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Literature on the History of South America
Argentina Uruguay
First posted on June 17th 2002, last revised on November 9th 2009

History of Brazil : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Brazil 1500-1549
The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) allocated a segment of eastern South America, the nucleus of the state of Brazil, to Portugal. However, both the Spanish and the Portuguese were unaware of the existence of South America in 1494, and when navigators sailing in the employ of Spain discovered a stretch of Brazilian coast in 1498, and realized that he was in Portuguese territory, he did not communicate his discovery to the Portuguese. Portuguese discovered Brazil by accident by an expedition under the command of Pedro Alvares Cabral in 1500, which was destined for India. The discovery was everything but promising, most of the land covered by rainforest, no traces of an advanced civilization, no trading partner. What the Portuguese brought home from Brazil was parrots, monkeys, sloths and brazilwood. Cabral named the future Brazil 'Island of the True Cross'.
A monopoly for trade with the Brazilian coast was given to Fernao de Noronha (1502), a new christian (converted Jew; father-in-law of P.A. Cabral); the main product Noronha imported was brazilwood, used to produce a red dye; it was to give the colony her name.
In this early stage, the Portuguese visited Brazil, collected brazilwood and returned to Portugal. French navigators did so, too; in order to maintain her claim on the territory, established by the Treaty of Tordesillas, Portugal needed to establish permanent settlements and fortifications.
Only in 1532 the first attempt was made to colonize the country. An expedition headed by Martim Afonso de Sousa (1530-1533) was sent; the city of Sao Vicente founded in 1532. Pernambuco was founded 1535, Olinda in 1538.
Brazil (or the prospect of it) was partitioned, by King Joao III., in 15 captaincies. These captaincies represented a combination of feudal fiefs (some of their holders were noblemen) and commercial leases. They were regarded hereditary, and they were expected to pay regular tribute. The captaincies were huge in size, bigger than any noble fiefs back home in Portugal. At the time they were granted, they consisted of pristine jungle; it was up to the holders to cultivate the land.
Among the early immigrants to Brazil were numerous New Christians (converted Jews), fleeing the pressure exerted by the inquisition; Portuguese Jews and New Christians formed the majority of the population of early Salvador de Bahia and of Pernambuco (Recife). From 1535, Portugal forced unwanted elements - mainly New Christians (in the terminology of the time often refered to as Jews), but also Gypsies, to emigrate to Brazil.
Early settlers found themselves isolated; there was only sporadic contact with Portugal and hardly any with neighbouring captaincies. Exposed to an unfamiliar tropical climate, with only a barter trade with local Amerindians (cannibals), the early colonists lacked many basic supplies, suffered from disease. Many longed to return to their native Portugal. The lack of priests and of European women may also have contributed to widespread depression.
Brazil's emerging economy was based on plantation monoculture (sugar), with a slave workforce (at first Amerindians, later imported African slaves). The European settlers adopted the production of manioc from the Amerindians; manoc became staple food.
The captaincies are regarded a failure; most of them did not manage to become economically profitable. They also did not attract sufficient numbers of immigrants; in those days, Portugal's colonial Empire in India seemed more profitable and promising.
The Portuguese settlers attempted to procure a slave labour force from among the native Amerindians, mostly from Tupi tribes. The latter successfully resisted these attempts; few of the captaincies turned profitable, some suffered retaliatory srikes of the Tupi. If these events had a lasting effect, it was the gradual destruction of the native civilization, a village at a time.
The Portuguese crown, alarmed by the Spanish find of silver at Potosi (1545) rethought its Brazil policy and began a policy of reacquisition of captaincies.

Brazil 1549-1630
In 1549, the Portuguese crown took the administration of Brazil in its own hands, dispatching the first royal governor, Tome de Sousa. The city of Salvador de Bahia was founded, the capital of the colony (until 1763) and the seat of a newly established Diocesis in 1552.
The Portuguese earlier had established sugar plantations on Madeira. Now sugar cane was introduced in Brazil. Soon, African slaves were imported to work the labour-intensive plantations. Another crop grown on plantations was tobacco.
The colony experienced low-scale border wars with the Amerindian tribes. Early attempts to convert the Amerindians to christianity and convince them to give up polygamy and cannibalism met with little success; only the Jesuits (since 1549) did make progress.
