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Literature on the History of South America
Peru Chile
First posted on June 17th 2002, last revised on November 28th 2013







History of Bolivia : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
For the country's earlier history, see History of the Viceroyalty of Peru, History of the Viceroyalty of la Plata
1559-1825 . 1825-1839 . 1839-1879 . 1879-1918 . 1918-1945 . 1945-1964 . 1964-1985 . since 1985


Alto Peru, 1559-1825
In 1559, the Audiencia of Charcas was established, until 1776 subject to the Viceroyalty of Peru, since then to the Viceroyalty of La Plata. Early in the 19th century, the area remained under Spanish control, until Bolivar's independence fighters gained control of it in 1824, in the Battle of Ayacucho.

Bolivia, 1825-1839
The nation at first was dominated by foreign politicians - Simon Bolivar, after whom the republic was named, personally drafted the constitution. His fellow Venezuelan Gen. Sucre became the first president. Gen. Andres Santa Cruz in 1836 invaded Peru and took control of it, establishing a Bolivian-Peruvian Confederation. Chile percieved this as a threat and went to war against the young federation, defeating it in 1839 in the Battle of Yungay. The confederation was broken up.

Bolivia, 1840-1870
Bolivia geographically was divided in 4 regions - the central highland, the stretch of Atacama desert on the coast, its share in the Chaco and it's share in the lowlands of Amazonia. Communications were poor, best in the highland the mineral wealth of which had been exploited by the Spanish for centuries. Now the mineral wealth of the Atacama province was of importance. The mining concessions were given to Chileans.
A last Peruvian invasion was defeated in 1841, at last establishing Bolivian independence as a fact. Yet, the republic was not stabilized; frequently, coups d'etat were staged, although many of them failed. Bolivia became notorious for coups d'etat. Presidents tended to rule dictatorial, by decree. In 1867 a treaty was signed with Brazil, fixing the border between the two countries. The treaty allocated the territory of Acre to Bolivia.


Bolivia 1879-1918
In 1879, war broke out with Chile over Bolivia's Atacama province, the nitrate mineral sources of which were exploited by a Chilean company. Bolivia and its ally Peru were defeated, and Chile annexed the entire coastal province. Bolivia now had lost it's access to the Pacific Ocean, became landlocked.
The war had ruined the state finances, partially because dictator Daza, responsible for the war, when ousted, fled the country, taking much of the state treasury with him.
During the decades between 1820 and 1920, the country saw a succession of democratically elected governments, in which the conservative and liberal parties dominated. In Bolivian democracy, the Spanish-speaking minority dominated; the Indios speaking Quechua (or other languages) hardly participated in the process. The Conservatives ruled 1880-1899, the Liberals since 1899. Bolivia went through a period of (relative) political stability, economic development (extension of the railroad network) and moderate prosperity.
In 1899, Acre Free State was proclaimed, partially on Bolivian territory (Amazon rain forest, economically interesting because of rubber). In the Treaty of Petropolis 1903, Bolivia, Peru and Brazil agreed on partitioning Acre Free State. The larger share, with capital Acre, went to Brazil. In effect, Bolivia had lost most of it's northern Amazon rain forest claim, an area hitherto largely neglected. In 1904, Bolivia and Chile signed the Treaty of Friendship, in which Bolivia recognized the Chilean annexion of the Atacama province (1883).
In 1905, Bolivia's capital was moved from Sucre to La Paz; the nation's supreme court remained in Sucre. Tin mining boomed, profiting from an improved railroad network. Due to the opening of Bolivia's economy to foreign investment, much of Bolivia's industry was in foreign ownership.
Late in World War I, Bolivia joined the Entente, a decision without any impact on the outcome of the war, as the landlocked country did not dispatch any combat troops.

Bolivia 1918-1945
In 1920 Bolivia became one of the founding members of the League of Nations. After World War I, Bolivia hired a number of German officers as advisors to it's armed forces. The country's politics was now dominated by the Republican Party. It faced economically difficult times, which took a serious turn to the worse in the Great Depression.
