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Muscovy USSR
First posted on August 24th 2006, last revised on October 21st 2010






In 1547, Grand Duke Ivan of Muscovy, called the Great in Russia and the Terrible in the West, had himself crowned Czar (Tsar) of all the Russias. This marks the beginning of the Russian Empire.
Contemporary western sources, however, continue to use the term "Muscovy" up to the time of Peter the Great.

The Rurikid Dynasty ended with Peter the Great (1584) and was followed by the Time of Troubles, which ended with the coronation of Mikhail Romanov and the beginning of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
Peter the Great (1696-1725) opened up Russia to the west, built the new capital of St. Petersburg, established a mining and shipbuilding industry, a modern army and navy. Further progress was made under Elizabeth (1741-1762) and Catherine II. (1762-1796). Under Catherine II., Russia expanded considerably, gaining territory on the south coast (modern Ukraine) and in the Polish Partitions (modern Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine).
From the Napoleonic Wars Russia emerged as one of Europe's leading powers; the Russian Empire had huge size and population, a strong army - and a weak, backward economy, falling behind as other European economies underwent fast development during the early phase of the Industrial Revolution. During the Crimean War 1853-1856 Russia's backwardness became apparent. Czar Alexander II. implemented reforms such as the liberation of the serfs 1861, the introduction of regional autonomy (zemstvo).
In the later 19th century, Russia entered a period of strong economic development. At the same time, nationalism emerged, zealots among Russian patriots pushing for the Russification of the country's ethnic minorities, while ethnic minorities strove for increased autonomy or independence. Russia's Czars ruled autocratically; in the population the desire to participate in the political process rose, and when attempts to move toward a constitutional monarchy remained futile, resulted in Nihilism (Russian anarchist terrorism). The Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War 1905 caused the Revolution of 1905, laying open the political, economic and social dissatisfaction of many significant elements of the Empire's population. While a parliament (the Duma) was introduced in 1905 and political parties were permitted, this did not bring about a solution. Russia entered WW I hoping this would lead to the people rallying to the flag, distract from political unrest; but as the success hoped for did not materialize, as the war dragged on, as living conditions worsened, the February and October Revolutions of 1917 resulted in the termination of the Russian Empire.
Successor States : RSFSR, Belarus, Ukraine, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland

Russian Empire, 1914-1917
Russian Empire, 1905-1914
Russian Empire, 1894-1905
Russian Empire, 1881-1894
Russian Empire, 1855-1881
Russian Empire, 1815-1855
Russian Empire, 1796-1815 : Domestic Policy .. Economy .. Intellectual Life .. Foreign Policy
Russian Empire, 1762-1796 : Domestic Policy .. Society .. Economy .. Intellectual Life .. Foreign Policy
Russian Empire, 1725-1762 : Domestic Policy .. Economy .. Foreign Policy
Russian Empire, 1689-1725 : Domestic Policy .. Foreign Policy
Russian Empire, 1613-1689 : Early Romanovs .. Orthodoxy Abroad
Russian Empire, 1598-1613 : Time of Troubles
Russian Empire, 16th Century : Russia .. Eastward Expansion

For earlier history, see Grand Duchy of Muscovy, Kazan Khanate 1438-1552

Historic Encyclopedia Entries : History of Russia 1815-1906
Historical Atlas, Russian Empire, Europe Page
List of Wars : Russian Empire, 1547-1917

History of Regions of the Russian Empire : European Russia, Congress Poland, Finland, Lithuania, Siberia, Russian Central Asia


Governments and Oblasts : Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Baku, Bessarabia, Black Sea District, Chernigov, Cossacks of the Black Sea, Courland, Derbent / Dagestan, Don, Ekaterinoslav, Elizabetpol, Erivan, Estonia, Grodno, Kaluga, Kars, Kazan, Kharkov, Kherson, Kiev, Kostroma, Kovno, Kuban, Kursk, Kutais, Livland, Minsk, Mogilev, Moscow, Nizhni-Novgorod, Novgorod, Olonets, Oryol, Orenburg, Penza, Perm, Podolia, Poltava, Pskov, Ryazan, Samara, Sankt Petersburg, Saratov, Simbirsk, Smolensk, Stavropol, Taganrog, Tambov, Taurida, Terek, Tiflis, Tula, Tver, Ufa, Vyatka, Vilna, Vitebsk, Vladimir, Volhynia, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl

Students' Paper : Jung, Changwoo, A Comparison of the Mining and Metallurgic Industry in Germany, Japan, Russia, the U.S, and Chile 1850-1950 (2011)
Students' Paper : Kim, Jae Hee, History of Polish-Russian/Soviet Relations (2009)
Students' Paper : Jung, Jin Hwan, Economic History of Siberia, until 1917 (2008)
Students' Paper : Park, Jea Young, Cities in the Russian Empire, Sept. 2008
Students' Paper : Cho, Namje, Political Parties in Russia until 1917, Nov. 2007
Students' Paper : Park, Yon Soo, The Society and Government of Russia in the 18th Century, Nov. 2007
Students' Paper : Cha Sowan, Nihilism in Russia, 1860-1881, March 2007






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Russia, pp.4269-4375 in vol.6B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Social History Bernstein, Laurie. Sonia's Daughters: Prostitutes and Their Regulation in Imperial Russia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
Brower, Daniel R. The Russian City Between Tradition and Modernity, 1850-1900. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
Steinberg, Mark D. Moral Communities: The Culture of Class Relations in the Russian Printing Industry 1867-1907., Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Neuberger, Joan. Hooliganism: Crime, Culture, and Power in St. Petersburg, 1900-1914. Berkeley: University of Calif. Press, 1993.
D.R. Brower, The Russian city between tradition and modernity, 1850-1900, 1990. Gb
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Russia, from Kirken i Norge; Virtual Jewish History Tour : Russia, from Jewish Virtual Library; Article Religion in Russia, Russian Orthodox Church, Islam in Russia, Dukhobors, Old Believers, from Wikipedia
Russia, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
A.N. Mouravieff, A history of the Church of Russia, 1844, GB
Rus - Index, from Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy
History of Regions Note : for files on local and regional history, go to Finland, Congress Poland, European Russia, Russian Caucasus, Siberia, Russian Central Asia
Category : Administrative Divisions in Russia, from Wikipedia
Subjects of Russia, Rayons of Russia, from www.statoids.com (Gwillim Law)
G.N. Curzon, Russia in Central Asia in 1889 and the Anglo-Russian Question, 1889, GB
Local History Note : for files on local and regional history, go to Finland, Congress Poland, European Russia, Russian Caucasus, Siberia, Russian Central Asia
Structures, Institutions History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, from Wikipedia
History of Lomonosov Moscow State University
History, from JSC Russian Railways
Article Okhrana, Katorga, Zemstvo, State Duma of the Russian Empire, from Wikipedia
Culture Article Russian Literature, from Wikipedia
Article Russian Ballet, from Wikipedia
Article Music of Russia, from Wikipedia
Article Russian Architecture, from Wikipedia
Brumfield, William Craft. The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
Russian Chess History, by Bill Wall
Category : Russia at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
The History of Tea : Russia, from Go27
History of the Russian Vegetarian Societies, from IVU
Russia : Forbidden Books and Newspapers, from Beacon for Freedom of Expression
Fr. Otto, The history of Russian literature, with a lexicon of Russian authors , 1839, GB
Biographies Biographies of Russian Saints, from Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon, in German
List of Russians, from Wikipedia
Liste der österreichischen Botschafter in Sankt Petersburg (List of the Austrian Ambassadors in St. Petersburg), from Wikipedia German edition
Others Freemasonry in Russia, from CFO
Palearctic Ecoregion, from WWF
Kassow, Samuel D. Students, Professors, and the State in Tsarist Russia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
Vucinich, Alexander. Darwin in Russian Thought. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies (Minor Russian States); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Russia, from Titles of European Hereditary Rulers