Brazil's export-oriented plantation economy growing, found the market of Lisbon too limited; Flanders was a much more attractive market. In 1571, King Sebastiao made Brazilian trade with non-Protuguese ships illegal. With the settlement in Brazil becoming economically profitable, immigration intensified and further settlements along the coast were founded, such as Cabo Frio 1615, Belem 1616. The quest for rain forest products such as Brazilwood and the lack of fertile soil on the coast (all had been handed out) lead to a movement penetrating inland.
A French settlement at Guanabara Bay, established in 1555 and inhabited by both Catholics and Huguenots, was taken in 1567 (an earlier expedition in 1560 had failed) by an expedition lead by Mem de Sa, who founded Rio de Janeiro that year. Sao Paulo had been founded by Jesuits in 1554.
An attempt in 1570 by Jesuit officials, with royal support, to banish the enslavement of Amerindians was widely ignored, and resulted in the settlers becoming suspicious of the Jesuits, a suspicion which would last for centuries. While no branch of the Inquisition was established in Brazil, in 1580 the Bishop of Bahia was given inquisitorial powers.
In 1580, Portugal was united with Spain in Dynastic Union. Although the country remained to have a separate administration and it's colonial empire remained Portuguese, the event was to hamper the development of the colonies and draw them into the European wars of the Habsburg Dynasty. Especially, the (indirect) trade with Flanders, Europe's most important market, suffered.
In 1600, Brazil's population was estimated at 57,000, of whom 25,000 whites, 18,000 Amerindians and 14,000 negroes (Worcester p.33).
A second attempt by the French to settle in Guanabara Bay (near Rio) 1612-1615 was defeated.
Brazil became a diversified colony. The region stretching from Salvador de Bahia to Pernambuco was sugar plantation country; the sugar plantations, for a number of reasons, were close to the coast; the society was Portuguese in language and, to a certain degree, in lifestyle, the centers of society urban in outlook. A number of other coastal settlements, such as Rio de Janeiro, retained their Portuguese character, despite lacking the prosperity provided by the sugar plantations. Then there was Sao Paulo, the center of a cattle herding society. The business was not profitable enough to allow for the import of African slaves; the Paulista society drew more on the (usually forced) employment of Amerindians as vaqueiros (Brazilian cowboys); Portuguese settlers often married Amerindian women. It was the Paulistas which opened up Brazil's interior, the Paulista bandeirantes were cattle herders, slave raiders and traders, discoverers, pioneers and prospectors. Their contact to the Portuguese motherland was limited; the language of Paulista society, of the Brazilian interior was Lingua Geral, an adaptation of the Tupi language; it was this language the Jesuits used to teach the Amerindians christianity.

Dutch Brazil 1624-1661
By 1609 the Dutch Republic, in a protracted war against Spain (to which Portugal was attached in dynastic union) had established her independence. Amsterdam now had taken over from Antwerpen the function of being Europe's most thriving market, and Dutch ships were superior to the Spanish and Portuguese, both faster and better gunned.
Early in the 17th century the war for independence turned into a colonial war, in which the Dutch took Portugal's most profitable colonies. In 1600 they established a first, temporary foothold on the (South) American continent, in the Amazon Delta. After the 12-year truce with Spain expired in 1621, Brazil now attracted Dutch interest. The WIC took Salvador de Bahia (1624, lost again 1625), Pernambuco (1630), and the entire northeastern coast of Brazil - sugar and tobacco plantation country. The Portuguese held on to Salvador de Bahia, and to the Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo region, which the Dutch regarded not worth taking. In those days, the Dutch fleet was able to sweep the world's oceans, if they wanted to. A Dutch attempt to retake Salvador de Bahia in 1631 failed.
Dutch Brazil, since 1637, was administrated by Johan Maurits van Nassau. He rebuilt Recife and fortified Olinda; under him Recife expanded from 300 houses to 2,000. In 1636, the Kahal Sur Synagogue was built in Recife (Pernambuco). Yet it turned out that the Brazilian enterprise was regarded too costly, and Johan Maurits was recalled (1643; he departed in 1644). The WIC now was unwilling to further invest in Brazil. In 1640, Portugal finally succeeded in reestablishing its independence, under the Bragança dynasty. But it was mainly due to the resistance of Portuguese settlers in Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro, aided by the Portuguese from Angola (again Portuguese since 1648), that the Portuguese began the reconquest of the northeast. When the Dutch fleet was occupied by the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654), Recife, the center of Dutch Brazil fell (1654), after a siege lasting for 9 years. In 1661 the Dutch ceded Dutch Brazil to Portugal.

