm, in : R. Brookes, Brookes's General gazetteer improved, 1812, GB, unpaginated
Perm, pp.239-241 in vol.4 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, 1829, GB
Government of Perm, p.66 in vol.4 of J. Bell, A system of geography, popular and scientific, 1836, GB
Das Gouvernement Perm, pp.239-242 in vol.1 of Das Russische Kaiserreich, seine Geographie, Statistik, Volks- und Regentengeschichte, 1847, in German, GB
W.H. Beable, Russian gazetteer and guide, being an account of the territorial divisions and a description of over 300 of the principal towns and cities of Russia, Finland and Siberia (1919), posted on Internet Archive; Perm p.32
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues
Institutions Archives Museum of History of Ekaterinburg, from Russian Museums
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Perm Gubernia Coat of Arms, from Civic Heraldry; from Vector Images, from Wikimedia

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Perm
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online Tatar Gazette
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h

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