Category : Lists of government ministers of the Russian Empire, from Wikipedia
List of Ambassadors Polscy ambasadorzy w Rosji, from Wikipedia Polish edition
Embajadores de Mexico en Federacion de Rusia, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
List of French representatives in Russia, of Russia in France pp.xxiv-xxviii in vol.38 of F. Schoell, Cours d'histoire des etats Europeens 1833, in French, GB
List of Consuls Russia, from The Political Graveyard; lists many U.S. consuls in Russia, incomplete
List of Bishops List of Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, List of Metropolitans of Kiev and Galicia, from Wikipedia
Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
Exchange Rates The Marteau Early 18th-Century Currency Converter
Election Results Articles : Russian legislative election, 1906, Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917, from Wikipedia
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
Historical Newspaper Articles Simplicissimus 1896-1944, Index (pp.150-154), Volumes 11 cartoons on Russland, more on places in R.; in German
Staatskalender
Online Yearbooks P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde; entry : De l'Estat du Grand Duc ou l'Empereur de Moscovie, in French, 1613, pp.811-831, GB; 1614, pp.809-829, GB; 1616, pp.809-829, GB; 1617, pp.809-829, GB; 1621, vol.2 pp.74-94, GB; 1628, pp.811-831, GB; 1630, pp.576-590, GB; 1633, pp.811-831, GB; 1659, pp.749-761, GB
Die Durchlauchten Häuser in Europa : Der Czaar in Moscau 1702 pp.65-67, 1705 pp.120-124 1708 pp.141-147, 1716 pp.170-175, 1725 pp.140-145, in German, GB
Jährliches genealogisches Hand-Buch : von Moscau oder Russland, 1730 pp.134-139, 1732 pp.108-111, 1737 pp.108-112, 1738 pp.109-114, 1741 pp.114-122, 1742 pp.115-122, 1745 pp.129-138, 1746 pp.136-145, 1747 pp.140-148, 1749 pp.150-159, in German, GB
Neues genealogisch-schematisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Kaiserlich Russisches Haus 1748 pp.113-115, 1750 pp.136-138, 1752 pp.160-161, 1756 pp.177-178, 1758 pp.175-176, 1759 pp.181-183, 1760 pp.185-187, 1761 pp.183-184, 1762 pp.186-188, 1764 pp.182-184, 1765 pp.207-209, in German, GB
M. Gottlieb Schumanns genealogisches Handbuch : von Russland 1758 pp.121-129, 1760 pp.121-129, in German, GB
Europäisches genealogisches Handbuch : von Russland 1756 pp.122-130, 1766 pp.136-151, 1768 pp.139-153, 1770 pp.142-157, 1772 pp.138-153, 1774 pp.137-153, 1776 pp.137-153, 1780 pp.146-163, 1782 pp.152-166, 1784 pp.151-168, 1786 pp.153-171, 1788 pp.148-166, 1790 pp.152-170, 1792 pp.147-164, 1794 pp.149-168, 1800 pp.173-178, in German, GB
J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 pp.171-183, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785 pp.192-207, vol.3 MDCCCLXXXVI, 1786, pp.345-361, in French, GB
Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach, Russland, vol.1 : 1824 pp.33-40, 1824, vol.2 : 1825 pp.33-40, 1824, vol.3 : 1826 pp.35-42, 1826, vol.6 : 1830, pp.56-66, vol.7 : 1831 (scan messed up) vol.8 : 1832 pp.74-88, vol.9 : 1833 pp.74-88, 1832, vol.10 : 1834 pp.80-96, 1833, vol.11 : 1834 pp.87-106, 1834, vol.12 : 1835 pp.89-112, 1835, vol.13 : 1836 pp.93-116, 1836, vol.16 : 1838/39 pp.11-13, 1839, vol.17 : 1840 pp.109-138, 1840, vol.19 : 1842 pp.117-148, 1842, vol.20 : 1843 pp.117-148, 1843, vol.23 : 1846 p.x, 1846, in German, GB
Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch, Russland, vol.65 pp.177-187, 1827, vol.66 pp.213-224, 1835, vol.67 pp.223-235, 1839, in German, GB
Statesman's Year-Book, Entry : Russia vol.1 1864 pp.392-423, GB, vol.2 1865 pp.386-419, GB, vol.3 1866 pp.399-429, GB, vol.4 1867 pp.387-419, GB, vol.5 1868 pp.387-419, GB, vol.6 1869 pp.387-418, GB, 1871, pp.355-393, IA, 1872, pp.355-393, IA, 1873, pp.351-387, IA, 1874, pp.351-387, IA, 1875, pp.351-387, IA, 1876, pp.353-389, IA, 1877, pp.357-394, IA, 1878, pp.363-399, IA, 1879, pp.363-399, IA, 1880, pp.363-399, IA, 1881, pp.363-399, IA, 1883, pp.363-399, IA, 1884, pp.380-419, IA, 1885, pp.389-428, IA, 1886, pp.396-437, IA, 1887, pp.413-453, IA, 1888, pp.410-453, IA, 1889, pp.411-460, IA, 1890, pp.837-899, IA, 1891, pp.841-903, IA, 1892, pp.851-915, IA, 1894, pp.851-917, IA, 1895, pp.851-916, IA, 1896, pp.851-917, IA, 1898, pp.851-917, IA, 1899, pp.903-978, IA, 1903, pp.992-1061, IA, 1913, pp.1180-1231, IA