Portuguese Brazil 1624-1661
In 1621, the colony of Maranhao (with parts of Ceara, Piaui) was separated from Brazil. In 1639, the Paulistas expelled the Jesuits from the territory they controlled; in 1661 the Jesuits were to be expelled from Maranhao. Jesuit priest Antonio Vieira, from 1641 onward, became the soul of the Portuguese campaign to liberate Brazil from the Dutch. A ten-year truce was signed by the Dutch Republic and Portugal in 1641. It had caused the Dutch to reduce their garrison; when the Portuguese in 1645 intensified their guerilla war against the Dutch, the latter lacked both soldiers and an experienced military leader. The Portuguese founded the Brazil Company, to take over the W.I.C. possessions and operations in Brazil.

In 1649, the General Brazilian Trading Company was founded, equipped with a monopoly for the Brazil trade, but taking on the task of securing the Brazil trade by arming warships to protect the merchant ships from pirates (the Dutch held on to Recife until 1654, and the French had tried to settle at Guanabara bay twice). Portugal itself undermined the company's monopoly, however, by granting permission to the Dutch and English to directly trade with Brazil. The company more and more turned into an instrument of the Portuguese government.
In the mid 1600s, runaway slaves founded maroon communitis in the interior, which were at war with the colonies of Brazil and Maranhao. Palmares, the largest maroon community, was only destroyed by Paulistas in the 1690es.
Toward the end of the century, the Portuguese crown looked at Brazil as a possible source for new revenue. She encouraged the search for mineral wealth, especially gold and silver; it reduced the large-size land grants previously handed out, disposing over the confiscated land. In 1699, all lands not under cultivation were declared forfeit to the crown. In 1707, the Inquisition was permitted to confiscate the property of Marranos (New Christians, descendants of Jews) if they were found to continuously hold Jewish faith and practice Jewish rites; this resulted in large-scale persecution. Arrested victims were transported to Portugal for trial.
In 1676, the Diocesis of Salvador was elevated to the rank of an Archdiocesis, suffragan dioceses established at Olinda, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Luis do Maranhao that year; in 1719, another diocesis was erected at Belem do Para.
Recife (Pernambuco) was the site of the peculiar Mascate War; the city of Recife (where merchants dominated) had obtained the status of a cabildo (city) which entitled her to form a senate of her own. The neighbouring city of Olinda, the senate of which was dominated by plantation owners (indebted to the merchants of Recife) were unwilling to accept this change and proceeded to occupy Recife; the Portuguese crown failed to enforce her authority and accepted the fait d'accompli.
In 1712, Rio de Janeiro was briefly occupied by the French, regained by the payment of ransom. In 1737, the capital of Maranhao was moved from Sao Luis to Belem.
The city of Rio Grande do Sul was founded in 1737, Porto Alegre in 1740.
In 1727, Francisco de Melo Palheta introduced coffee to Brazil, obtained from French Guiana. In the 1760es, coffee began to become a major plantation crop, soon to cover a considerable share in Brazil's exports, and again an incentive for the import of more African slaves. During the 18th century, the penetration of the vast rain forest region intensified. The Treaty of Tordesillas by now was history, the Portuguese penetrating beyond the limit established by it, and clashing with the Spanish in Uruguay (1680/1724).
Among the incentives for forest penetration was the quest for gold, silver and other valuable ores. In 1693, gold was found, in 1695 the first coins were minted in Brazil. In 1721 diamonds were found, both in the hinterland of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; mining became a major industry in the now separate inland province of Minas Gerais (est. 1721), where the city of Vila Rica (later renamed Ouro Preto) in 1750 reached a population of 100.000 (a boomtown, by 1804 the population had decreased to 7.000). Another reason for the revision of the border was the quest for Amerindians, prospective slaves, which were hunted by the Paulistas (from Sao Paulo). Here, Portuguese Brazil came in conflict with the Jesuit missions which offered protection to the Guarani and other Amerindians.