Striving to gain a port on the Paraguay River (which would mean access to the Atlantic Ocean) as an outlet for the Bolivian Chaco's oil exploited by Standard Oil, Bolivia went to war with it's neighbour Paraguay in 1932 (the Chaco War). The Bolivian army was trained by Germans, among them Ernst Röhm.
Unexpectedly, Bolivia was defeated, as Bolivia's highland soldiers had a hard time getting accustomed to the lowland climate, the supply lines were too long and the Paraguayans felt more comfortable in the environment. In 1935 a truce was agreed upon; Bolivia had lost almost it's entire Chaco province. After the Chaco War, a new generation of politicians took power. The country's oil fields, owned by Standard Oil of New Jersey, were nationalized by president Jose David Toro in 1937. His successor German Busch Becerra established Latin America's first modern-style totalitarian dictatorship; of German ancestry, he had both Nazi and Marxist advisers and was anti international business, an isolationist and xenophobe. Unter him the country's first Labour Code was passed.
In 1943, during World War II, Bolivia declared war on the Axis powers.

Bolivia 1945-1964
Violence - coups d'etat, rioting mobs, assassinations - played an important role in Bolivian politics after 1945, overshadowing a continuous democratic process. The army continued to be a critical political factor.
With the economy deteriorating (declining exports; strained relations with the U.S.A.), the social problem became more and more acute, as numerous attempts to pursue an agrarian reform had not materialized and the nation's farmland was still owned by a small share of the population, Spanish speaking, while the large majority was landless. In 1952 the MNR (Nationalist Revolutionary Movement) seized power in a coup. A land reform was now implemented, forced labour finally abolished, some land distributed to 150,000 Indios. Universal suffrage was introduced, including women. The railways and mines were nationalized (the railways previously having been British-owned). In 1956 US company Gulf Oil began to invest in Bolivia (the nationalization of the oil industry in 1937 was an economic failure) and soon became the country's largest foreign-owned business.
In the eyes of many, the reforms did not go far enough. Radicals advocated a revolution with the aim of setting up a socialist system; they received help from the outside, especially Cuba, which sent Ernesto Che Guevara, who died in 1967. In foreign eyes, Bolivia's policy of nationalization, often at the expense of foreign ownership, ruined trust in Bolivia. Thus the country found it difficult to obtain loans badly needed. With exports continuing to be low, the consequence was hyperinflation. In 1952, the US Dollar was equal to 60 pesos, by 1956 it had fallen to 12.000 pesos. TIN was the dominant export product, Bolivia accounting for 25 % of world production.
In 1962 Bolivia broke off diplomatic relations with Chile; yet economic relations continued (Bolivia's exports and imports are facilitated mainly through the Chilean port of Arica). In 1964 Venezuela broke off diplomatic relations with Bolivia, in this way protesting the coup d'etat by General Barrientos. From 1964, military coups d'etat again played the dominant role in Bolivian politics.

Bolivia 1964-1985
Administration . A military coup in 1964 ended decades of democratically elected administrations; a military junta took over. Junta member Rene Barrientos held the presidency from 1966 to 1969, Juan Jose Torres 1970-1971, Hugo Banzer Suares 1971-1978, Luis Garcia Meza 1980-1981, Hernan Siles Zuazo 1982-1985. Frequently, changes in office were affected by coups, by the shifting support of political parties. Elections held in 1978, 1979 and 1980 failed to establish governments supported by a parliamentary majority.
Foreign Policy . Suspicions that the CIA was involved in the military coup of 1964 have not been confirmed. The growth of the drug economy in 1981-1982 has affected the country's international relations.
