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Literature on the History of South America
Chile Uruguay
First posted on June 15th 2002, last revised on December 1st 2013

History of Argentina : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

For the country's earlier history, see History of the Viceroyalty of la Plata.
1810-1862 . 1862-1870 . 1870-1918 . 1918-1943 . 1943-1946 . 1946-1955 . 1955-1972 . 1972-1983 . 1983-1991 . Since 1991

Independence from Spain (1810/1816) and the Shaping of a Nation (1816-1862)
On May 25th 1810 Argentinian revolutionaries expelled the viceroy from Buenos Aires and established a junta. The succeeding war against the royalists was won in the Battle of Tucuman (1812) by General Manuel Belgrano. A congress assembled at Tucuman on July 9th 1816 proclaimed the independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata.
The revolutionaries were united in their desire to get rid of the Spanish, but disagreed on a concept of how to rule their country. Many political leaders had military experience - Jose de San Martin, heading an army, in 1817 crossed the Andes and established the independence of Chile, then proceeded to liberate Peru.
The United Provinces of La Plata saw the emergence of two political groupings : the Unitarians favouring a strong centralist state, and the Federalists who advocated strong regional autonomy.
As the regional political strongmen (Caudillos) resisted attempts to impose central authority from Buenos Aires, the country found itself in a protracted civil war. Only briefly was President Bernardino Rivadavia (1826-1827) able to impose his authority. During his rule, a Brazilian expedition intending to occupy Uruguay was defeated in the Battle of Ituzaingo (1827). During the succeeding years, the state disintegrated. Uruguay and Paraguay went their own ways. In 1833 British troops occupied the Malvinas (Falkland), forcefully evacuating the Spanish speaking settlers.
Between 1835 and 1852 Federalist Juan Manuel de Rosas ruled as dictator. During his rule, several provinces proclaimed independent republics, among them Corrientes (1844), Buenos Aaires (1851), Cordoba. De Rosas was deposed in 1852; under his successor Justo Jose de Urquiza a constitution was adopted (1853).
Meanwhile the country was known as Argentina. While Urquiza ruled as a dictator, the province of Buenos Aires, under Bartolome Mitre, seceded (1852-1859). In 1859 it rejoined, and Bartolome Mitre became president of Argentina (1862).
In 1853, Argentina abolished slavery. In 1855 the Diocesis of Buenos Aires was elevated into an Archdiocesis, in recognition of Argentina's political independence.

In 1865 the War of the Triple Alliance (Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against tiny Paraguay) began, a war that lasted until 1870; the war cost Paraguay 25% of its population.
Chile had established it's claim over the Magellan Straits in 1843; Argentina now had to act to establish it's claim over it's share of Patagonia. In 1863, the city of Bahia Blanca was founded, in 1865, Chubut (Rawson).

In the 1880es Argentina defeated the Mapuche and Araucan Indios and established its claim on Patagonia. Under President Julio Argentino Roca, Argentine's economy flourished, as refigeration technology made meat export possible; the other dominant export crop being grain. Immigration from Europe (predominantly from Italy) picked up. Economic ties with Britain, the main consumer of Argentinian meat, intensified as Britons were also the main foreign investors in the country. The railway network developed.
In 1895, Argentina had a population of 3,945,911, 1,004,527 of whom were foreign nationals, to 49 % Italians, 19 % Spaniards.
A border dispute with Chile (1902) was solved peacefully. In 1904, an Argentinian expedition raised the nation's flag on the South Orkney Islands (also claimed by Britain). During World War I, Argentina stayed neutral.

Argentina joined the League of Nations in 1920, but remained an inactive member until 1933.
Immediately after World War I Argentina was regarded a rich country and a stable democracy. This began to change in 1930 with President Hipolito Iriguyen being ousted. The dominant conservative party was sympathetic to the fascist states in Europe. Argentina's position during much of World War II was described as pro-Axis neutrality; in March 1945 Argentina declared war on Germany, pro forma, without dispatching troops.
In 1927 Argentina introduced the registration of motor vehicles.
In the years between the wars, the cultural ties between Argentina, Europe and the United States had strengthened. The Tango became fashionable in Europe, Argentinian Juan Manuel Fangio rose to international fame as he won the car racing world championship and in 1930 Argentina reached the final in the world's first soccer world cup, defeated by neighbouring Uruguay 4-2.

In 1943, fearing that Patron Costas, a conservative within the Castillo government, would lead Argentina into the war, nationalists within the army staged a coup d'etat. The Castillo government had been widely perceived as corrupt, the coup took place unopposed.
A new government was formed under General Pedro Ramirez, who resigned later in 1943 and was succeeded by General Edelmiro Farrell. Argentina faced increased international pressure, for her continued position of neutrality, for men sympathizing with Fascist Italy in her government (Juan Peron, minister of labour and welfare, who had visited Italy and Spain in 1938-1940). In 1944 the US administration described Argentina's government to be fascist and imposed economic restrictions on the country.
Minister of labour and welfare Juan Peron had communist and socialist labour leaders arrested, but at the same time approved deals with the trade unions which resulted in significant wage increases, limited work hours etc.
In late March 1945, Argentina had declared war on the Axis Powers and joined the Allies. World War II being over, Britain and the US continued to exert pressure on Argentina's government as fascist; they were suspicious of Peron. In October 1945, President Farrell ordered his arrest; yet massive demonstrations in Peron's favour brought him back onto the political scene. President Farrell called for elections to be held in February 1946. While JUAN PERON organized the Partido Laborista (Labour Party), the traditional political parties formed the Democratic Union. They enjoyed the support of Argentina's employers who resisted Peron's policy.
US ambassador S. Braden, by distributing a booklet in which the Military Junta was described as fascist, tried to undermine Peron's campaign; the policy backfired; Peron was elected president.
The Argentinian nationalists in particular were suspicious of the United Kingdom, the USA and of neighbour Brazil, the latter regarded Argentina's rival. Argentina accepted German, Austrian and Italian refugees, among them a number of Nazis, Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengele and Croatian fascist dictator Ante Pavelic the most notorious. Argentina saw the German etc. refugees in general as technocrats who, with their knowledge, would help develop the country's industry.

After the election, the Peron government passed a number of social reforms, introducing the 8-hour workday, restricting work on sundays, safeguarding workers' rights, enforcing the improvement of working conditions. Other measures included a pension system and a housing program. Argentina had experienced an increased urbanization, and Peron aimed at the urban poor whom he wanted to attract as his followership. Peron pursued a policy of state-planned industrialization, formulated in the 1946 Five-Year-Plan, which aimed at reducing Argentina's independence on the import of machinery. In this context, a policy of permitting the immigration of German and Italian fascists continued, as they were regarded technocrats who would contribute to Argentina's industrialization. Key industries were nationalized, among them the railroads. Peron was revered by his supporters as El Lider (the leader), personal cult fascist style.
In 1947 the woman's suffrage was introduced, for which the president's wife, Evita Peron, had campaigned.
Peron reorganized his Labour Party first as the Party of the National Revolution and then, in 1947, as the Partido Peronista.
In 1947-1948, Argentina sent a naval expedition to the British-held Falkland Islands, but, under international diplomatic pressure, recalled it.
The Marshall Plan of 1947/48 had grave consequences for Argentina, as the European export market for grain and meat was lost to the USA. The Argentinian Peso, in comparison to the US Dollar, after having been stable since 1941, lost half its value in 1948 and continued to drop until 1951. Poor harvests and increased home consumption further contributed to reduced exports.
Peron was reelected in 1952, because the Peronist Party was well-organized; the opposition (the Radical Party) was limited in her action, the press curtailed by censorship. Strikes indicated a rising dissatisfaction with the economic situation.
In October 1951, Argentina's first tv station began broadcasting.
Evita Peron died on July 26th 1952. The ambitious economic policy was revised in the Second Five Year Plan of 1953 which stressed improvements in the agricultural sector and the combat of inflation. Successes were achieved in regard of the latter; the Argentine Peso gained slightly against the US Dollar in 1952-1953.
In 1954 Peron alienated the employers by again granting wage raises to striking workers, and the Catholic church by pressuring her to support his campaign to have his deceased wife Evita canonized. In a public speech on August 31st 1955, Peron spoke of a forthcoming civil war and rallied his supporters; this speech cost him the support of the Armed Forces. An armed rebellion began on September 16th; Peron resigned on September 19th.

