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Arkhangelsk Oblast Finland
First posted on May 31st 2006, last revised on August 28th 2010

History and Administrative Division . The Karelian ASSR was established in 1923, on territory previously belonging to Olonets Gubernia and Arkhangelsk Gubernia. In 1938 Kandalaksha District was ceded to Murmansk Oblast. In 1940 territory gained by the USSR in the Winter War and the Karelian ASSR were reconstituted as the Karelo-Finnish SSR. In 1941 the newly acquired areas were reannexed into Finland, much of Karelia occupied by Finnish forces. Karelia was lretaken by the Red Army in 1944, the contested areas in 1944/1947 reacquired by the USSR / the Karelo-Finnish ASSR respectively Leningrad Oblast. In 1956 the Karelo-Finnish SSR was reconstituted as the Karelian ASSR. In 1991 the Karelian ASSR was reorganized as the Karelian Republic. Capital Petrozavodsk. The Karelian Republic presently borders on Murmansk Oblast in the north, Arkhangelsk Oblast in the east, Vologda Oblast in the south, Leningrad Oblast in the southwest and Finland in the west. The Karelian Republic is divided in 18 districts.

Economy . By the time the Karelian ASSR was established, the main industrial center was capital Petrozavodsk with her ironworks dating back to the time of Peter the Great. In the country there was forest industry (sawmills, match factories etc.); fishery was of importance. In the 1920s, paper factories, power stations, furniture factories were established. Forced collectivization was implemented in 1929-1933. The Winter War 1939-1940, the Continuation War (in Russia called Great Patriotic War) 1941-1944 resulted in some destruction. During the reconstruction phase, Karelian timber was of great importance for European Russia. Logging reached a climax in the mid 1960s, after which date the paper industry dominated. In the 1950es, new industrial combinates were established.

Population . The population was 469,000 in 1939, 469,100 in 1959, 736,000 in 1979, 791,000 in 1989, 760,000 in 2001 (Lahmeyer). In the 1930es and from 1945 to 1956, the 'immigration' of labour camp inmates affected the demography of Karelia. With the forced collectivization 1929-1933 came not only the deportation of Kulaks, but also of much of the administrative leadership and intelligentsia. A considerable part of the territory referred to as Eastern Karelia, ceded by Finland on March 12th 1940, reannexed in 1941 and again ceded in 1947) migrated to Finland in 1939/40, many of them moved back into Eastern Karelia in 1941, and again moved into Finland in 1944.

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see also History of Russia in Europe, Russia, USSR

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Country Profiles Current Article Karelia, from Wikipedia
Autonomous Republic of Karelia, from Atlas of the Baltic Sea Region
Links General Category : Republic of Karelia, from Wikipedia
on History Republic of Karelia, from heninen.net
History, from The Official Karelia
Articles and Books about Finns in Karelia, from The Genealogical Society of Finland
Organizations History of the Finnish Karelian League (pertaining to Eastern Karelia, territory ceded by Finland to the USSR in 1940, part of which became part of the Republic of Karelia)
Petrozavodsk State University, Faculty of History, Investigative Laboratory for Local and Microhistory of Karelia (ILLMiK)
Historical Dictionary
Accounts of History General, Modern Historical Precis, from Republic of Karelia
History of Karelia, by Mauri Rastas (pertaining to Eastern Karelia, territory ceded by Finland to the USSR in 1940, part of which became part of the Republic of Karelia)
General, Historic
Specific Periods Articles : Karelian ASSR (1923-1940, 1956-1990), Karelo-Finnish SSR (1940-1956), from Wikipedia
Auvo Kostiainen, Genocide in Soviet Karelia : Stalin's Terror and the Finns of Soviet Karelia
Administration Article : Administrative Divisions of the Republic of Karelia, from Wikipedia
Military History
Economy & Finances The 225th anniversary of Onego Tractor Plant (1774), Kondopozhsky Pulp And Paper Mill (1929), from The Official Karelia
Ethnography Articles Karelians, from Wikipedia
Karelians, from World Culture Encyclopedia
Religion Lutheran Churches in Karelia, from heninen.net
History of Regions
Local History The Pages of History, from Petrozavodsk 300
Article Kandalaksha, from Wikipedia Russian Edition
History of Helulia Village, from helyla.onega.ru
Structures, Institutions Structurae : Karelia Republic
Olonetskaya Railway, from The Official Karelia
Biographies Outstanding Statesmen, Scientists, and Cultural Workers, from The Official Karelia

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Russian Republics : Karelia, from World Statesmen
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics by Administrative Division : Russia, from : Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers
Historical Newspaper Articles
Image Databanks Old Postcards of Petrozavodsk, from heninen.net
Archive Deposits Birch-Bark Document on Karelian Language, XIIth Century, posted on heninen.net
Document Collections
Historical Maps Map : Administrative Division of Murmansk Oblast and Republic of Karelia, from Barents Info
Around Sankt Petersburg, has lots of historical maps, some on Soviet-Finnish border
Map of Administrative Division, posted by R. Daward
Map of Rep. of Karelia, from Atlas of the Baltic Sea Region
Encyclopedia Entries
Geographical N.S. Vsevolozhskij, Dictionnaire geographique-historique de l'empire de Russie, vol.1, vol.2, 1823, in French, GB
Ethnological The Karelians, pp.71-72 in R.G. Latham, The native races of the Russian empire, 1854, GB
Karelians of the Olonets Gubernia, a compilation of excerpts translated from Russian and posted on heninen.net
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues V.Th. Hornen, East Carelia and Kola Lapmark (1921), posted on Internet Archive
E. Rae, The White Sea Peninsula, a Journey in Russian Lapland and Karelia (1881), posted on Internet Archive
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives National Archive of the Republic of Karelia
Musea See Republic of Karelia, from Global Tourism Network
Russian Museums : Olonets National Museum of Republic of Karelia, Karelian State Museum of Regional History, Maritime Museum of Karelia
Monuments See Republic of Karelia, from Global Tourism Network
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Karelia, Karelian ASSR, from FOTW
Coat of Arms, Republic of Karelia, from Wikipedia
Coat of Arms, Karelian ASSR, from Vector Images, from Civic Heraldry

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Karelia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary Kareliya, pp.75-77, in : Europa Publications, The Territories of the Russian Federation, London : Europa 1st ed. 1999 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article : USSR : Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 pp.1412-1413, 1975-1976 pp.1417-1418, 1978-1979 pp.1234-1235, 1980-1981 pp.1239-1240, 1983-1984 p.1244, 1984-1985 pp.1241-1242, 1985-1986 pp.1242-1243, 1987-1988 p.1245, 1988-1989 p.1249, 1989-1990 p.1255, 1990-1991 pp.1257-1258, 1991-1992 pp.1257-1258 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Karelian Autonomous Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 pp.407-408 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Karelian Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1993-1994 pp.408-409, 1994-1995 p.396 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Karelia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1995-1996 p.384 [G]
Article : Russia : Karelia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1996-1997 pp.1088-1089, 1997-1998 p.1094, 1998-1999 pp.1188-1189, 2000 pp.1331-1332, 2001 pp.1294-1295, 2002 p.1348, 2003 pp.1346-1347, 2004 pp.1351-1352, 2005 p.1363 [G]

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