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Adygeya Kabardino-Balkaria
First posted on June 1st 2006, last revised on August 30th 2010

In 1864 the Russian conquest of the western section of the North Caucasus, at that time known as Circassia, was completed. The area later known as Karachay-Cherkessia was annexed by the Russian Empire and placed under Kuban Gubernia.
In 1922 Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was created. In 1926 it was split into Karachay Autonomous Oblast and Cherkess National District; in 1928 the latter was elevated to Cherkess Autonomous Oblast. In 1943 Karachay Autonomous Oblast was terminated, its population deported to Central Asia, and its territory partitioned amongst Stavropol Krai and Georgia. In 1957 Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was reestablished in its borders of 1922, and the Karachay were permitted to return. In 1991 the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was elevated to Karachay-Cherkess ASSR, within the RSFSR. At the end of 1991, the name Karachay-Cherkess Republic was adopted, enjoying autonomous status within the Russian Federation.

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Country Profiles Current Article : Karachay-Cherkessia, from Wikipedia
Karachay-Cherkessia, from Turanian Lands, Turanian Peoples
Karachay-Cherkessia, from BBC News
The Karachayevo-Circassian Republic, from Russia the Great
Links General Category : Karachay-Cherkessia, from Wikipedia
Karachai on the Web
on History Category : History of Karachay-Cherkessia, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionary
Timelines Chronology for Karachay in Russia, from Minorities at Risk
Accounts of History General, Modern I.M. Miziyev, The History of the Karachay-Balkarian People from the Ancient Times to Joining Russia, (1994) Engl. trsl. 1997
General, Historic The Kundurs, pp.1053-1056 in vol.2 pt.2 of H.H. Howorth, History of the Mongols : from the 9th to the 19th century, 1830, GB
Specific Periods Article : Cherkess Autonomous Oblast, Karachay Autonomous Oblast, Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast, from Wikipedia
Chapter 5 : Karachays, pp.73-77 in J.O. Pohl, Ethnic cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949, 1999, GB
Administration Article Administrative Division of Karachay-Cherkessia, from Wikipedia
Military History L. Oliphant, The Trans-Caucasian campaign of the Turkish army under Omer Pasha , 1856, GB
Economy & Finances
Ethnography Articles Karachays, Cherkes (Circassians), Nogais, from Wikipedia
Circassians, Karachays, from World Culture Encyclopedia
Assessment for Karachay in Russia, from Minorities at Risk
Balkar (Karachay), from Ethnologue
The Abazians, from The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire
History of Regions
Local History
Structures, Institutions
Biographies on Nicholas Poppe, pp.363-364 in R.F. Newman, Owen Lattimore and the "loss" of China, 1992, GB

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Russian Republics : Karachay-Cherkessia, from World Statesmen, scroll down
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics by Administrative Division : Russia, from : Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers
Historical Newspaper Articles
Archive Deposits
Document Collections Anniversary of Karachai Deportation : Memoirs of Repression Victims, from Caucasian Knot
Historical Maps Maps : Languages of the Caucasus, from Titus
Map of Administrative Division, posted by R. Daward
Map : North Caucasus Krai 1931, from Wikipedia Russian edition
Encyclopedia Entries
Geographical N.S. Vsevolozhskij, Dictionnaire geographique-historique de l'empire de Russie, vol.1, vol.2, 1823, in French, GB
Ethnological Entry : Kabardah; Karatschen und die Balkaren pp.34-35 in Fr. Wagner, Schamyl als Feldherr, Sultan und Prophet und der Kaukasus, 1854, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues E. Spencer, Travels in the Western Caucasus .. in 1836, vol.1, vol.2, 1838, GB
Travels in Circassia, pp.692-707 in Blackwood's Magazine vol.79, June 1856, GB
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives
Musea See Karachay-Cherkess Republic, from Global Tourism Network
Monuments See Karachay-Cherkess Republic, from Global Tourism Network
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Karachay-Cherkessia
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Country Specific
Online Journals full text online Journal of Central Asian and Caucasian Studies 2006-
Circassian Journal 2009-
General Accounts
Historical Dictionary Karachayevo-Cherkessiya, pp.72-74, in : Europa Publications, The Territories of the Russian Federation, London : Europa 1st ed. 1999 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article : USSR : Karachayevo-Cherkess Autonomous Region, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1970-1971 p.1417, 1975-1976 p.1422, 1978-1979 p.1239, 1980-1981 p.1244, 1983-1984 pp.1248-1249, 1984-1985 p.1246, 1985-1986 p.1247, 1987-1988 pp.1249-1250, 1988-1989 pp.1253-1254, 1989-1990 p.1259, 1990-1991 pp.1262-1263 [G]
Article : USSR : Karachayevo-Cherkess Soviet Socialist Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1991-1992 p.1262 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Karachaevo-Cherkess Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1992-1993 p.412 [G]
Article : Commonwealth of Independent States : Russia : Karachai-Cherkess Republic, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1993-1994 p.413, 1994-1995 p.396, 1995-1996 p.384 [G]
Article : Russia : Karachai-Cherkessia, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1996-1997 p.1088, 1997-1998 p.1094, 1998-1999 p.1188, 2000 p.1331, 2001 p.1294, 2002 pp.1347-1348, 2003 p.1346, 2004 p.1351, 2005 pp.1362-1363 [G]

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