In 1955 Peron was toppled by the army, and the constitution of 1873 reintroduced - a return to multiparty democracy. Juan Peron went into exile (to Franco's Spain, which Argentina in the years after the war had provided with credit when it was shunned by western nations).
The economy was liberalized, price controls were abolished. Improved relations with the USA resulted in the lifting of sanctions the USA had raised against the Peronist regime.The Argentine peso was devalued (1958).
In 1957 the military dictatorship was ended; Artuto Frondizi emerged victorious in the elections. The economic policy under the military dictators again was revised, trade restrictions reimplemented in order to support the nascent Argentinian industry, a policy intended to placate the voters who used to vote Peronist. It produced little results.
Following a strong showing of the Peronists in the elections of 1962, the army intervened, arresting President Frondize and outlawing both the Peronist and Communist parties. The economic situation deteriorated, unemployment rose; the Argentine Peso was repeatedly devalued, Argentine's agricultural exports suffering from the EEC's agrarian policy of subsidizing European agriculture to reach self-sufficiency in food production. ARTURO ILLIA won the election of 1963; he cancelled the concessions held by foreign oil companies, which again lead to a decrease in foreign investment in Argentina. On the other hand, farm production and export of agricultural products expanded in 1963-1966.
An attempt by Juan Peron to return to Argentina in 1964 was prevented. To forestall another Peronist revival, military officers in 1966 staged a coup d'etat, forming a junta lead by Gen. Juan Carlos Ongania. He placed the universities under state control, to combat liberal and communist tendencies there. He also gave a new management to the state-owned transportation sector (railroad, ports) to break the influende of the (Peronist) unions. While the government's economic policy showed signs of success, a sinking inflation rate and rising revenue from exports, it lacked popular support. Student protests in Cordoba in May 1969 escalated in riots which lasted two days.
Ongania held on to his office until he was replaced by yet another military junta (June 10, 1970). However the junta failed to establish a working government, as the various non-Peronist factions were unwilling to cooperate with each other. In this situation, Juan Peron was allowed to return.

In 1972 the military government decided to return to civilian rule. General Juan Peron was pardoned; age 77, he returned from Spanish exile and won the 1973 elections, appointing his wife Isabel vice president. Peron died in 1974, succeeded by his wife Isabel.
Argentina experienced a recession, an increasing inflation, a depreciation of her currency. The military government already had found it difficult to keep up law and order; hopes that the charismatic septuagenarian Peron could reestablish law and order and revive the economy were disappointed.
Episodic unrest among the students, which had peaked in the occupations of the city of Cordoba by the latter in 1969 and 1971, were blamed on communism, partially foreign-influenced (charismatic communist rebel Ernesto Che Guevara had been born in Argentina). Organizations such as the Montonerros and the Revolutionary Army of the People sought to establish social justice by overthrowing the government and political system. The most notorious act of the Montoneros was the 1970 abduction and murder of ex-General Pedro Aramburu, who had lead the government 1955-1958.
Measures by state authorities against real and suspected subversives in 1975-1983 escalated into what is generally referred to as the Dirty War; legal procedures were often disregarded, 10,000s of victims simply disappeared. A policy at least condoned by US authorities.
The economy went from bad to worse, the inflation rate reaching 1000 % in 1975; president Isabel Peron was impeached. In 1976 the military again took power; General Videla assumed the presidency in 1976. The dirty war intensified, the ERP virtually eliminated in 1976.
In 1977 the Mothers of the Plaza del Mayo, mothers of persons whose disappearance was blamed to the state authorities (in the Dirty War), began to organize peaceful, silent protest. In 1978 the soccer world cup was held in Argentina, the home team winning the final against favourite Netherlands 3-1 in overtime. After the turbulent year 1975 the economic situation somewhat stabilized; the Argentine currency losing only about half her value per annum until 1978, even less until 1980. In 1981 President General Videla handed over power to General Viola; facing public opposition, he soon resigned, succeeded by General Leopoldo Galtieri. Galtieri sought to gain popularity by distributing food to the needy. The economy was in a freefall, the inflation rate reaching 5,000 %. General Galtieri sought to distract the Argentinos from the desparate economic situation by focussing on border disputes; assuming that Britain might not want to go to war over the disputed Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas in Argentinian diction), he ordered Argentine forces to occupy the islands (April 2nd 1982). The ensuing war, from Argentinian view, was a disaster; the British counterinvasion May 21th made quick progress; the Argentinian forces on the islands surrendered on June 14th. Galtieri offered his resignation. In 1983 elections were held and Argentina returned to civilian rule.

In 1983, the Radical Party won the election and Raul Alfonsin assumed the presidency. A currency reform deleted the last 4 digits of prices and wages which had become astronimical figures due to continued hyperinflation. The government failed to alleviate the critical economic situation and in 1985 the IMF demanded Argentina to come up with a definite plan on its debt repayment.
That year another currency reform was introduced, the Austral replacing the Argentine Peso at a ratio of 1:1000. The Radical Party won the 1985 elections.
The question of coming clean on the Dirty War was a subtle one, as Alfonsin had to be cautious not to alienate the military (which had staged coups in 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966 and 1976. The Mothers of the Plaza del Mayo continued to demand the investigation of the 'disappearances' and the punishment of the responsible; after his reelection, President Alfonsin revoked the amnesty the dictatorial military government had granted before handing over power to civilians. Ex-President Videla was sentenced to life in prison (1985).
In 1986 the Argentinian soccer team, for the second time, won the World Cup by defeating Germany in the final 3-2.
The introduction of the Austral in 1985 was followed by limited inflation 1985-1988 (at Argentine standard, the currency losing only half to three quarters of her value per annum); 1989 saw the return of hyperinflation. In 1988 Brazil and Argentina had agreed on closer economic cooperation.
In the 1989 election the Peronists won; the new president was reformist Peronist Carlos Saul Menem. Menem tackled the economic crisis by launching an ambitious program.

Since 1991
In 1992 the new Argentine Peso was introduced, at 1:10,000 against the outgoing Austral. Moreover, the new Peso was tied to the US Dollar at par. Currency exchange restrictions were lifted. This parity was kept up until 2001. Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina formed a Latin American common market, referred to as MERCOSUR. Argentina finally had a stable currency; however, unemployment rates soared.
In 2000, Argentina was struck by the foot-and-mouth disease which affected the country's beef exports. In 2001-2002 Argentina experienced a severe economic crisis; the pegging of the Peso to the Dollar was abandoned, the Peso devalued. Strict economic discipline enforced on Argentina by the IMF resulted in cuts in social spending, which in turn created a volatile political environment. The elections of 2003 were won by Peronist Nestor Kirchner, who is critical of neoliberalism and free market policy.

Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; The Economist; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Article : Argentina, from Wikipedia
Argentina Factbook, from HVRA
Historical W. Parish, Buenos Ayres and the Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, 1852, GB
M.G. Mulhall, M.T. Mulhall, Handbook of the river Plate: comprising Buenos Ayres, the upper provinces, Banda Oriental, and Paraguay, vol.1, 1869, GB
World Peace Foundation, Argentina and Chile, 1902, IA
W.A. Hirst, Argentina (1910), IA
C.P. Ogilvie, Argentina from a British point of view and notes on Argentine life (1910), IA
G. Clemenceau, South America to-day; a study of conditions, social, political and commercial in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil (1911), IA
P. Denis, The Argentine Republic: Its Development and Progress (1922), IA
Links General from LANIC; from Sources and General Resources on Latin America
Category : Argentina, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Labour History; from Casa Historia; Category : History of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Historical Text Archive : Argentina
Organizations Organization of American Historians
Society for Irish Latin American Studies
TICCIH Argentina (The International Committee for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage)
Asociacion Argentina de Historia Economica
Instituto Nacional Sanmartiniano, Comision Argentina de Historia Militar
Comision Nacional de Museos y de Monumentos y Lugares Historicos
Comision para la Preservacion del Patrimonio Historico Cultural de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires
Asociacion de Cronistas Cinematograficos de la Argentina
Evita Peron Historical Research Foundation
Historical Dictionaries J.A. Muzzio, Diccionario historico y biografico de la Republica Argentina (1920) in Spanish, IA
Portals Historia del Pais, in Spanish
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Argentine Political Chronology (Timeline 1806-1999), from Historical Text Archive
Commanding Heights : Argentina Timelines
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia
A Brief History of 19th Century Argentina, by Heath S. Douglas, Historical Text Archive
Argentina to 1890, from Historical Text Archive
Brief Notes on Argentina since 1930, from Historical Text Archive
History of Argentina, from geographia.com, from HVRA, by Andy Gaby (both in English and Spanish)
Historia Argentina, from Historia del Pais, in Spanish, many subfiles; from monografias, in Spanish; from Planeta Sedna, in Spanish, subfiles
Historical Manual de la Historia Argentina (1920) in Spanish, IA
V.F. Lopez, Historia de la Republica Argentina : Su origen, su revolucion, y su desarrollo politico hasta 1852, vol.2 (1883), vol.4 (1885), vol.5 (1885), vol.6 (1887), vol.8 (1888), vol.9 (1890), vol.10 (1893), in Spanish, posted on IA
Specific Periods A. Saldias, Historia de la Confederacion Argentina: Rozas y su epoca (1892) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Agnieszka Szmidel, After dictatorship in Argentina (1976-83) and Chile (1973-1990). Visual representations of collective experiences: documentaries, comics and shortfilms on youtube.com, Historia i Media 2008
Articles : United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, The Radicals in Power, 1916-1930, Infamous Decade (1930-1943), National Reorganization Process (1976-1983), from Wikipedia
The Vanished Gallery; Desaparecidos on the victims of the Dictatorship 1976-1983
H. Matsushita, A Historical View of Argentine Neutrality during World War II R.A. Dornelles, Acontecimento e historia nas páginas da revista Veja : uma analise das reportagens sobre o primeiro governo da ditadura civil-militar argentina (1976-1981), thesis Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul 2012
J.P. Younger : "Monstrous and Illegal Proceedings:" Law, Sovereignty and Revolution in the Río de la Plata Borderlands, 1810-1880, thesis Princeton 2011
G.H. Ivy, A comparative analysis of selected Latin American dictatorships (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil), thesis Texas Tech 1951
P.G. Snow, Factors influencing the rise and fall of Juan Peron: Argentine, 1943-1955 , thesis Texas Tech 1960
H.J. Hobi, Hipolito Irigoyen's second administration: A study in administrative collapse, thesis Portland State 1971
El Gobierno Militar (1943-1946) (The Military Government), from lafacu.com, in Spanish
Argentina in World War II, by Thomas Pace
L'Argentina de Juan Domingo Peron (1943-1955), from La Pagina de la Historia, in Catalan
L'Argentina des de la caiguda de Peron fins a la Junta Militar (1955-1976), from La Pagina de la Historia, in Catalan (Argentina from the Fall of Peron to the Military Junta, 1955-1976)
Website Madres del Plaza del Mayo, in Spanish; English version in preparation
Presidencia Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri 1981-1982, Civiles e Militares, 1955-1983, from Todo Argentina, in Spanish
Jonathan Mann, Macabre new details emerge about Argentina's Dirty War, 1996, from CNN News
Ronald Hilton, Argentina : an Argentine View of the Military on the Dirty War, the Montoneros etc.
The Tragedy of Argentina, from National Vanguard, 1984
L'Argentina des de la Junta Militar fins al retorn de la democracia (1976-1986), from La Pagina de la Historia, in Catalan (Argentina from the Military Junta to the Return of Democracy)
CASCON Case CAR : Chile-Argentina (Beagle Channel) 1977-85, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
CASCON Case FAM : Falklands (Malvinas) 1982-, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
La Democracia, 1983-, from Todo Argentina, in Spanish
Historiography Article : Historiography of Argentina, from Wikipedia
G.C. Herrera, Environmental History (Made) in Latin America
D.A. Born, Las representaciones de la ultima dictadura militar : los textos escolares de historia en el nivel secundario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires : 1976-2009, thesis Buenos Aires 2011, FLACSO Argentina; on the military dictatorship 1976-1983
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Argentina; Governments on the WWW : Argentina
Categories : Politics of Argentina, Government of Argentina, from Wikipedia
General Article : Politics of Argentina, from Wikipedia
M. Alsina, Argentine Political Law and the Recurring Breakdown of Democracy, thesis Brandeis 2013
A.D. Leiva, Sovereignty and Federalism as Constituent Elements of Argentine Nationality, n.d.
S.L. Cusick, Perspectives and Angles: A Journalistic History through the Argentine Political Identity from 1946-1983, thesis Appalachian State 2013
Constitution F.R. Mejia, El federalismo argentino: (fragmentos de la historia de la evolucion Argentina) (1889) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
L.S. Rowe, The federal system of the Argentine Republic (1920), IA
Institutions Articles : Argentine National Congress, Argentine Senate, Argentine Chamber of Deputees, from Wikipedia
Parties, Movements Parties, General
Article : Partidos politicos de Argentina, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Article : List of Political Parties in Argentina, from Wikipedia
Article : Peronism, from Wikipedia
C. Andreassi, The History of Peronism, Part 1, Argentina Independent Oct. 11 2011, Part 2, Oct. 17 2011
The Economist June 3 2004 : Peronism and its perils
P. Ostiguy, Peronism and Anti-Peronism : Social-Cultural Bases of Political Identity in Argentina, 1997
Publications by S. Levitsky (Harvard) on Peronism
Populismo : El Tercera Position (Populism - the Third Position), from lafacu.com, in Spanish