In the 1760es, coffee began to become a major plantation crop, soon to cover a considerable share in Brazil's exports, and again an incentive for the import of more African slaves. During the 18th century, the penetration of the vast rain forest region intensified. The Treaty of Tordesillas by now was history, the Portuguese penetrating beyond the limit established by it, and clashing with the Spanish in Uruguay (1680/1724). In 1777 the Treaty of San Ildefonso redrew the line of demarcation, in favour of the Portuguese. In 1752-1774, a separate currency was issued for Minas Gerais. From 1799, counterfeit coin production caused inflation.
The quest for Indios, prospective slaves, which were hunted by the Paulistas (from Sao Paulo), had been the cause of conflict between Portuguese Brazil and the Spanish administration of La Plata. Here, Portuguese Brazil came in conflict with the Jesuit missions, on Spanish territory and under the protection of the Catholic Church, which offered protection to the Guarani and other Amerindians.
Minister Jose de Carvalo e Melo (since 1770 Marquis de Pombal) was Portugal's strongman 1750-1777. He was intent on implementing political reforms, to modernize her economy. He was the driving force behind Portuguese attempts to have Brazil's border redrawn; he curtailed the power of the Inquisition by decreeing that every sentence by the Inquisition required royal confirmation. He abolished the legal discrimination against new christians and against Jews (1773). He terminated Jesuit control over the Amerindian villages (1755) and ordered the education of the Amerindians be conducted in Portuguese; according to Worcester (p.47), it was Pombal who introduced Portuguese as lingua franca in Brazil, replacing Tupi Guarani. In mercantilist spirit, monopolies were granted; the Companha Grao Para e Maranhao obtained a monopoly on trade with Maranhao and Para, the Real Companha dos Vinhos do Alto Douro a monopoly on the import of wine to Brazil.
In 1759 the Jesuits were expelled from Portuguese possessions, in 1767 from the Viceroyalty of La Plata (the missions had been under the protection of Spain) and the missions were destroyed.
In 1763, the capital of Portuguese Brazil was moved from Salvador (Bahia) to Rio de Janeiro. Rio had grown in importance as main export harbour for the ores/minerals found in Minas Gerais. In 1763, Brazil was elevated to the status of a viceroyalty. In 1774, Maranhao was reannexed into Brazil.
The first Masonic lodge was established in Rio de Janeiro in 1800.

In 1807-1808, Portugal seemed threatened by French occupation. In 1808 the royal family embarked on a ship and moved to Brazil, residing until 1822 in Rio de Janeiro.
The geopolitical situation required adjustments; hitherto, only trade with the motherland Portugal (in the hands of certain companies holding monopolies) was legitimate. Now, Brazil's ports were opened to trading ships of all nations. Earlier decrees banning the manufacture of goods in Brazil were revoked. Factories emerged, a royal museum, a naval academy, a botanical garden were established; Brazil's first newspaper published, the Bank of Brazil was founded, the ban on the import of foreign books lifted. Dom Joao elevated the status of Brazil from that of a colony to that of an equal kingdom, in dynastic union with Portugal.
Brazil imported numerous goods from Britain; an Anglo-Portuguese commercial treaty granted British imports privileged treatment. King Dom Joao continued the practice of exclusively appointing Portuguese (peninsulares) to positions in the higher administration. In 1811 he sent troops into Banda Oriental (Uruguay); they were recalled in 1812; in 1816-1817 another expedition force was sent into Banda Oriental, the region formally annexed in 1821.
The first Masonic lodge had been established in Rio de Janeiro in 1800, one in Recife in 1814. In 1817 a republican revolt, organized by Masons, took place in Recife (Pernambuco); it was suppressed. In 1821, Dom Joao embarked, returning to Portugal. At the request of the Brazilians, he left his son and heir, Dom Pedro, behind.

Empire of Brazil, 1822-1831
Independence : Im April 1821, Dom Joao departed for Portugal, leaving behind as regent his son, Dom Pedro. As regent, Dom Pedro implemented a number of decisions without consulting the government in Portugal. In Brazil, there were three factions - a radical faction desiring independence and republic, a moderate faction desiring the peaceful accomplishment of autonomy or, if necessary, independence, and regiments of the Portuguese army loyal to Portugal.