Image Databanks The Empire that was Russia : the Prokudin-Gorskii Photographic Record Recreated, from Library of Congress
Russian Empire in Photographs
S. Ivanov's Pictures of Russian History 1908-1913
Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
Scripophily
Atlas de l'Histoire de Russie et des principales nations de l'Empire russe, 1812, GB ; a collection of sketches of rulers
Roger Fenton Crimean War Photographs, Library of Congress
Archival Deposits Russia - Belarus - Ukraine - Uzbekistan Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Online Exhibitions, from National Library of Russia, comment in English
Hoover Institution, scroll down for Russia
Nationaalarchief (NL) Inventaris van het archief van de Legatie in Rusland, (1710) 1720-1810; Inventaris van het archief van het Nederlands Gezantschap in Rusland, 1814-1890
Search Foreign Relations of the United States for Russia
Constitutions, Laws Verfassungen Russlands (Constitutions of Russia), from verfassungen.eu, in German
The grand instructions to the commissioners appointed to frame a new code of laws for the Russian Empire, composed by her Imperial Highness Catherine II, Empress of all the Russias, 1768, GB
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections F.F. Martens, Recueil des traites et conventions conclus par la Russie avec les puissances etrangeres, vol.1, traites avec l'Autriche 1648-1762 (1874), vol.2, traites avec l'Autriche 1772-1808 (1875), vol.3, traites avec l'Autriche 1808-1815 (1876), vol.4, traites avec l'Autriche 1849-1878 (1878), vol.5, traites avec l'Allemagne 1656-1762 (1880), vol.6, traites avec l'Allemagne 1762-1808 (1883), vol.7, traites avec l'Allemagne 1811-1824 (1885), Vol.8, traites avec l'Allemagne 1825-1888 (1888), vol.9, traites avec l'Angleterre 1710-1801 (1892), vol.15, traites avec l'Angleterre 1801-1831 (1895), vol.16, traites avec l'Angleterre 1832-1895 (1898),in French and Russian, posted on Internet Archive
Russland, pp.182-192 in Johann Vesque von Püttlingen, Uebersicht der Verträge Oesterreichs mit den auswärtigen Staaten, 1854, in German, GB
Russie, pp.138-139 in vol.1 of Table des traites entre la France et les puissances etrangeres, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'a nos jours, 1802, GB
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Russia
Russian Historical Texts in English, posted by John Slatter, Univ. Durham
Russian History Digital Library, extensive collections of links to primary sources
Primary Sources, from russianhistory.org
F.A. Golder (ed.), Documents in Russian History 1914-1917, 1927
Individual Documents Foreign Office (British) : Peace Handbooks (1919-1920), posted on Internet Archive; v. 9. The Russian Empire, no. 50-56
Journal de Pierre le Grand depuis l'annee 1698 jusqu'a la conclusion de la Paix de Nystadt: Traduit de l'original russe vol.1 1773, vol.2 1773, French trsl. of Russian original, GB
Historical Maps collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas Russia Page
Atlas Rossinskaya 1745, posted on Commander Rezanov; Russian language website
Discus Media : The 1900 Collection, Maps from Yesteryear, Russia
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for Russia
Category : Old Maps of Russia, Maps of the History of Russia, Wikimedia Commons
Atlas Marksa, 2nd edition 1910, atlassen.info
Historical and Political Maps of the USSR, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Russian Empire, hindsight Map : Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maps : Europe in the Year 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, from Euratlas
Europe 1792, 1796, 1799, 1805, 1808, 1812, 1814, 1815, 1913, 1921, 1939, 1940, 1942, 1989, 1998, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Russian Empire, contemporary Russia in Europe 1890, 1896, 1898, 1900, 1904, 1906, 1911, Russia in Asia 1905, Russian Industries 1906, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary City Panoramas 19th Century, from Historic Maps, Moskau 1811, St. Petersburg 1849
Moscow city map 1892, posted by KODEKS
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Note : for files on local and regional history, go to Finland, Congress Poland, European Russia, Russian Caucasus, Siberia, Russian Central Asia
