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Karachay-Cherkessia North Ossetia
First posted on June 1st 2006, last revised on August 31st 2010






Kabardino-Balkaria is a region named after two peoples residing there, the Kabards (a branch of the Circassians) and the Balkars, who are closely related to the Turk Karachay peopole inhabiting adjacent Karachay-Cherkessia.
The region was under the rule of the Kipchak Tatars 1242-1295, under Georgia from 1295 to 1505, under Safavid Persia until 1516, under the Ottoman Empire until 1557. From 1557 until into the early 19th century the region was a protectorate of the Russian Empire. In 1774 the Ottoman Empire recognized the independence of Kabardy. In 1827 Kabardy was annexed by the Russian Empire and placed under Kuban Gubernia.
In 1921 Kabardino-Balkaria formed part of the Mountain Peoples' Autonomous Republic. The Kabardin Autonomous Oblast was established in 1921, renamed Kabardino-Balkar AO in 1922 and elevated to Kabardino-Balkar ASSR in 1936. In 1944 the Balkars were deported (allowed to return in 1957) and the territory renamed Kabardin ASSR (back to Kabardino-Balkar ASSR in 1957). Reorganized as Kabardino-Balkar Republic (autonomous within the Russian Federation) in 1991.

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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article Kabardino-Balkaria, from Wikipedia
Kabardino-Balkaria, from Turanian Lands, Turanian Peoples
Kabardino-Balkaria Profile, from BBC News
The Kabardino-Balkaria, from Russia the Great
Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, from Circassian World
Historical L. Moser, The Caucasus and its people: with a brief history of their wars, and a Sketch of the Achievements of the Reknowned Chief Schamyl, 1856, GB
Links General Category : Kabardino-Balkaria, from Wikipedia
on History
Organizations
Historical Dictionary
Timelines
Accounts of History General, Modern Article : History of Kabardino-Balkaria, from Wikipedia
General, Historic
Specific Periods I.M. Miziyev, The History of the Karachay-Balkarian People from the Ancient Times to Joining Russia, (1994) Engl. trsl. 1997
Administration Article Administrative Division of Kabardino-Balkaria, from Wikipedia
Military History L. Oliphant, The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha , 1856, GB
Türken-Kriegs-Geschichte, pp.165-166 in Politisches Journal vol.1 1788, in German, GB; refers to Kabardian troops
Economy & Finances
Ethnography Articles Kabarday, Balkars, from Wikipedia
Balkars, from World Culture Encyclopedia
Balkar (Karachay), Kabardian, from Ethnologue
Religion
History of Regions
Local History History, from Karachaevsk
Structures, Institutions
Culture
Biographies
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Russian Republics : Kabardino-Balkariya, from World Statesmen, scroll down
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics by Administrative Division : Russia, from : Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers
Historical Newspaper Articles
Archive Deposits
Document Collections
Historical Maps Maps : Languages of the Caucasus, from Titus
Map of Administrative Division, posted by R. Daward
Map : North Caucasus Krai 1931, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General
Religious
Economic
Geographical N.S. Vsevolozhskij, Dictionnaire geographique-historique de l'empire de Russie, vol.1, vol.2, 1823, in French, GB
Article : Circassia, p.205 in vol.3 of Encyclopaedia Americana, 1838, GB; on the Kabarda Circassians
Article : Circassia, p.243 in vol.2 pt.1 of The Popular Encyclopedia, 1836, GB; on Kabarda Circassians
Entry : Les Basians, pp.21-22 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Précis de la géographie universelle, 1829, in French, GB (on the Balkars)
Ethnological Entry : Die Tscherkessen, pp.132-133 in J.G. Georgi, Beschreibung aller Nationen des Russischen Reichs, 1776, in German, GB; reference to Kabardey
Entry : Kistenzen oder Kisten, p.216 in B. Wichmann, Darstellung der russischen Monarchie nach ihren wichtigsten, statistisch-politischen Beziehungen, 1816, in German, GB
Entry : Kabardah; Karatschen und die Balkaren pp.34-35 in Fr. Wagner, Schamyl als Feldherr, Sultan und Prophet und der Kaukasus, 1854, in German, GB
Historical
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues J.A. Güldenstadt, Reisen durch Russland und im Caucasischen Gebürge, vol.1, 1787, vol.2, 1791, in German, GB
D. Chr. von Rommel, Die Völker des Caucasus nach den Berichten der Reisebeschreiber, 1808, in German, GB
P.S. Pallas, Travels through the southern provinces of the Russian empire in the years 1793 and 1794, vol.1, vol.2, 1812, GB
R. Lyall, Travels in Russia, the Krimea, the Caucasus, and Georgia, vol.1, vol.2, 1825, GB
E. Spencer, Travels in the Western Caucasus .. in 1836, vol.1, vol.2, 1838, GB
K.H.E. Koch, Reise durch Russland nach dem kaukasischen Isthmus in den Jahren 1836, 1837 und 1838, vol.1, 1842, vol.2, 1843, in German, GB
Travels in Circassia, pp.692-707 in Blackwood's Magazine vol.79, June 1856, GB
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives
Musea See Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, from Global Tourism Network
Russian Museums : The National Museum of Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
Monuments See Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, from Global Tourism Network
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Kabardino-Balkaria
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online Journal of Central Asian and Caucasian Studies 2006-
Circassian Journal 2009-
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary Kabardino-Balkariya, pp.65-67, in : Europa Publications, The Territories of the Russian Federation, London : Europa 1st ed. 1999 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article : USSR : Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 p.1411, 1975-1976 p.1416, 1978-1979 pp.1233-1234, 1980-1981 p.1239, 1983-1984 p.1243, 1984-1985 pp.1240-1241, 1985-1986 p.1242, 1987-1988 p.1244, 1988-1989 p.1248, 1989-1990 p.1254, 1990-1991 p.1257, 1991-1992 p.1257 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 pp.406-407 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Kabardino-Balkar Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1993-1994 p.408, 1994-1995 p.395 ( [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Kabardino-Balkaria, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1995-1996 p.383 [G]
Article : Russia : Kabardino-Balkaria, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1996-1997 pp.1087-1088, 1997-1998 p.1093, 1998-1999 p.1187, 2000 p.1330, 2001 p.1293, 2002 pp.1346-1347, 2003 p.1345, 2004 p.1350, 2005 pp.1361-1362 [G]