When the General Cortes in Portugal convened in 1821, it turned out to be hostile to the Brazilian delegates; the Cortes aimed at undoing a number of reforms which had been implemented by the royal administration while it resided in Rio de Janeiro. Moderate politician Jose Bonifacio de Andrade de Silva now was convinced that there was no alternative to independence; Dom Pedro approved of the idea of a constitutional monarchy. Dom Pedro went on a charm offensive and visited Minas Gerais and won over many in the heartland of the radicals (Sept. 1822). Also in Sept. 1822, Brazilian inependence was proclaimed.
Constitution - Establishment of an Empire : On Dec. 1st 1822, Dom Pedro was crowned Emperor of Brazil. In May 1823 elections were held for a constituent and legislative assembly; yet Dom Pedro informed them that he planned to approve their decisions only if he felt like it; his policies caused the Andrade ministry to resign.
Instead of signing the constitution the assembly had deliberated, Dom Pedro granted his own version of a constitution to the nation (1824), based on the French constitution of 1816. Roman Catholicism was official religion, other faiths tolerated; suffrage limited, civil rights guaranteed. The Emperor reserved his right to appoint provincial presidents, bishops. The constitution was to remain valid until 1889.
Foreign Policy : In 1811 Brazil became entangled in the struggle for Uruguayan independence; Brazil annexed Uruguay in 1821, but the Brazilians were defeated in the Battle of Itazuingo in 1827, a battle which established Uruguayan independence.
Most important were relations with Portugal. Portugal and Brazil pursued a confrontation course since 1821; the garrisons loyal to Portugal had ben ousted in a naval campaign in 1823-1824; the European Powers favoured a negotiated solution of the problem. Canning (Britain) and Metternich (Austria) mediated. In 1825 Dom Pedro signed a treaty with Portugal, in which the latter recognized Brazilian independence, while Brazil agreed to take over part of Portugal's national debt and pay for the royal palaces etc. in Rio de Janeiro. This act was greeted with consternation and outrage in Brazil, when it became public.
In 1826, King Dom Joao of Portugal died. The opportunity presented itself for Dom Pedro to succeed his father and establish a dynastic union of both nations; the Portuguese would desire their king to reside in Lisbon, the Brazilians in Rio. Realizing that a move to Lisbon would risk his throne in Brazil, Dom Pedro decided to pass on the opportunity and to stay in Brazil.
Once diplomatic relations were established with Portugal, other countries followed suit. Britain, the world's leading industrial nation and merchant power, and Brazil signed a trade treaty in 1827; Brazil and France had concluded one in 1826. Brazil depended on the goodwill of German and Italian states for the shipments of immigrants the country desired. Diplomatic relations with the U.S. had been established in 1824.
Domestic Policy; Liberal Opposition : Dom Pedro achieved the independence from Portugal which public opinion in Brazil had craved for; however he disappointed hopes and expectations regarding a constitutional monarchy in which parliament and the cabinet were to rule. Dom Pedro's actions - him signing a treaty with Portugal containing stipulations such as Brazil taking on Portugal's debt to Britain, as well as his adulterous relation with Domitila de Castro, alienated many.
In 1824, Pernambuco, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte and Ceara seceded from Brazil, creating the Confederation of Equador, which established a provisorical republican administration. Shortly after, it was subdued by the Brazilian navy, commanded by Thomas Cochrane.
The war with Argentina over Uruguay was unpopular in Brazil; matters such as the revolt of Irish and German mercenaries, who had been badly treated further increased the opposition to Dom Pedro's government. When Revolution erupted in France, in 1830, many Brazilians sympathized with the revolutionaries. Dom Pedro again undertook a charm offensive into the heartland of the opposition, Minas Gerais (1831). However, he was met with a cool reception. Meanwhile the situation in Rio de Janeiro became critical. Believing the situation to be out of control and a revolution to be imminent, Dom Pedro abdicated and returned to Portugal (1831).