Articles Russia, Russian Literature
Article Russisches Reich (Russian Empire), from : Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Russia (including Siberia), Finland and Poland pp.107-117
J.H. Curle, The Gold Mines of the World, 1905, IA; Russia and Siberia pp.220-233
Article : Russische Eisenbahnen, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Religious Articles Russia, Russian Religion, Russian Language and Literature, Nihilism, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912 edition
Articles Russia, from Jewich Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Russia, pp.55-58 in J.M. Neale, A History of the Holy Eastern Church, 1850, GB
Military Articles : Alexander I., pp.96-100, Austerlitz, Schlacht bei, pp.338-341, Berezina, pp.518-522, Brienne le Chateau, pp.708-716 in vol.1, 1833, Cervena, pp.131-133, Dennewitz, Schlacht bei, pp.438-441, Eilau, Schlacht bei, pp.595-598 in vol.2, 1833, Kainardsche pp.122-123, Kinburn pp.284-285, in vol.4, 1834, Miloradowitsch, pp.475-476, Münnich, pp.668-673 in vol.5, 1836, Schewardino pp.433-434, Schumla pp.510-518, Stoczek, pp.816-817 in vol.7, 1839, Warschau, pp.627-647 in vol.8, 1841, of H. Eggert, W. von der Lühe, Militair-Conversations-Lexikon, in German, GB
Economic J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Archangel, posted by DTBSWS
An Account of the Trade between Great Britain and Muscovy, carried out by the Russia Company, pp.571-572, Of the Commerce Carried on at Archangel and other Places in Muscovy, in W. Beawes, Lex Mercatoria Rediviva, 1773, GB
Russie, pp.229-231, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Russe, Empire de, pp.112-158 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
Entry : Rusia, pp.197-199 in Tomas Antonio de Marien y Arrospide, Tratado general de monedas, pesas, medidas y cambios de todas las naciones, 1789, in Spanish, GB
Entry : St. Petersburg, pp.598-602 in : J.F. Lange et al., Übersicht und Berechnung aller Münzen, Ellenmaasse und Handelsgewichte von allen Welttheilen, 1804, in German, GB
Search Metrologie universelle, ancienne et moderne 1816, in French, GB, unpaginated, for Riga, Revel, Nerva, Petersbourg, Moscou, Russie
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Archangel, Astrakhan, Moskau, Nischnei-Nowgorod, Odessa, Petersburg, Russland, Taganrog, posted by DTBSWS
Russian Empire, pp.406-805 in vol.2 of J. McGregor, Commercial Statistics. A Digest of the Productive Resources, Commercial Legislation, Customs Tariffs, Navigation, Port and Quarantine Laws, and Charges, Shipping, Imports and Exports and the Monies, Weights and Measures of all Nations, 1844, GB
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Russland, vol.1 1830 pp.401-434, vol.4 1844 pp.257-302, posted by DTBSWS
Russland, pp.459-465 in A. Moser, Die Capitalanlage in Werthpapieren der Staaten, Creditvereine und Actiengesellschaften des In- und Auslandes, 1862, in German, GB
Ottomar Haupt, Währungs-Politik und Münz-Statistik, Berlin : Walther & Apolant 1884, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Russland
Political Encyclopedias Moscau, pp.539-547 in F.L. Bressler, Die Heutigen Christlichen Souverainen von Europa, 1698, in German, GB
Le Ceremonial de la Cour de Russie, pp.623-671 in vol.2 of J.R. de Missy, Le Ceremonial diplomatique des cours de l' Europe, 1739, in French, GB
Gouvernement de Russie, pp.710-738 in vol.2 of G. de Real de Curbon, La science du gouvernement, 1762, in French, GB
Entry : Russia, or Muscovy pp.294-399, Nova Zembla pp.399-404, in : T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, GB
Geographical La Grande Russie ou Muscovie, pp.157-193 in vol.1 of J. Vaissette, Geographie historique ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB
An introduction to the Russian Empire, pp.377-524 in vol.1 of A.F. Büsching, A new system of geography 1762, GB
Russia, pp.183-192, Asiatic Russia pp.200-207 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnographical Empire de la Russie, pp.43-59 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical Historia Imperii Russici pp.381-391 in J.C. Becmann, Historia Orbis Terrarum Geographica 1673, in Latin, GB