The Economy . Bolivia is among the poorest countries of Latin America, her population centers located on the Altiplano at an altitude which places severe restrictions on agricultural productions, the lower parts of Bolivia being covered by tropical rainforest and only thinly populated. Traditionally the backbone of Bolivia's economy is the mining industry. In 1964 Bolivia produced 150,000 metric tons of silver, in 1977 209,000, in 1985 111,000 (IHS p.348). In 1964 Bolivia produced 24,657 metric tons of tin, in 1977 33,740 metric tons, in 1985 16,136 metric tons (IHS p.349). Production of crude petrol rose from 428,000 metric tons in 1964 to 2.19 million metric tons in 1973, then declined to 917,000 metric tons in 1985 (IHS p.320), production of natural gas rose from 1 petajoule in 1971 to 85 petajoules in 1985 (IHS p.324).
When the military took power in 1964, prices roughly doubled per year; the inflation rate then was reduced, but remained at a worrying level, accelerating again in 1979, getting out of hand in 1982 (IHS pp.713-714).
Bolivia's exports depended on the output of the country's mines, where production was potentially threatened by actions taken by the labour unions. Under the Banzer administration, the labour unions pursued a moderate path, the output of the mining industry expanded, inflation was kept within limits. The frequent change of administrations after 1977 reflects the economic crisis caused by the decline to be observed in the output of the mining industry, in all products except for natural gas.
The brief Meza (1980-1981) administration is blamed for permitting the rapid expansion of the cultivation of coca, the production of cocaine.
Social History . Population estimates for Bolivia were 4.22 million in 1964, 5.47 million in 1974 and 5.89 million in 1985.

Bolivia since 1985
Administration . The presidency was held by Victor Paz Estenssoro 1985-1989, by Jaime Paz Zamora 1989-1993, by Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada 1993-1997, by Hugo Banzer 1997-2001, by Jorge Quiroga 2001-2002, by Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada 2002-2003, by Carlos Mesa 2003-2005, by Eduardo Rodriguez 2005-2006, by Evo Morales since 2006.
Foreign Policy . Bolivia was not among the founder nations of Mercosur. The country continued to depend on imports and exports through Chilean ports. The country's illegal drug economy affected relations with western countries pushing for energetic measures to suppress the trade.
Bolivia did not participate in the military coalitions liberating Kuwait in 1991, invading Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003. When President Morales came to power he announced that the country's gas industry was to be restructured; the matter was resolved in negotiations with neighbors Argentina and Brazil. FIFA's decision in 2007 to ban international games at an altitude over 2500 m caused President Morales to protest; FIFA's decision was modified, allowing such games to be held in many of the country's major cities.
The Economy . Bolivia is among the poorest countries of Latin America, her population centers located on the Altiplano at an altitude which places severe restrictions on agricultural productions, the lower parts of Bolivia being covered by tropical rainforest and only thinly populated. Traditionally the backbone of Bolivia's economy is the mining industry. In 1985 Bolivia prodiced 111,000 metric tons of silver, in 1998 404,000 tons (IHS p.348). In 1985 Bolivia produced 1985 16,136 metric tons of tin, in 1998 11,308 (IHS p.349). Production of crude petrol rose from 917,000 metric tons in 1985 to 1.49 million in 1997 (IHS p.320), production of natural gas rose from 85 petajoules in 1985 to 134 petajoules in 1997 (IHS p.324).
During late military rule, prices for tin, one of Bolivia's main export products, collapsed, and the country went through a period of hyperinflation. The regimes from Paz Estenssoro to Rodriguez pursued a neoliberal policy, hoping thus to improve the country's economy and solve the problems. Inflation decreased to less than 100 % by 1987, to less than 10 % by1997 (IHS p.714).
Social History . Population estimates for Bolivia were 5.89 million in 1985, 7.41 million in 1995 (Lahmeyer) and 9.11 million in 2007.

Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)
Students' Paper : Song, Jeeun : History of Metallurgy and Mining in the Andean Region (2009)
Students' Paper : Lee, Won Jae : History of the Quechua-Speaking People, until Today (2008)





WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
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Article : Bolivia, from Wikipedia
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Th.Cl. Dawson, The South American republics (1903) vol.2 (has Bolivia section pp.235-284), IA
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Links General from LANIC
Category : Bolivia, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Bolivia, from Wikipedia
Organizations Organization of American Historians
Asociacion de Estudios Bolivianos
Society for Irish Latin American Studies
Sociedad Geografica y de Historia, Sucre
Historical Dictionaries R. Hilton, Who S Who In Latin American Part IV Bolivia Chile And Peru (1947), posted on Internet Archive
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Commanding Heights : Bolivia Timelines
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia; from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Fernando Cajias de la Vega, La ensenanza de la historia: Bolivia, 1999, in Spanish, GB
Casa Historia, Bolivia, in English
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M.M. Urcullu, Apuntes para la historia de la Revolucion del Alto-Peru, hoi Bolivia, 1855, in Spanish, GB
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Parties and Movements A. Nieves, The Indigenous Movement and the Struggle for Political Representation in Bolivia, thesis South Florida 2012
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V.M. Peralta Ruiz, El poder burocratico en la formacion del estado moderno : Bolivia, 1825-1880, thesis Quito 1992, FLACSO Ecuador
A. Tsolakis, Globalisation and the reform of the Bolivian state, 1985-2005, thesis Warwick 2009
Military Wars of Bolivia 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data
Armada Boliviana : Historia, in Spanish
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Categoria : Guerras de Bolivia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Ryan Lindsay, The Chaco War, ICE Case Studies 1997
J.R. Webber, Red October: Left-Indigenous Struggle in Bolivia, 2000-2005, thesis Toronto 2009
G. Lora, The Bolivian Revolution and the Activity of the POR, Encyclopedia of Trotskyism OnLine: Revolutionary History vol. 4 no.3 1953
Article : War of the Pacific, Wikipedia
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Category : Economy of Bolivia, from Wikipedia
Category : Enterprise Bolivia, from Economy Point
Economic History J.A. Morales et al., Bolivia's Economic Crisis (of the 1980s), 1989
P. Kramer, La industria en Bolivia (1899) in Spanish, IA
US Dept. of Commerce, Bolivia : a commercial and industrial handbook (1921), IA
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Currency & Finances Entry Bolivia, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
Historical Exchange Rate Regime of Asian Countries [!] : Bolivia, from International Economics
R. Sicotte et al., The ?scal impact of the War of the Paci?c, Cliometrica (2009) 3 pp.97-121
Institutions Resena Historica, from Bolsa Boliviana, in Spanish
Agriculture N.K. Butler, Coca Communications. Tales from the Bolivian Coca Field, thesis Adelaide 2007
Forestry F. Vallve, The impact of the rubber boom on the Bolivian Lowlands (1850-1920) , thesis Georgetown 2010
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Social History Health Bolivia, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Crime and Punishment Bolivia, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Land M.M.M. Ponce de Leon, Social Movements; Development Actors in Bolivia ? A Case Study of How 'Cocaleros' Movements Perceive their Role in Bolivian Development Processes, thesis Univ. of Agder 2010; Cocaleros are coca leaf growers
U. Durand-Ochoa, Coca, contention and identity: the political empowerment of the Cocaleros of Bolivia and Peru , thesis LSE 2012
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Ethnography Languages of Bolivia (44), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Bolivia, from Wikipedia