D.C.C. de Souza, Sindicalismo e desempregados no Brasil e na Argentina de 1990 a 2002: unidade e fratura entre o exercito de operarios ativo e de reserva, thesis Sao Paulo 2010
G.A. Rojas, Os socialistas na Argentina (1880-1980). Um seculo de açao politica, thesis Sao Paulo 2006
A.L. Doeswijk, Entre camaleoes e cristalizados : os anarco-bolcheviques Rioplatenses, 1917-1930, thesis Univ. Estadual de Campinas 1998
Elections Category : Elections in Argentina, from Wikipedia; Categoria : Elecciones en Argentina, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Foreign Relations General
Iberoamerica y el Mundo, Historia de las Relaciones Exteriores Argentinas 2000
Category : Bilateral Relations of Argentina
With the U.S.
D. Sheinin, Flaccid Anti-Americanism: Argentine Relations with the United States at the Turn of the Century, draft 1997 refers to the turn from the 19th to the twentieth century
R. Schmidt, U.S. and Soviet Relations with Argentina, Obstacles and Opportunities for the U.S. Army 1989
C. Escude, U.S. Political Destabilization and Economic Boycott of Argentina during the 1940s, pp.56-76 in : G. di Tella et al., Argentina between the Great Powers, 1939-1946, 1989
W.H. Gilbert, From Condemnation to Conformity: Carter and Reagan's Foreign Policy towards the Argentine Junta, 1977-1982, thesis East Tennessee State 2005
L. Morgenfeld, Nelson A. Rockefeller and the normalization of Argentina-U.S. diplomatic relations in 1945 2011
With the U.K. Article : Argentina-United Kingdom Relations, from Wikipedia
A.J. Hawkins, Frozen empires : a history of the Antarctic sovereignty dispute between Britain, Argentina, and Chile, 1939-1959, thesis Univ. of Texas 2008
With Other Countries
Article : Argentina-Chile Relations, from Wikipedia
Article : Argentina-Brazil Relations, from Wikipedia
Article : Argentina-Holy See Relations, from Wikipedia
Article : Argentina-Israel Relations, from Wikipedia
Military Wars of Argentina 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data, 21 entries
Article : Military History of Argentina, Category : Military History of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Argentina, from ODM
List of Wars involving Argentina, from Wikipedia
Articles : Argentine War of Independence (1810-1818), Argentine Civil War (1814-1870), Luso-Brazilian Invasion (1816), Cisplatine War (1825-1828), War of the Confederation (1836-1839), Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851), Anglo-French Blockade of the Rio de la Plata (1845-1849), War of the Triple Alliance (1864-1870), Conquest of the Desert (1878-1884), War of the Pacific (1879-1884), Falklands War (1982), from Wikipedia
Articles : Campanas de Martin Rodriguez contra los indigenas (1820-1824), Campana de Rosas al Desierto (1833-1834), Guerra entre la Confederacion Argentina y la Confederacion Peru-Boliviana (1837-1838), Conquista del Chaco argentino (1870-1917), Campanas previas a la Conquista del Desierto, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Economy & Finances general Article Economy of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Argentina 2004, Argentina 2006, Argentina 2007
Institutions Article Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
Economic History Argentine Political Economic History, by Thayer Watkins
Article : Argentine economic crisis (1999-2002), from Wikipedia
L.B. Smith, The economic position of Argentina during the war (1920), IA
A. de Courcy Scott, A review of the economic position and liabilities of the Argentine Republic (1892), IA
J.G. Hornberger, Classical Liberalism in Argentina: A Lesson for the World, 1994
L.E.S. de Souza, A arquitetura de uma crise: historia e politica economica na Argentina, 1989-2002, thesis Sao Paulo 2008
A.E.F. Haines, O peronismo : um fenomeno argentino, uma interpretaçao da politica economica argentina : 1946-1955, thesis Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul 2008
Historic Economic Policies L. Bertola, G. Porcile, Convergence, Trade and Industrial Policy : Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay in the International Economy, 1900-1980, IEHC 2006
Yovanna Pineda, Female Labour Productivty, Technology, and Sex-Based Legislation in Argentina, 1895-1935, IEHC 2006
Article : Railway Nationalization in Argentina, from Wikipedia
Article : Five Year Plans of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Currency & Finances Entry Argentina, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
Historical Exchange Rate Regime of Asian Countries [!] : Argentina, from International Economics
Mining F.B. Head, Reports relating to the failure of the Rio de la Plata mining association, 1827, GB
Agriculture Raquel Gil Montero, Family, Land Tenure and Regional Development in the Southern Andes (Late Eighteenth to Early Twentieth Century), IEHC 2006
Article : Argentine Wine, from Wikipedia
Articles : Argentine Beef, Gaucho from Wikipedia
Anon., Las Vaquerias: Extraccion de Ganados sin apropiacion de Tierras, Web de Historia, on cattle ranching in the La Plata region, 18th century
B.S. Nugent, Argentina's transforming cattle rancher : a political economic look at instability and resilience, thesis San Diego State 2013
Energy Article : National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina), from Wikipedia; Nuclear Power in Argentina, from World Nuclear Association
Argentina Oil and Gas Industry, from Economy Watch
Article : Electricity Sector in Argentina : History, from Wikipedia
Industry Textile Industry A Global History of Textile Production 1650-2000 (Argentina), by Mirta Zaida Lobato
Historia de Industrias Textiles La Emilia, from Historia del Pais, in Spanish
Car Industry Auto Historia Argentina; Chrysler of Argentina, from allpar.com; Old Cars of Argentina Manufactures by Industrias Kaiser Argentina S.A. (IKA); Wikipedia article : Ford Motor Company of Argentina; History of Ford in Argentina, from Auto Historia; Funding Universe : Renault Argentina S.A.
Other Company Histories : Telefonica de Argentina, Telecom Argentina, Quilmes Industrial, Nobleza Piccardo SAICF, Aerolineas Argentina, Atanor, Molinos Rio de la Plata, Siderar SAIC, Penaflor, Cresud SACIF, from Funding Universe
Category : Enterprise Argentina, from Economy Point
The Knife History, from Gaucho Knives
La industria frigor?ica a finales del siglo XIX, from Historia del Pais, in Spanish
Social History Argentina, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Argentina, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
A.G. Langenheim, Colonizacion en la Republica Argentina (1906) in Spanish, IA
E. Quesada, The social evolution of the Argentine republic (1911), IA
Article : 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector, from Wikipedia
K. Usami, Transformation and continuity of the Argentine welfare state - evaluating social security reform in the 1990s 2004
R. Cortes, G. Kessler, Argentina's Welfare Regime : Protection, Social Capital and Citizenship, 1991-2005, 2006
S. Dobbs, The Argentinian Gaucho; Gauchos, from Go Gauchos; S. Nostate, 19th Century in Argentina and Effects on the Gauchos; R.W. Slatta, The Demise of the Gaucho and the Rise of Equestrian Sport in Argentina, Journal of Sports History 13/2, 1986
Leubolt/Tittor, Social Policies and Statehood in Argentina and Brazil, draft 2009
J. Baten et al., The anthropometric history of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th century, Economics and Human Biology 7 (2009) pp.319-333
F. Partenio, Rosario en cuarentena : normalizacion y disciplinamiento de la poblacion durante las epidemias, 1860-1904, Urvio: revista latinoamericana de seguridad ciudadana, (no.7, May 2009) pp.83-97, FLACSO Ecuador
