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Dagestan Astrakhan Oblast
First posted on February 23rd 2005, last revised on August 1st 2010







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History and Administrative Division . In 1920 the Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was established from territory previously belonging to Astrakhan and Stavropol Gubernia. In 1931 the policy of forced collectivization was implemented, Buddhist monasteries closed down; in the ensuing famine c. 60,000 died. In 1935 the Kalmyk AO was elevated to Kalmyk ASSR. During WW II the Kalmyks cooperated with the German forces; after the German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad, the Kalmyk ASSR was dissolved in 1943, the population deported to Siberia. They were allowed to return in 1957, the Kalmyk ASSR restored in 1958. First free elections were held in 1993.
As of 2008, the Republic of Kalmykia borders on Astrakhan Oblast and Volgograd Oblast in the north, on Rostov Oblast in the west, on Stavropol Oblast and Dagestan in the south and on the Caspian Sea in the east. Kalmykia is divided into 13 districts.

Alternative spellings : Calmac, Calmuc, Calmuck, Kalmuc, Kalmyk, Qalmyq, Kalmuck, Callmaks

Timelines : Kalmykia
Historical Atlas : Kalmykia Page







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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Kalmykia, from Wikipedia
Regions and Territories : Kalmykia, from BBC News
Kalmykia, from Caucasus Documentary Network
Article Kalmykia, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical H.A. Zwick, Calmuc Tartary : or, A journey from Sarepta to several Calmuc hordes of the Astracan Government, from May 23 to August 21 1823, 1831, GB
Links General Category : Kalmykia, from Wikipedia
Kalmykia, from kaukaz.net
on History
Organizations Caucasus Foundation
Tibetan Mongolian Museum Society
Historical Dictionary
Timelines A Timeline of the Mongols, by Piero Scaruffi
Accounts of History General History of Kalmykia, from Republic of Kalmykia
History of Kalmykia, from Wikipedia
J.G. Georgi, Russia, or a Compleat Historical Account of all the Nations Which Compose that Empire, vol.4 : the Mongols, 1783, GB
Ebülgazi Bahadir Han, Histoire genealogique des Tatars, 1726, in French, GB ; search for Callmaks
Specific Periods Ch.81, pp.367-373 in G.A.W. von Helbig, Russische Günstlinge, 1809, in German, GB
Article : Kalmyk Deportation of 1943, from Wikipedia
Military History
Economy & Finances
Ethnography Article : Kalmyk People, from Wikipedia
Religion Article : Buddhism in Kalmykia, from Wikipedia
Khurul Monastery, Russia, from Pagoda in the World
Russian Buddhism on the Internet
History of Regions
Local History Article : Elista : History, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Ukraine : Kalmykia Republic
Culture Kalmyk National Cuisine, from Russia Travel
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Russian Republics : Kalmykia, from World Statesmen, scroll down
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics by Administrative Division : Russia, from : Population Statistics
Documents Historical Newspapers
Historical Newspaper Articles Last of the Golden Horde, Life Magazine Nov. 14 1949
Archive Deposits Guide to the Kalmyk Resettlement Committee Records TAM 029, at The Tamiment Library & Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
Document Collections
Historical Maps Map of Administrative Division, posted by R. Daward
Maplandia : Republic of Kalmykia
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Kalmucs, pp.422-426 in vol.9 of Encyclopaedia Britannica , 1797, GB
Article : Kalmucs, pp.443-445 in vol.12 of Encyclopaedia Perthensis, 1816, GB
Article : Kalmucs, pp.419-423 in vol.11 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1823, GB
Article : Kalmucs, pp.298-301 in vol.12 of The London encyclopaedia, 1829, GB
Article : Kalmuck, in Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 edition, posted by Classic Encyclopedia
Religious
Economic Von den Kalmüken, pp.151-153 in F.L. Langstedt, Geschichte des asiatischen Handels, 1803, in German, GB
Article : Tallow, pp.642-643 in W. Waterston, A cyclopaedia of commerce, mercantile law, finance, commercial geography, 1846, GB
Article : Tallow, pp.642-643 in W. Waterston, A cyclopaedia of commerce, mercantile law, finance, commercial geography, 1863, GB
Geographical Calmucks, p.444 in Th. Salmon, A new geographical and historical grammar, 1767, GB
Das Land Astrachan, pp.95-110, 121-129 in vol.1 of J.Chr. Borheck, Erdbeschreibung von Asien, 1792, in German, GB
Calmac or Calmuc, p.289 in vol.1 of J.E. Worcester, A geographical dictionary or universal gazetteer, ancient and modern, 1823, GB
Ethnological Kalmucs, p.243 in vol.2 of W. Alexander, The history of women, from the earliest antiquity, to the present, 1779, GB
Calmuc, p.185 in Th. Moore, Marriage customs and modes of courtship of the various nations of the various nations of the universe, 1820, GB
Tartary : the Calmucs, pp.217-219 in A. Hamilton, Marriage rites: customs, and ceremonies, of the nations of the universe, 1824, GB
The Mongols : the Kalmuks, pp.274-282 in R.G. Latham, The Native Races of the Russian empire, 1854, GB
Historical
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues B. von Bergmann, Benjamin Bergmann's Nomadische Streifereien unter den Kalmüken in den Jahren 1802 und 1803, vol.1, 1804, vol.2, 1804, vol.3, 1804, vol.4, 1805, in German, GB
J. von Klaproth, Travels in the Caucasus and Georgia: performed in the years 1807 and 1808, 1814, GB
W. Glenn, Journal of a tour from Astrachan to Karass, 1823, GB
H.A. Zwick, Calmuc Tartary : or, A journey from Sarepta to several Calmuc hordes of the Astracan Government, from May 23 to August 21 1823, 1831, GB
C.E. von Eichwald, Reise auf dem Caspischen Meere und in den Caucasus, vol.1.2, 1837, GB
X. and A. Hommaire de Hell, Travels in the steppes of the Caspian Sea, the Crimea, the Caucasus, &c, 1847, GB
Ch.H. Scott, The Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Crimea: comprising travels in Russia, 1854, GB
Residence Memoirs V. Mikhailov, Adventures of Michailow: a Russian captive among the Kalmucs, Kirghiz, and Kiwenses, 1822, GB
Institutions Archives
Musea The Russian Museum of Ethnography : Kalmyks : Nomads of Europe
Russian Museums : Kalmyk State Museum of Fine Arts
Monuments Image : Monument to Kalmyk Deportations, from Wikipedia
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Coat of Arms of Kalmykia, from Wikipedia
Flag of Kalmykia, from Wikipedia

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Kalmykia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary Kalmykiya, pp.68-71 in : Europa Publications, The Territories of the Russian Federation, London : Europa 1st ed. 1999 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article : USSR : Russia : Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 p.1412, 1975-1976 p.1417, 1978-1979 p.1234, 1980-1981 p.1239, 1983-1984 pp.1243-1244, 1984-1985 p.1241, 1985-1986 p.1242, 1987-1988 p.1244, 1988-1989 p.1248, 1989-1990 pp.1254-1255, 1990-1991 p.1257
Article : USSR : Russia : Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1991-1992 p.1257
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Kalmyk Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 p.407, 1993-1994 p.408, 1994-1995 p.395
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Kalmykia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1995-1996 pp.383-384
Article : Russia : Kalmykia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1996-1997 p.1088, 1997-1998 pp.1093-1094, 1998-1999 pp.1187-1188, 2000 pp.1330-1331, 2001 pp.1293-1294, 2002 p.1347, 2003 pp.1345-1346, 2004 pp.1350-1351, 2005 p.1362