The Present State of Muscovy, or Russia, pp.601-651 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
The History of Russia, vol.35 of The Modern Part of a Universal History, 1762, GB
Russisches Reich pp.368-429 in vol.2 of the 1st edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1794, in German, GB
Russland pp.444-531 in vol.2 of the 2nd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1807, in German, GB
Russisches Reich, pp.547-663 in vol.2 of the 3rd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1823, in German, GB
Russland, pp.4-115 in vol.4 of J.G. Eichhorn, Geschichte der letzten drey Jahrhunderte, 1817, in German
The Russian Empire, pp.1039-1048 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present time, 1856, GB
Russia pp.199-214, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Historical Yearbook Entries Genealogisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch 1801 pp.114-125, 1803 pp.18-20, 1804 pp.17-19, 1805 pp.26-28, in German, GB
Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach, vol.1 1824 pp.33-40, vol.2 1825 pp.33-40, vol.3 1826 pp.35-42, vol.7 1830 pp.56-66, vol.8 1831 pp.57-68, vol.9 1832 pp.74-88, vol.10 1833 pp.80-95, vol.11 1834 pp.87-106, vol.12 1835 pp.89-112, vol.13 1836 pp.93-116, vol.15/16 1838/39 pp.82-104, vol.17 1840 pp.109-138, vol.19 1842 pp.117-148, vol.20 1843 pp.117-150, vol.23 1846 pp.134-157, in German, GB
Ch. Pope, The yearly journal of trade, 1837-38, IA, pp.234-240, 1854-55, GB, pp.202-209
Statesman's Year-Book, vol.1 1864 pp.392-423, GB, vol.2 1865 pp.386-419, GB, vol.3 1866 pp.399-429, GB, vol.4 1867 pp.387-419, GB, vol.5 1868 pp.387-419, GB, vol.6 1869 pp.387-418, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides Russia, pp.235-242 in J. Carver, The New Universal Traveller 1779, GB
A Manual for the use of English travellers in Russia, 1829, GB
J. Murray, A hand-book for travellers in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Russia, 1839, GB; J. Murray, Handbook for Northern Europe: Finland and Russia, 1849, GB; J. Murray, Handbook for travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, 1865, 1868, GB
Travelogues P. von Haven, Reise in Russland, 1744, in German, GB
I. Lepechin, Tagebuch der Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs, vol.1 (1768-1769), 1774 vol.2 (1770), 1775, in German, GB
J.G. Georgi, Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich, vol.1 (1772) 1775, vol.2 (1773-1774), 1775, in German, GB
P.S. Pallas, Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs, vol.1, 1776, vol.2, 1777 vol.3, 1778, in German, GB
J.A. Güldenstadt, Reisen durch Russland und im Caucasischen Gebürge, vol.1, 1787, vol.2, 1791, in German, GB
P.S. Pallas, Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die s?lichen Statthalterschaften des Russischen Reiches in den Jahren 1793 und 1794, vol.1, 1803, vol.2, 1803, in German, GB
M. Holderness, New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea, by way of Kiev , 1823, GB
J.D. Cochrane, Narrative of a Pedestrian Journey through Russia and Siberian Tartary, vol.1, 1824, vol.2, 1825, GB
Travels in European Russia, 1826, GB
R.L. de Bussiere, Voyage en Russie: lettres ecrites en 1829, 1831, in French, GB
J. Moore, A journey from London to Odessa: with notices of New Russia, etc. 1833, GB
L. Ritchie, Russia and the Russians; or, A journey to St. Petersburg and Moscow, through Courland and Livonia, 1836, GB
R. Mignan, A winter journey through Russia, the Caucasian Alps, and Georgia, vol.1, 1839, vol.2, 1839, R. Bremner, Excursions in the interior of Russia, 1839, GB
J.H. Blasius, Reise im europäischen Russland in den Jahren 1840 und 1841, vol.1, 1844, vol.2, 1844, in German, GB
G.A. Sala, A journey due north, notes of a residence in Russia in the summer of 1856, 1859, GB
Th. Gautier, Voyage en Russie, vol.1, 1867, vol.2, 1867, in French, GB
R.J. Barrett, Russia's new era; being notes, impressions and experiences--personal, political, commercial and financial--of an extended tour in the empire of the Tsar, with statistical tables, portraits, snapshots and other illustrations (1908), IA
Memoirs S. Witte, The memoirs of Count Witte (1921), posted on IA
Exhibition Catalogues W. Hamm, Illustrirter Katalog der Pariser Industrie-Ausstellung von 1867, 1868, GB; 5 Russia entries