J.M. Taylor, Riding the wave of a changing tide : the establishment of the welfare state in Argentina and Brazil, thesis Univ. of Georgia 2002
W.G. Acree, From Reading to Reality: Print Culture, Collective Identity, and Nationalism in Uruguay and Argentina, thesis Chapel Hill 2006
C. Fernandez Anderson, The Impact of Social Movements on State Policy : Human Rights and Women Movements in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay vol.1, thesis Notre Dame 2011
L. van der Vleuten, The girls' march to school: a comparative historical analysis of gender equalization in education in Argentina and Japan, ca. 1880-1970, thesis Utrecht 2009
V. Basualdo, Labor and structural change. Shop-floor organization and militancy in Argentine industrial factories (1943-1983), thesis Columbia 2010
E.L. Borland, Growth, decay, and change: Organizations in the contemporary women's movement in Buenos Aires, Argentina, thesis Univ. of Arizona 2004
V. Ronchi, La Cooperazione Integrale: Storia di 'El Hogar Obrero', Avanguardia dell'Economia Sociale Argentina (1905-2005), thesis Milan 2011
K. French-Fuller, Consumerism and its Discontents: A Cultural History of Argentine Development, 1958-1969 thesis Duke 2012
O. Barreneche, Crime and the administration of criminal justice in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1785-1853, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1997
Ethnography general
Languages Languages of Argentina (27), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Articles : Mapuche Language, from Wikipedia; Mapudungun Language History, from Wikiversity; Article : Santiage del Estero Quichua, from Wikipedia; Jorge Alderetes, El Quichia Santuagueno : Situacion Geografica, Historica y Linguistica, in Spanish
Immigrants G. Parisi, Storia degli Italiani nell' Argentina .. (1907) in Italian, IA; Patagonia, the "Welsh New World", from Historic UK; Th. Murray, The story of the Irish in Argentina (1919), IA
Lista des Colectividades, from Bajaron de los Barcos, Historia de la Inmigracion, in Spanish
Sirios, Turcos y Libaneses, from Bajaron de los Barcos, Historia de la Inmigracion, in Spanish
Colectividad Coreana, from Bajaron de los Barcos, Historia de la Inmigracion, in Spanish
M. Stachowski, Die kulturelle und nationale Identität in Zeiten der Einwanderung in Argentinien (1880-1930), thesis Potsdam 2009
BBC, Wales History : The Welsh in Patagonia, Aug. 15 2008
Minorities Argentina : Indigenous People, Jews, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Argentina
A. Ocoro Loango, Afroargentinidad y memoria historica : la negritud en los actos escolares del 25 de mayo, thesis Buenos Ayres 2010, FLACSO
R. Pacheco, Invisible but not forgotten: The Afro-Argentine and Afro-Uruguayan experience from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries, thesis Florida International Univ. 2001
E.D. Edwards, Negotiating Identities, Striving for State Recongition: Blacks in Cordoba, Argentina 1776-1853, thesis Florida Int'l Univ. 2011
Religion general Category : Religion in Argentina, from Wikipedia
Country Report : Argentina, from ARDA
Catholicism Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Argentina, from Kirken i Norge
Patron Saint Index : Argentina
Historia de la Compana de Jesus en la provincia del Paraguay (Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Peru, Bolivia y Brasil) segn los documentos originales del Archivo General de Indias vol.1 (1912), vol.2 (1912), vol.3 (1912), vol.4 (1912) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Article : Church-State Relations in Argentina, from Wikipedia
Protestantism D. Platt, C.L. Holland, A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings : Argentina
Judaism The Virtual Jewish History Tour : Argentina, by Rebecca Weiner
Article : History of the Jews in Argentina, from Wikipedia
J. Dizgun, Immigrants of a different religion, Jewish Argentines and the boundaries of Argentinidad, 1919-2009, thesis Rutgers 2010
J. Marder, Toward a convivencia : Juan Peron and the Jews of Argentina, 1943-1949, thesis Simon Fraser Univ. 1996
S. McGee Deutsch, Changing the landscape: The study of Argentine Jewish women and new historical vistas, Jewish History 18: pp.49-73, 2004
H. Dobry, Malevolence in the Malvinas. Jewish Argentinians fighting in the Malvinas/Falkland Islands war had to battle anti-Semitism as well as the enemy, The Jerusalem Report, July 16, 2012
History of Regions Article Provinces of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Category : Provinces of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Provinces of Argentina, from www.statoids.com
Departments of Argentina, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republica Argentina 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
A.A. Harambour, Borderland Sovereignties. Postcolonial Colonialism and State Making in Patagonia. Argentina and Chile, 1840s-1922, thesis Stony Brook 2012
Local History List of Cities in Argentina, from Wikipedia
Global Gazetteer : Argentina
History of Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Cordoba, Mar del Plata, Mendoza, Rosario, Salta, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Flight : Argentina, from Flight 100; Argentina, from Airline History
History of Broadcasting in Argentina, from The Broadcast Archive
Article University of Buenos Aires, from Wikipedia
Railways History, from arar; Electric Transport in Latin America, by Allen Morrison; scroll down for Argentina
Structurae : Argentina
Article : National Academy of Sciences of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Argentina
C.A. Müller, Longa distancia : a evoluçao dos sistemas nacionais de telecomunicaçoes da Argentina e do Brasil em conexao com as telecomunicaçoes internacionais (1808-2003), thesis Brasilia 2007
Culture Fine Arts, Literature Article : Argentine Literature, from Wikipedia
Sports Articles Argentina at the Olympics, Sport in Argentina, Football in Argentina, Club Atletico River Plate : History, Club Atletico Boca Juniors : History, Club Atletico Independiente : History, from Wikipedia
UK Borgward Drivers Club, Borgward Competition History in Argentina
Polo History in Argentina, from Argentina Excepcion; R.W. Slatta, The Demise of the Gaucho and the Rise of Equestrian Sport in Argentina, Journal of Sports History 13/2, 1986
Cricket : The Gentleman's Game in Argentina, from Wander Argentina
Popular Music, Dance History of Tango, from History of Tango, from Wikipedia; Susan August Brown, Argentine Tango, a Brief History; O. Sergio Suppa, A History of Argentina Tango
Article : Music of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Cuisine Article : Argentine Cuisine, from Wikipedia; The Traditional Diet of Argentina, from Naked Food Cooking
Article : Argentine Wine, from Wikipedia
Humour Chistes cortos de Argentinos, from Humor en Astalaweb; Chistes Argentinos, from Que Puntazo
Chistes para Reirnos de los Argentinos, from Vive Chile, Muere Argentina; in Spanish; Chistes de Politicos, from La Biaba, in Spanish
Other G.A. Malosetti, Campos magneticos de la modernidad latinoamericana: una historia intelectual de Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay (1900-1935), thesis Washington Univ. of St. Louis 2010
Biographies List of Argentines, from Wikipedia
J.A. Muzzio, Diccionario historico y biografico de la Republica Argentina (1920) in Spanish, IA
Environmental History Disaster History : Argentina, from Relief Web
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
A. Oyola-Yemaiel, The Early Conservation Movement in Argentina and the National Park Service : A Brief History of Conservation, Development, Tourism and Sovereignty, thesis Florida Int'l 1996
Others Argentine Antarctic Program