Bolivia : Highland Indigenous People, Lowland Indigenous People, from Minorities at Risk
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G. McCutchen McBride, The agrarian Indian communities of highland Bolivia (1921), posted on Internet Archive
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Category : Religion in Bolivia, from Wikipedia
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A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings : Bolivia, from Prolades
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Category : Provinces of Bolivia, Subdivisions of Bolivia, from Wikipedia
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History of Potosi, from Wikipedia
Sucre, from Wikipedia
History of La Paz, from Wikipedia
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Bolivia, from Airline History
Culture Bolivia, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Article Bolivia at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Bolivians, from Wikipedia
F.R. Ortiz et al., Galeria de hombres celebres de Bolivia, 1869, in Spanish, GB
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Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Article Presidents of Bolivia, from Wikipedia
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Bolivia, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassadors to Bolivia, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Bolivia, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in La Paz (Bolivien), from Wikipedia German edition
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Bolivia, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops Category : Roman Catholic Dioceses in Bolivia: Articles : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sucre, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Bolivia
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Bolivia
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Election Results from Bolivia (since 1998); from IFES Election Guide
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Official Gazettes Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Selected Newspaper Articles History of Bolivia, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Bolivia, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Worldpress.org (links)
Online Yearbooks - Bolivia Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Bolivia 1870 pp.487-490, GB, 1871, pp.487-491, IA, 1872, pp.487-491, IA, 1873, pp.480-484, IA, 1874, pp.480-484, IA, 1875, pp.480-484, IA, 1876, pp.484-488, IA, 1877, pp.490-494, IA, 1878, pp.490-494, IA, 1879, pp.490-494, IA, 1880, pp.490-494, IA, 1881, pp.490-494, IA, 1883, pp.490-494, IA, 1884, pp.520-523, IA, 1885, pp.528-532, IA, 1886, pp.540-544, IA, 1887, pp.559-564, IA, 1888, pp.561-566, IA, 1889, pp.565-570, IA, 1890, pp.385-389, IA, 1891, pp.389-393, IA, 1892, pp.395-399, IA, 1894, pp.395-399, IA, 1895, pp.395-399, IA, 1896, pp.395-399, IA, 1898, pp.394-399, IA, 1899, pp.429-434, IA, 1903, pp.474-481, IA, 1913, pp.681-687, IA, 1919, pp.704-711, IA, 1921, pp.706-713, IA
Annuario pontificio 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Bolivia
Staatskalender
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections Plusesmas, Galeria de Fotos Antiguas, Bolivia
Universal Collections
Items on Bolivia
Search Scripophily for Bolivia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Bolivia, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Bolivia
Archival Deposits Portada de Pares, Archivos de Espana
Search National Archives (UK), Bolivia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Open Society Archives (OSA), Budapest : Bolivia
National Security Archive, Electronic Briefing Book No.5 : The Death of Che Guevara
Constitutions Constitutions of Bolivia, from Political Database of the Americas
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Bolivia, from ILO, 46 docs. since 1919
Coleccion oficial de leyes, decretos, ordenes, resoluciones &c de la Republica Boliviana, serial publication, GB has several volumes; in Spanish; Coleccion oficial del ano de 1858, 1858, de los anos de 1859 y 1860, 1860, GB Codigo Mercantil Santa Cruz (1834) reprint 1859, in Spanish, GB