Institutions Archives Archives in Russia, from ArcheoBiblioBase
Russian Archives Online
Yale Russian Archive Project
Museums in Russia, from WWW Virtual Library
www.russian museums.info
Musea Tsarskoye Selo Museum Preserve
Hermitage Museum
Central Armed Forces Museum, Russia
Monuments Articles : Tsarskoye Selo, Winter Palace, Moscow Kremlin, from Wikipedia
Libraries National Library of Russia, Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, National Library of Belarus
Libraries of Russia, from Libraries on the Internet, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Russia, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Russia Coins, from Don's World Coin Gallery
Russia, from World Coin Catalogue
Stamps Rare Russian Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Russia, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

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Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
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on Russian Empire Russian and East European Studies - list of books published by Routledge Curzon
National Bibliography of Russia, posted by University of Illinois at Urbana
Historia Russiae, pp.498-502 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
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D. Shapiro, A Select Bibliography of Works in English on Russian History 1801-1917, Oxford : Blackwell 1962 [G]
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Economic History Falkus. M.E., The Industrialisation of Russia, London : MacMillan (1972) 1984 [G]
Fr.-Chirovsky, Nicholas L., The Economic Factors in the Growth of Russia, NY : Philosophical Library 1957 [G]
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Specific Periods Peter Waldron, The End of Imperial Russia, 1855-1917, NY : St. Martin's, 1997, 189 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 947.08 W167e
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J.L.H. Keep, Russia, pp.352-382 in F.H. Hinsley, The New Cambridge History, vol.XI : Material Progress and World-wide Problems 1870-1898, Cambridge : UP (1962) 1978 [G]
W. Philipp, Russia : The Beginning of Westernization, ch.25 / pp.571-592 in The New Cambridge Modern History vol.V : The Ascendancy of France 1648-1688, Cambridge UP 1964 [G]
M.S. Anderson, Russia under Peter the Great and the Changed Relations of East and West, ch.21 / pp.716-740 in The New Cambridge Modern History vol.VI : The Rise of Great Britain and Russia 1688-1725, Cambridge UP 1970 [G]
I. Young, Russia, ch.14 / pp.318-338 in The New Cambridge Modern History vol.VII : The Old Regime 1713-1763, Cambridge UP 1957 [G]
I. Young, Russia, ch.11 / pp.306-332 in The New Cambridge Modern History vol.VIII : The American and French Revolutions 1763-1793, Cambridge UP 1971 [G]
Specific Topics Russia, pp.51-102, in : Eric R. Wolf, Peasant Wars of the Twentieth Century, NY : Harper Torchbooks 1968 [G]
Documents Gregory L. Freeze, From Supplication to Revolution. A Documentary Social History of Russia, Oxford : UP 1988 [G]
Regional History Note : for files on local and regional history, go to Finland, Congress Poland, European Russia, Russian Caucasus, Siberia, Russian Central Asia
Historical Atlasses John Channon, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia, London : Penguin 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947 C458p
Martin Gilbert, Atlas of Russian History, Dorset Press (1972) 1985 [G]
Paul Robert Magocsi, Ukraine, A Historical Atlas, Toronto UP 1985 [G]
Wladyslaw Czaplinski and Tadeusz Ladogorski, Historical Atlas of Poland, Wroclaw (1967) 1986 [G]
Red Army Publishing Bureau, Atlas Oficera, Moscow 1984; voluminous, has historical map section at end, mostly showing military campaigns [G]
Historical Dictionary B. Raymond, P. Duffy, Historical Dictionary of Russia, Methuan : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 R268h
Jan Zaprudnik, Historical Dictionary of Belarus, Methuen : Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.8 Z35h
Kohut, Zenon E., Historical Dictionary of Ukraine, Rowman & Littlefield 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 947.7 K79h
Joseph L. Wieczynski, The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History, vols. 1, 5, 10, 11, 23, 27, 31, 33, 37, 43 [G]