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Argentina, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassadors in Argentina, from NNDB; from Wikipedia, Canadian Heads of Post : Argentina, from MOFA Canada, List of Mexican Ambassadors to Chile, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico; Chinese Ambassadors to Argentina, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Buenos Aires (Argentinien), from Wikipedia German edition
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Argentina, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Ordinaries, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Buenos Aires, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Argentina
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Argentina 1895 Census, from Family Search
World Life Expectancy : Argentina
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Article : Historical exchange rates of Argentine currency, from Wikipedia
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Argentina Historical Data, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Election Results from Argentina (since 1999); from IFES Election Guide
Lijphart's Elections Archive : Argentina
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Argentina
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, Portal Argentina, Hemeroteca
Archivio de la Provincia de Santa Fe, Hemeroteca Digital
Selected Articles History of Argentina, from World History Archives, recent newspaper articles
William Eleroy Curtis, The other End of the Hemisphere, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Nov. 1887, pp.893-910, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
Theodore Child, The Argentine Capital, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, March 1891, pp.491-515, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
Argentine Provincial Sketches, in Harper's New Monthly Magazine, April 1891, pp.781-795, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
Bishop J.M. Walden, The Argentine People and their Religious and Educational Institutions, in Harper's New Monthly Magazine, May 1891 pp.863-872, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Argentina, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Worldpress.org (links)
Online Yearbooks - Argentina Entries Statesman's Yearbook vol.1 : 1865 pp.529-532, GB, vol.2 : 1865 pp.523-526, GB, vol.3 : 1866 pp.527-530, GB, vol.4 : 1867 pp.515-519, GB, vol.5 : 1868 pp.515-519, GB, vol.6 : 1869 pp.515-519, GB, 1870 pp.480-486, GB, 1871, pp.480-485, IA, 1872, pp.480-487, IA, 1873, pp.472-480, IA, 1874, pp.472-480, IA, 1875, pp.472-480, IA, 1876, pp.476-484, IA, 1877, pp.482-490, IA, 1878, pp.482-490, IA, 1879, pp.483-490, IA, 1880, pp.483-490, IA, 1881, pp.483-490, IA, 1883, pp.483-490, IA, 1884, pp.511-519, IA, 1885, pp.519-528, IA, 1886, pp.531-540, IA, 1887, pp.549-559, IA, 1888, pp.551-561, IA, 1889, pp.555-565, IA, 1890, pp.312-323, IA, 1891, pp.316-327, IA, 1892, pp.322-333, IA, 1894, pp.322-333, IA, 1895, pp.322-323, IA, 1896, pp.321-333, IA, 1898, pp.321-333, IA, 1899, pp.344-356, IA, 1903, pp.384-397, IA, 1913, pp.600-610, IA, 1919, pp.646-658, IA, 1921, pp.668-681, IA
Annuario pontificio 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Argentina; note : Argentina may also refer to Strasbourg/Alsace
Films on History/Society Museo del Cine Pablo Ducros Hicken, Buenos Aires
Article : Cine de la Argentina, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with Country of Origin : Argentina, from IMDb
Category : Argentine Documentary Films, from Wikipedia
R. Shpuntoff, Politics and Poetics: A Brief History of Argentine Documentary Cinema
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
B. Hamre, Argentina - Historical Photos
EVita Peron Historical Research Foundation : Pictures
Buenos Aires Antiguo, Fotos Antiguas
Archivo Buenos Aires, Archivo de Fotos Aereas Historicas
Armada Argentina, Fotos Historicas del Museo Naval Manuel Belgrano
Minube, Monumentos Historicos en Argentina
FIHCA, La Avenida de Mayo de Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires 1910: Memoria del Porvenir, from World Bank Group Archives, several hundred photos etc. from Buenos Aires 1904-1914
Accidental Collections Category : Historical Images of Buenos Aires
Picasa, Im?enes historicas de Buenos Aires
Universal Collections
Items on Argentina
Search Scripophily for Argentine Republic, Argentina
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Argentina, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Argentina
Historical paintings : search WikiGallery for Argentina
Archival Deposits Argentinian Provenience
Archivo general de la Republica Argentina (1894) in Spanish, IA
Spanish Provenience
Portada de Pares, Archivos de Espana
U.S. Provenience
National Security Archive : Electronic Briefing Book No.73 : Files on Argentina's Dirty War; No.77 : Argentina, No.104 : Argentina, No.185 : Argentina, No.416 : Argentina, No.432 : Argentina
Register of the Argentinian General Consulate, Berlin, 1929-1944, Records, at Hoover Institution
Evita Peron document and exile archive of Juan Domingo Peron 1955-1972, at Hoover Institution
Other Provenience
Search National Archives (UK), Open Society Archives (OSA), Budapest : Argentina
Argentina Documents at the Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Constitutions, Laws Sistema Argentina de Informatica Juridica
Constitutions of Argentina, from Political Database of the Americas
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Argentina, from ILO, 71 docs. since 1919
Links : Documentos Historicos : Argentina (Constitutions), from Wikisource Spanish edition
Treaties General Treaty Collections C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
Bilateral Treaty Collections Biblioteca Digital de Tratados, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores
Index of bilateral treaties, by Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in Spanish
Argentina, pp.58-139 in vol.5 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1976, GB
Treaty between GB and the Argentince Confederation regarding the abolition of the slave trade, 1839, pp.1-43 in Treaties, conventions, and engagements, for the suppression of the slave trade , 1844, GB
Treaty between GB and the Argentine Confederation for the free navigation on the rivers Parana and Uruguay, 1853, pp.191-194 in vol.9 of L. Hertslet, A complete collection of the treaties and conventions and reciprocal regulations at present subsisting between Great Britain and foreign powers and of the laws, decrees, orders in council, 1856, GB
Consular Reports Buenos Ayres 1855, pp.474-478 in E. Flagg, Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations, vol.III, 1857, GB
Rosario 1869, pp.407-412 in Commercial Reports received at the Foreign Office from her Majesty's Consuls in 1869, GB
Consular Recommendations on South American Trade 1915 U.S. consuls, Argentina pp.3-9
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Argentina : Mar. 19 1915, Rosario, Apr. 17 1915, Rosario, Dec. 29 1915, Rosario, July 13 1916, July 22 1916, Rosario, June 21 1917, Feb. 23 1918, Rosario, May 18 1918, Feb. 27 1919, May 26 1920, Rosario, June 24 1920, IA
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Surveys The citizen's appeal to the European Parliament : Petitions 1958-1979; Other Petitions Converning Latin America : Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia in Chile pp.35-36
Document Collections Argentinian Provenience
Documents from the History of the Left in Argentina, marxists.org
Documentos desclasificados 1975-1984
Iberoamerica y el Mundo, Documentos : Informes de las Misiones Diplomaticas Argentinas sobre la Politica Racista en Alemania y los Paises de la Europa Ocupada (1933-1945), La Politica Migratoria Argentina y las Practicas Concretas en la Pos Segunda Guerra
U.S. Provenience
Truth Commissions : Argentina, from United States Institute of Peace
National Archives (U.S.), Holocaust-Era Assets, Civilian Agency Records, State Department and Foreign Affairs Records, Records of the Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State (RG 84), Argentina
National Security Archive (U.S.), Electronic Briefing Books, EBB 416 : Operation Condor on Trial: Legal Proceedings on Latin American Rendition and Assassination Program Open in Buenos Aires, EBB 383 : Stolen Babies: Argentina Convicts Two Military Dictators, EBB 374 : Reagan On The Falkland/Malvinas: "Give Maggie enough to carry on...", EBB 300 : Operation Mexico: Secret Argentine Rendition Program Illuminated by Declassified Documents, EBB 299 : Jacobo Timerman hizo Tambalear a la Dictadura Argentina, EBB 241 : 1978: Operacion Clandestina de la Inteligencia Militar Argentina en Mexico, EBB 185 : On 30th Anniversary of Argentine Coup. New Declassified Details on Repression and U.S. Support for Military Dictatorship, EBB 133 : Kissinger to the Argentine Generals in 1976: "If there Are Things that Have to be Done, You Should Do Them Quickly", EB 104 : Kissinger to Argentines on Dirty War: "The Quicker You Succeed the Better", EBB 85 : The Pentagon and the CIA Sent Mixed Message to the Argentine Military, EBB 77 : US Declassified Documents: Argentine Junta Security Forces Killed, Disappeared Activists, Mothers and Nuns, EBB 73 : Argentine Military Believed U.S. Gave Go-Ahead for Dirty War, EBB 73 : State Department Opens Files on Argentina's Dirty War,