Codigo de procederes, Santa-Cruz, par el Rejimen de la Republica Boliviana, 1862, GB
Decreto supremo: Estableciendo en la Republica el uso de timbres o Estampillas, 1867; Supremo decreto estableciendo en la republica el uso de estampillas y timbres, 1869, GB
Ley Reglementaria de Elecciones, 1868, GB
Reglamento de elecciones de la Republica Boliviano, 1852, GB
Anotaciones a la lei principal que regla en la Republica el uso del papel sellado, 1864, GB
Lei del procedimiento criminal, 1862, GB
Proyecto de Codigo de mineria presentado al supremo gobierno en 31 de julio 1858, 1859, Gb
Codigo de enjuiciamientos militar y formulario de causas militares, 1861, GB
Ordenanza de policia de la ciudad de La Paz, 1863, GB
Treaties C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
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European Commission Treaties Office
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Bolivia, pp.721-791 in vol.5 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1976, GB
Coleccion de los tratados y convenciones celebrados por la Republica de Bolivia, vol.11869, GB
Tratado de amistand, limites, navegacion, convercio y extradicion, celebrado entre la Republica de Bolivia y el Imperio del Brasil, 1867, in Spanish, GB
Consular Reports Consular Recommendations on South American Trade 1915 U.S. consuls, Bolivia pp.9-10
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Bolivia : Apr. 18 1917, IA
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Historiography
Document Surveys The citizen's appeal to the European Parliament : Petitions 1958-1979; Other Petitions Converning Latin America : Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia in Chile pp.35-36
Document Collections Truth Commissions : Bolivia, from United States Institute of Peace
A Collection of Pamphlets On The History of Bolivia In The Second Half of The Nineteenth Century (1900), posted on Internet Archive
Archivo Boliviano : Coleccion de documentos relativos a la historia de Bolivia, durante la epoca colonial, vol.1(1872) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
The Acre territory. Documents concerning the controversy between Brazil and Bolivia over a contract made with American citizens (1902), posted on Internet Archive
Mensaje del presidente de Bolivia a las camaras constitucionales de 1833, 1833, in Spanish, GB
Documentos relativos al emprestito que propuso al gobierno de Bolivia el Senor M. Arnousd de Riviere, 1867, in Spanish, GB
Manifiesto y programa del presidente constitucional de Bolivia, a la nacion, 1858, in Spanish, Gb
Historical Maps Responsible Authority Instituto Geografico Militar, Bolivia
collections Historical Bolivia Maps, from Library of Congress Map Collection
Bolivia Maps, PCL, UTexas
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for South America, Bolivia
Wikimedia Commons : Atlas of Bolivia
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Bolivia, Modern Map : Alleged Territorioal Losses of Bolivia, Mappery
Bolivia, Contemporary Maps of Bolivia 1833 and 1856, from Boliviaweb
Bolivia and Paraguay in 1921, Mappery
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary Wartime Map of the Chaco, 1933, Mappery
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Bolivia, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, Cochabamba, Sucre, La Paz, Oruro, from Britannica 1911
Articles Bolivia, Cochabamba, Oruro, Potosi, Sucre, Paz, Chuquisaca, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Bolivia, La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, La Plata, from Catholic Encyclpedia 1907 edition
Bolivia, from New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
Economic Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : Peru und Bolivien, vol.4 1844 pp.104-109, posted by DTBSWS
Entry : Lamar, p.129 in vol.2 of J.R. McCulloch et al., A dictionary, practical, theoretical, and historical, of commerce, 1852, GB
Bolivia, pp.190-191 in I.S. Homans, A cyclopedia of commerce and commercial navigation, vol.1, 1859, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Bolivia pp.179-182
Geographical Peru and Bolivia, pp.266-279 in vol.3 of H. Murray et al., The Encyclopaedia of Geography, 1839, GB