Individual Documents Juan Peron, The Twenty Fundamental Truths of Justicialism, 1950, Documents from the History of the Left in Argentina
Edelmiro Farrell, Mensaje del Presidente de la Nacion 6. 4. 1945, in Spanish
Statement Condemning the Suspension of Jewish Newspapers by the Argentine Government. October 15, 1943, from Public Papers of the Presidents : Franklin D. Roosevelt
Agreement Concerning the Utilization of the Rapids of the Uruguay River in the Salto Grande Area Done in Montevideo; in force 28 January 1947, from International Water Law Project
1948 Document on the Falkland Crisis, from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Canada
Agreement Between the Argentine Republic and the Republic of Paraguay Concerning a Study of the Utilization of the Water Power of the Apipe Falls, signed at Buenos Aires, 23 January 1958, from International Water Law Project
F.A. Harris, Fighting the Dirty War, 1977, from AFSA
Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay: Agreement on Parana River Projects (Done at President Stroessner City, Paraguay, October 19, 1979) from International Water Law Project
Historical Maps responsible institution Instituto Geografico Nacional, Argentina
collections Historical Argentina Maps, from Library of Congress Map Collection
Picasa, Planos Historicos de Buenos Aires
Atlas of Argentina, from Wikimedia Commons; from Thomas Hoeckmann
Argentina Maps, from Perry Castaneda Map Collection
Argentina Maps, from Zonu
Mapoteca Virtual, Spanish language site on Argentina, numerous detailed maps on the country's political history
Category : Old Maps of Argentina, from Wikipedia
Maps of Buenos Aires, from Maps of the World
Argentina Maps Online, from Embassy World
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for South America, Argentina
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Argentina, hindsight/modern Railway Network Map, Argentina, from Zonu
Mapa de los pueblos aborigenes, from Mapoteca Virtual
Mapa del Provincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata 1816-1820, from Mapoteca Virtual
Southern Cone 1799, 1814, 1823, 1828, 1853, 1883, 1884-1999, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
entire country, contemporary
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Buenos Aires shortly after 1536, from Maps of the World
Buenos Aires Historic Map 1756, from Maps of the World
Plano Buenos Aires 1870, from Maps of the World
Map Buenos Aires 1888 (Meyers), from Wikimedia Commons
Provincia de Buenos Aires, 1888, Provincia de Mendoza, 1888, Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Distrito Federal, 1892, from David Rumsey Map Collection
Rio de la Plata Estuary 1906, from Probert Encyclopedia
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Argentina, Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia, Pampas, Buenos Aires (prov.), Santa Fe (prov.), Entre Rios, Corrientes (prov.), Chaco, Santiago del Estero, Salta (prov.), Jujuy, Tucuman (prov.), Catamarca (prov.), Cordoba (prov.), La Pampa, Mendoza (prov.), San Luis, Neuquen, Chubut, Rio Negro, Buenos Aires (city), Rosario, Corrientes (city), Salta (city), Tucuman (city), Mendoza (city), Cordoba (city), from EB 1911
Articles Argentinische Republik, Buenos Ayres, Rosario, Cordova, Mendoza, Salta, Tucuman, Chubut, Chaco, Patagonien, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Argentinische Republik, from Brockhaus Konversationslexikon 1894-1896, in German
Religious Articles Argentina, Buenos Aires, Santiago del Estero, Diocese of Salta, San Juan, Tucuman, Dioceses : supplemental list, scroll down for Catamarca, Corrientes, Santa Fe, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Articles Agricultural Colonies in the Argentine Republic, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Buenos Ayres, posted by DTBSWS
Buenos Ayres, in : Ch. Vere, The pocket cambist, 1836, GB
Buenos Ayres, pp.498-503 in J. Blunt, The shipmaster's assistant, and commercial digest, 1837, GB
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : die Laplatastaaten, vol.4 1844 pp.98-101, posted by DTBSWS
Buenos Ayres, p.102 in J. Daniel, Shipowner's and shipmaster's directory to the foreign port charges, 1844, GB
Argentine Republic, or Buenos Ayres, p.32 in J.D.B. de Bow, The industrial resources, etc. of the southern and western states , vol.1, 1852 GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Argentine Republic pp.174-179
Geographical The Province of la Plata, pp.324-327 in vol.1 of E. Burke, An account of the European settlements in America, 1808, GB
Buenos Ayres, pp.465-468 in vol.5 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography followed by chapters on unoccupied regions, Araucania, Patagonia; 1826, GB
Buenos Ayres, or Provinces of la Plata, pp.468-471, Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego pp.472-475 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
The Argentine Republic, pp.566-576, Patagonia pp.609-612 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
La Plata, or Argentine Republic, pp.369-373, Patagonia pp.386-387 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Buenos Aires pp.668-669, Argentinien pp.669-670, Patagonien pp.697-698, Das Feuerland pp.698-699 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
La Plata, or the Argentine Confederation, pp.216-219, Patagonia pp.228-229 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Argentina, pp.349-476 in E. Reclus, South America, 1905, GB
Argentine Republic, pp.482-489 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Political Argentine Confederation, pp.58-61 in T. Twiss, The law of nations considered as independent political communities, 1861, GB
Ethnological Terra del Fuego pp.258-263 in vol.2 of R. Phillips, A general view of the manners, customs and curiosities of nations, 1810, GB
Chaconese p.353, in A. Hamilton, Marriage rites, customs, and ceremonies, of all nations of the universe, 1822, GB
Provinces Unies de Rio de la Plata, pp.440-442 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
The Araucanian Race, pp.574-609 in Ch. Wolf, The Indian races of North and South America , 1856, GB
Argentine Confederation pp.80-81, Patagonia p.81 in R.D. Owen, The wrong of slavery, the right of emancipation, and the future of the African race in the United States, 1864, GB
Argentine Confederation, pp.890-900 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
The Pampas Amerinds and Gauchos pp.292-296, the Patagonians pp.297-301, the Fuegans pp.301-306 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
The Araucanians, pp.324-331, the Patagonians pp.331-338, the Fuegans pp.338-344; El Chaco and the Pampeans pp.318-324, the Calchaqui culture pp.288-289 in vol.11 of L.H. Gray, The Mythology of all Races, 1916, GB
Argentina, pp.194-223 in vol.1A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Historical The Present State of la Plata, pp.374-380 in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, GB
The Araucanians, pp.98-112, The Southern Indians of South America pp.112-121, in S.G. Goodrich, History of the Indians of North and South America, 1844, GB
The Republic of La Plata, or United Provinces, pp.428-430 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
The Rise of the Progressive States : Argentina, pp.189-192 in W.W. Sweet, A History of Latin America 1929, GB
Other Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1864 (vol.16) : Buenos Ayres Great Southern, p.385, Northern of Buenos Ayres, p.386; for 1867 (vol.19) : Buenos Ayres Great Southern, pp.416-417, Central Argentine, p.418, Northern of Buenos Ayres, p.421, GB
Article : Argentinien, in : Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, 1912, in German, posted by Zeno
Parliamentary Debates BUENOS AIRES
Diario de sesiones de la Convencion del estado de Buenos Aires 1859-1860, 1860, in Spanish, GB
Congreso Nacional, Diario de sesiones de la Camara de Diputados 1861, 1863, 1862 vol.1, 1863, 1862 vol.2, 1863, 1863 vol.1, 1865, 1865, 1866, 1866, 1866, in Spanish, GB
Diario de sesiones de la Camara de Senadores de la Provincia de Buenos Aires 1862, 1863, 1866, 1867, 1867, 1867, 1868, 1868, in Spanish, GB
Diario de sesiones del Congreso Nacional Constituyente de las Provincias Unidas del Rio de la Plata 1826 107-149, 1826, in Spanish, GB
Tour Guides Pacific line guide to South America; containing information to travellers & shippers to ports on the east & west coasts of South America 1895, IA; on River Plate (Monte Video, Uruguay, Argentine Republic, Paraguay) pp.49-57; Straits of Magellan, Patagonia pp.58-74
A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Argentina pp.61-69
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Argentina pp.27-79
A.S. Peck, The South American Tour - A Descriptive Guide 1916, IA; on Argentina pp.191-257
Travelogues H.M. Brackenridge, Voyage to Buenos Ayres performed in the years 1817 and 1818, 1820, GB