Bolivia, pp.460-464 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
The Republic of Bolivia, pp.534-540 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
Bolivia, pp.348-353 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Bolivien, pp.663-665 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Bolivia, pp.211-213 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Bolivia, pp.460-462 in J. MacFarlane, Economic Geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnological Bolivia p.80 in R.D. Owen, The wrong of slavery, the right of emancipation, and the future of the African race in the United States, 1864, GB
Ethnographical Republique de Bolivie, pp.455-457 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical Bolivia, p.431 in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
The Backward States : Bolivia, pp.186-188 in W.W. Sweet, A History of Latin America, 1929, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues L.H. de Bonelli, Travels in Bolivia: with a tour across the Pampas to Buenos Ayres, 1854, GB
Bolivia, pp.157-161 in Ch.A. Goodrich, The Universal Traveller, 1838, GB
A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Bolivia pp.69-75
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Bolivia pp.79-99
A.S. Peck, The South American Tour - A Descriptive Guide 1916, IA; on Bolivia pp.123-154
Residence Memoirs Notioces on Bolivia, pp.163-178 in W.S.W. Ruschenberger, Three years in the Pacific, 1834, GB
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Archivo y Biblioteca Nacionales, Bolivia, nf
Archivo Nacional de Bolivia, from ArchivesWiki, stub
National Archives : Latin America, from UNESCO Archives Portal
Bolivia, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Museums Museums of Bolivia, from Bolivia Contact
Monuments
Libraries Archivo y Biblioteca Nacionales, Bolivia, nf
Libraries in Bolivia, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Bolivia Banknotes, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : Bolivia, bilingual Russian-English page; Bolivia Coins, from World Coin Gallery, from Bolivia, from ColNect, from OmniCoin
Search Coin Archives for Bolivia
Bolivia, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Bolivia Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Bolivia Stamps 1867-1899, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.267-324 in D.B. Heath, Historical Dictionary of Bolivia Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1972 [G]
Bibliography : Bolivia, from NNDB
annual bibliographies Bibliografia Boliviana; pdfs per year 2006-2011
specialist bibliographies R.U. Bryson, A Bibliography of Bolivian Paleoenvirionments
Bibliography : Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia ; Migration Bibliography : Bolivia, from Discover Nikkei (Jap. Immigration)
E. Langer, The 20th Century Latin American Revolutions : Mexico, Cuba, Bolivia and Nicaragua, Bibliography
Bibliografia : La Concepcion del Tiempo y Espacio en el Mundo Andino, Bolivia, Volvere May 2004
Bibliografia : Movimentos Indigenos en America Latina : Bolivia, Volvere July 2004
Bibliografia sobre movimientos sociales, descolonizacion e intercuturalidad 2011
Huellas de Bolivia, Bibliografia economica y social de Bolivia en el siglo XX
Biblioteca Congreso Nacional, Bibliografia Chile-Bolivia
serial publications
general bibliographies
Bolivia entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
B.F. Elson, Indian Tribes : Classification, Bibliography and Map of Present Language Distribution
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
Latin American Books
Bibliography : Andes, from Environmental History of Latin America ; Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on Bolivia Academia.edu, Documents in Bolivian History, Documents in Bolovian Studies
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Bolivia
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Cuba
Thesis Server, from Biblioteca Virtual, Sistema de Bibliotecas (Peru)
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Directory of Open Access Journals
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
On Bolivia LANIC, Academic Journals : Bolivia