J. Andrews, Journey from Buenos Ayres: through the provinces of Cordova, Tucuman and Salta to Potosi, thence by the Deserts of Caranja to Arica, and subsequently to Santiago de Chile and Coquimbo, undertaken on behalf of the Chilean and Peruvian Mining Corporation in the years 1825 and 1826, vol.1, 1827, GB
J. Beaumont, Travels in Buenos Ayres and the adjacent provinces of the Rio de la Plata , 1828, GB
Residence Memoirs G.Th. Love, A five years' residence in Buenos Ayres: during the years 1820 to 1825, 1825, GB
D.F. Sarmiento, Life in the Argentine Republic in the Days of the Tyrants: Or, Civilization and Barbarism (1868), posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives Argentina Archives and Libraries, from Family Search
Archivo General de la Nacion, Spanish language site
Musea Category : Museums in Argentina, from Wikipedia; Buenos Aires Museums, from Oh Buenos Aires
Museo Historico Nacional, from Secretaria de Cultura
Evita Peron Museum, Buenos Aires, Jose Hernandez Museum of Folk Art, Museum of Foreign Debt, from Buenos Aires City Guide
Article : Paz Palace, from Wikipedia
Monuments UNESCO World Heritage List, scroll down for Argentina; UNESCO World Heritage, Tentative List : Argentina
Category : Archaeological Sites in Argentina, from Wikipedia
C. Rainero, Gorton Complex. Conservation Management Plan. Rosario. Argentina, 2007
Article : Paz Palace, from Wikipedia
Showcaves : Argentina
Libraries Biblioteca Nacional de la Republica Argentina
Libraries in Argentina, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Argentina banknotes, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Argentina Coins, from Numista, from Colnect, from OmniCoin, from World Coin Gallery
Collections of Coins : Argentina, 1892-2000, bilingual Russian-English page
Search Coin Archives for Argentina
Argentina, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Argentine Confederation Coins, from Colnect
Araucania & Patagonia Coins, from Numista; from Colnect
Provincias del Rio de la Plata, 4 Reales 1813, from Numista
Stamps Rare Argentina Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery, Stamps Argentina 1858-1863, Argentina 1864-1891, Argentina 1892-1920, Cordoba, Corrientes, Tierra del Fuego, Buenos Aires, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Argentina survey of bibliographies Note : Argentina does not have a National Bibliography.
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Bibliografia : Curso Historia Argentina I; Curso Historia Argentina II, by P. Vagliente, Cathlic Univ. Cordoba, Spanish language titles
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Environment
Bibliography : Cono Sur, from Environmental History of Latin America; Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Bibliography : Andes, from Environmental History of Latin America ; Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Edmundo Murray, The Irish in Latin America and Iberia : a Bibliography, Argentina ; (Japanese) Migration Bibliography Argentina, from Discover Nikkei
Falklands War Bibliography, from The Vanished Gallery, biased - does not list a single Spanish language/Argentinian perspective title
Argentine Anarchism Bibliography, from Anarchy Archives
William & Mary National Security Archive Project, Argentina Annotated Bibliography and other Reference Materials
Mariel Deluca Voth, Latin American Archives, A Survey of Historical Protestant Sources; covers period until 1983
Social History
Beyond Legalism Project : Argentina Bibliography on human rights violations under the Dictatorship
Desaparecidos Bibliography & Book Store, from The Vanished Gallery
serial publications
general bibliographies
Argentina entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
B.F. Elson, Indian Tribes : Classification, Bibliography and Map of Present Language Distribution
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
Latin American Books
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on Argentina Projecto Biblioteca Digital Argentina; on Arg. literature
Biblioteca Virtual Universel (Argentina)
Fondos Digitalizados, from Biblioteca Nacional de la Republica Argentina
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Argentina
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Cuba
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Directory of Open Access Journals
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
On Argentina LANIC, Academic Journals : Argentina
Boletin del Instituto de Historia Argentina y Americana Dr. Emilio Ravignani (contact address; not even ToCs)
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
David Rock, Argentina 1516-1987, Univ. of California Press, 1989, KMLA Lib.Sign. 982 R682a
Daniel K. Lewis, The History of Argentina, Greenwood 2001, 240 pp., KMLA Lib. Sign. 982 L673h
Specific Topics Jutta Mautte, Hyperinflation, Currency Board and Bust. The Case of Argentina, Frankfurt/Main : Peter Lang 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 332.4982 M459h
Jeremy Adelman, European Migration to Argentina, 1880-1930, pp.215-219 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Ch.C. Griffin, The States of Latin America, pp.516-541 in F.H. Hinsley, The New Cambridge History, vol.XI : Material Progress and World-wide Problems 1870-1898, Cambridge : UP (1962) 1978 [G]
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
Chapter XIX : The Argentine Complex, pp.282-300, Chapter XX : Beef, Fifth Column, and Bases, pp.301-318, Chapter XXI : These are Argentinians, pp.319-334, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Argentina, 1913 pp.1066-1070, 1944 pp.75-77, 1945 pp.64-67, 1946 pp.68-71, 1947 pp.73-75, 1948 pp.69-72, 1949 pp.61-62, 1950 pp.64-65, 1951 pp.62-63, 1952 pp.58-59, 1953 pp.57-59, 1954 pp.57-59, 1955 pp.118-119, 1956 pp.54-56, 1957 pp.116-117, 1958 pp.56-57, 1959 pp.57-58, 1960 pp.55-56, 1961 pp.58-59, 1962 pp.41-42, 1963 pp.161-163, 1964 pp.136-137, 1965 pp.143-144, 1966 pp.105-106, 1967 pp.107-109, 1968 pp.104-105, 1969 pp.111-112, 1970 pp.109-110, 1971 pp.103-104, 1972 pp.93-94, 1973 pp.89-90, 1974 pp.97-98, 1975 pp.84-85, 1976 pp.138-139, 1977 pp.142-143, 1978 pp.198-199, 1979 pp.197-198, 1980 pp.191-192, 1981 pp.191-192, 1982 pp.192-193, 1983 pp.188-190, 1984 pp.185-187, 1985 pp.580-581, 628, 1986 pp.569-571, 624, 1987 pp.539-540, 592, 1988 pp.492-494, 544, 1989 pp.493-494, 544, 1990 pp.509-510, 560, 1992 pp.467-468, 544, 1993 pp.475-477, 552, 1994 pp.476-477, 552, 1995 pp.370-371, 552, 1996 pp.370-371, 552, 1997 pp.390, 550, 2002 pp.388, 545 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Argentine Confederation, 1878 pp.482-490 [G]
Argentine Republic, 1895 pp.322-332, 1898 pp.321-333, 1901 pp.379-391, 1905 pp.395-408, 1910 pp.571-580, 1918 pp.638-649, 1919 pp.646-658, 1924 pp.660-672, 1925 pp.670-682, 1926 pp.650-661, 1928 pp.657-669, 1929 pp.651-653, 1932 pp.655-668, 1937 pp.688-700, 1942 pp.703-716, 1943 pp.699-713 [G]
Argentina, 1970-1971 pp.733-742, 1975-1976 pp.743-752, 1975-1976 pp.750-760, 1978-1979 pp.88-97, 1979-1980 pp.87-95, 1980-1981 pp.87-95, 1981-1982 pp.87-95, 1983-1984 pp.89-95, 1984-1985 pp.89-95, 1985-1986 pp.87-93, 1986-1987 pp.87-93, 1987-1988 pp.88-94, 1988-1989 pp.88-94, 1989-1990 pp.90-96, 1990-1991 pp.90-96, 1991-1992 pp.91-97, 1992-1993 pp.93-99, 1993-1994 pp.97-103, 1994-1995 pp.96-101, 1995-1996 pp.88-93, 1996-1997 pp.92-97, 1997-1998 pp.96-102, 1998-1999 pp.119-125, 2000 pp.152-159, 2001 pp.153-159, 2002 pp.157-164, 2003 pp.159-166, 2004 pp.161-168, 2005 pp.157-165, 2006 pp.159-167 [G]
Americana Annual Argentine Republic, 1927 pp.55-57
Argentina, 1928 pp.57-59, 1930 pp.65-68, 1931 pp.71-73, 1932 pp.65-68, 1933 pp.59-61, 1934 pp.61-63, 1935 pp.64-66, 1936 pp.58-60, 1937 pp.49-51, 1938 pp.52-54, 1939 pp.60-62, 1940 pp.44-46, 1943 pp.54-57, 1944 pp.56-61, 1945 pp.57-62, 1946 pp.61-66, 1947 pp.38-40, 1947 pp.38-40, 1957 pp.48-51, 1961 pp.48-50, 1962 pp.47-49, 1963 pp.62-64, 1964 pp.63-65, 1965 pp.80-82, 1967 pp.73-74, 1968 pp.68-70, 1969 pp.88-89, 1970 pp.92-93, 1971 pp.106-107, 1972 pp.106-108, 396, pp.99-101, 1974 pp.97-98, 336, 1976 pp.94-95, 1988 pp.109-110, 1989 pp.112-113, 1990 pp.107-108, 1992 pp.119-120, 1993 pp.114-115, 1994 pp.113-114, 1998 pp.113-114, 2006 pp.50-51 [G]
Other Article : Argentine Republic, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.36-39, 1894 pp.26-28, 1902 pp.31-35 [G]
Article : Argentina, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.48-51, 1899 pp.59-63, 1900 pp.63-67 [G]
Article : Argentina, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.51-54, 1908 pp.44-47, 1909 pp.46-49, 1913 pp.57-60, 1914 pp.56-59, 1916 pp.50-53, 1918 pp.48-50, 1919 pp.57-59, 1920 pp.52-55, 1921 pp.54-55, 1923 pp.54-57, 1924 pp.57-60, 1925 pp.55-57, 1926 pp.61-63, 1928 pp.57-60, 1929 pp.58-61, 1930 pp.57-60, 1931 pp.58-61, 1932 pp.55-58, 1933 pp.52-56, 1934 pp.50-52, 1935 pp.46-49, 1938 pp.55-58, 1939 pp.41-44, Events of 1940 pp.35-39, 1941 pp.32-36, 1942 pp.40-44, 1943 pp.37-41, 1944 pp.40-47, 1945 pp.43-49 [G]
Article : Argentina, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs, 1976, pp.431-438 (Robert J. Alexander), 1980 pp.317-321 (R.J.A.) [G]

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