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
Specific Topics Chapter XV : Tin and Tintypes in Bolivia, pp.219-234 in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
Chapter 18 : Men and Events in Bolivia, pp.389-416 in : John Gunther, Inside South America, NY : Harper & Row (1964) 1967 [G]
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Dwight B. Heath, Historical Dictionary of Bolivia, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1972 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp.1070-1071, 1944 pp.113-114, 1945 pp.110-111, 1946 pp.129-130, 1947 pp.132-133, 1948 pp.125-126, 1949 p.107, 1950 p.115, 1951 pp.112-113, 1952 pp.109-110, 1953 pp.110-111, 1954 pp.108-109, 1955 pp.169-170, 1956 p.109, 1957 pp.168-169, 1958 p.109, 1959 p.111, 1960 pp.111-112, 1961 pp.110-111, 1962 pp.97-98, 1963 pp.212-213, 1964 p.189, 1965 pp.190-191, 1966 pp.153-154, 1967 pp.175-176, 1968 pp.172-173, 1969 pp.174-175, 1970 pp.172-173, 1971 pp.167-168, 1972 pp.152-153, 1973 p.150, 1974 p.158, 1975 pp.142-143, 1976 pp.171-172, 1977 pp.174-175, 1978 pp.227-228, 1979 pp.225-226, 1980 pp.221-223, 1981 pp.220-221, 1982 pp.220-221, 1983 pp.217-219, 1984 p.214, 1985 pp.581-582, 641, 1986 pp.572, 637, 1987 pp.541, 606, 1988 pp.495, 558, 1989 pp.495, 558, 1990 pp.511-512, 574, 1991 pp.496, 558, 1992 pp.469, 558, 1993 pp.478, 567, 1994 pp.477-478, 567, 1995 pp.380-381, 567, 1996 pp.379, 567, 1997 pp.397-398, 565, 2002 pp.396-397, 562 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook 1878 pp.490-494, 1889 pp.565-570, 1895 pp.395-398, 1898 pp.394-399, 1901 pp.453-459, 1902 pp.464-471, 1905 pp.491-498, 1910 pp.651-657, 1918 pp.708-715, 1919 pp.704-711, 1924 pp.699-704, 1925 pp.709-715, 1926 pp.688-693, 1928 pp.696-702, 1929 pp.690-696, 1932 pp.695-702, 1937 pp.729-736, 1942 pp.735-742, 1943 pp.732-739, 1961-1962 pp.844-851, 1970-1971 pp.761-766, 1973-1974 pp.771-778, 1975-1976 pp.773-778, 1976-1977 pp.781-786, 1978-1979 pp.216-221, 1979-1980 pp.215-221, 1980-1981 pp.215-220, 1981-1982 pp.219-225, 1982-1983 pp.220-227, 1983-1984 pp.218-223, 1984-1985 pp.217-222, 1985-1986 pp.216-221, 1985-1986 pp.216-221, 1986-1987 pp.217-223, 1987-1988 pp.217-222, 1988-1989 pp.217-222, 1989-1990 pp.218-223, 1990-1991 pp.218-223, 1991-1992 pp.218-223, 1992-1993 pp.218-223, 1993-1994 pp.219-223, 1994-1995 pp.214-218, 1995-1996 pp.203-207, 1996-1997 pp.218-222, 1997-1998 pp.223-227, 1998-1999 pp.249-253, 2000 pp.300-305, 2001 pp.292-297, 2002 pp.306-311, 2003 pp.304-309, 2004 pp.306-311, 2005 pp.301-306, 2006 pp.296-302 [G]
Americana Annual Article : Bolivia, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.107-109, 1928 pp.96-99, 1930 pp.113-115, 1931 pp.111-113, 1932 pp.108-109, 1933 pp.98-100, 1934 pp.111-112, 1935 pp.101-103, 1936 pp.90-92, 1937 pp.80-81, 1938 pp.82-83, 1939 pp.88-89, 1940 pp.74-77, 1943 pp.102-104, 1944 pp.95-97, 1945 pp.97-99, 1946 pp.103-105, 1947 pp.84-86, 1957 pp.91-92, 1958 pp.89-91, 1959 pp.87-88, 1960 pp.87-89, 1961 pp.82-84, 1962 pp.80-82, 1963 pp.93-94, 1964 pp.93-95, 1965 pp.122-123, 1966 pp.118-119, 1967 pp.122-123, 1968 p.114, 1969 p.126, 1970 pp.129-130, 1971 p.160, 1972 pp.161-162, 396, 1973 p.155, 1974 pp.143-144, 1975 p.151, 1976 p.141, 1977 p.133, 1978 p.128, 1979 p.132, 1980 pp.141-142, 1981 p.159, 1983 p.142, 1984 p.147, 1985 p.146, 1986 p.144, 1987 pp.147-148, 1988 p.152, 1989 pp.149-150, 1990 p.147, 1992 p.159, 1993 p.153, 1994 p.153, 1995 p.149 [G]
Other Article : Bolivia, in : The International Year Book 1898 pp.110-111, 1899 pp.119-121, 1900 pp.128-131 [G]
Article : Bolivia, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.102-103, 1908 pp.94-95, 1909 pp.97-98, 1910 pp.103-104, 1913 pp.105-107, 1914 pp.104-105, 1916 pp.88-90, 1917 pp.91-93, 1918 pp.84-86, 1919 pp.103-104, 1920 pp.91-92, 1921 pp.89-90, 1922 pp.90-91, 1923 pp.92-94, 1924 pp.94-95, 1925 pp.93-94, 1926 pp.100-102, 1928 pp.99-101, 1929 pp.103-106, 1930 pp.99-102, 1931 pp.107-109, 1932 pp.100-103, 1933 pp.97-100, 1934 pp.89-92, 1935 pp.88-92, 1938 pp.95-98, 1939 pp.81-84, Events of 1940 pp.78-81, 1941 pp.68-72, 1942 pp.80-83, 1943 pp.68-72, 1944 pp.70-73, 1945 pp.69-72 [G]
Article : Bolivia, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.90-93, 1894 p.78 [G]