Demography : In the 1820es, the Brazilian administration encouraged immigration, from Germany, Italy and other countries. Dom Pedro corresponded with German princes, offering to take theirv entire prison population (as in the case of Mecklenburg-Schwerin), indicating how desperate the desire for immigrants was. As the immigrants had to travel by sailboat, the passage was lengthy, risky and uncomfortable. Many of the immigrants settled in Brazil's south, were the climate was less tropical.
A good number of existing settlements were granted the status of cities.
The Economy : The administration of Brazil was constantly in financial difficulties; having taken on financial obligations in the treaty with Portugal did not help; the war with Argentina over Uruguay was costly, so was the Imperial household.
In the 1820es, coffee plantation was introduced to Sao Paulo Province.

Empire of Brazil, 1831-1840
Dom Pedro II. : When Pedro I. abdicated and departed for Portugal in 1831, he was merely 33 years old. He left behind his son, Dom Pedro II., aged 6. For the following decade, a regency was necessary, until the young Emperor came of age. As there was no adult member of the royal family present to take the role, the Assembly was to elect regents for a term of three years. The constitutional amendment of 1834 changed it to one regent in office for 4 years.
Administration : From April to June 1831, and from June 1831 to 1835, Brazil was governed by three member regencies; from 1835 to 1840 by single regents. The three member regencies were Moderados, appointed by the Brazilian Assembly; the Exaltados (Republicans) were regarded by the Moderados as incapable of governing. The Assembly was bicameral, consisting of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputees, the first dominated by the Moderados, the second by the Chamber of Deputees, dominated by the Exaltados; as the latter were excluded from administration by the former, the stage for confrontation was set. In 1832 a Republican coup failed, but the Exaltados in 1834 succeeded in amending the constitution, which reduced the number of regents and limited their term of office to 4 years.
Domestic Policy : In 1834 restrictions against the break-up of large estates were abolished, primary and secondary education was declared a responsibility of the provinces.
The establishment of law and order was a major priority for any Brazilian administration of the era. The armed forces lacked discipline, demonstrations out of control were frequent (Rio 1831, 1832).
Regent Diogo Antonio Feijo (1835-1837) ruled in disregard of the General Assembly (Autoritarianism), entered on a confrontation course with the Pope, attempting to abolish celibacy in Brazil. He founded the Liberal Party, consisting of elements of the Moderados and Exaltados. His opponents, lead by Vasconcelos, established the Conservative Party; the conservatives were for a centralist state, the liberals and the remaining exaltados for federalism. In 1840, Vasconcelos won a major victory, seeing his interpretation of the constitutional amendment as a temporary one approved by parliament. Emperor Pedro II. was declared of age.
In 1835 Rio Grande do Sul broke away, declaring independence in 1836. The War of the Tatters (Guerra dos Farrapos) would be fought 1835-1845); in 1839 the Rio Grandensians occupied Santa Catarina and declared her independence as well. The war gained additional fame due to the participation of maverick Giuseppe Garibaldi on the side of the rebels. Other regional rebellions included the Revolta dos Males (Bahia 1835), the Sabinada (Bahia 1837-1838), the Cabagenem (Para 1835-1837), the Balaiada Rebellion (Maranhao 1838-1841) and others.
The Economy : The necessity to fight numerous rebellions, most notably the Rio Grandensian secession, proved a financial strain on the young Empire. Meanwhile, immigration continued; the coffee growing plantation economy of Sao Paulo expanded.
As many counterfeit coins were in circulation, in 1834/1835 a currency reform as introduced - new coins harder to counterfeit.
While Britain was pressing for the abolition of slave trade, the growing plantation economy in Brazil actually resulted in rising figures of imported African slaves.
Foreign Policy : relations with Uruguay were strained because of the latter's support of the Rio Grandensian secession.
Britain was pressing for legislation abolishing the slave trade. Relations with the Papal State were strained during the Feijo Regency.

Empire of Brazil, 1840-1889
Government : In 1840, Pedro II. was declared of age; in 1841 he was crowned Emperor. He appointed conservative cabinets, from 1844 to 1848 liberal cabinets. In 1862 the Progressive Party was founded; progressive cabinets ruled 1863-1868, followed by conservatives 1868-1878 and by liberals 1878-1885, when the conservatives again took over
Domestic Policy : the Liberals,upset about Conservative cabinets being appointed, organized rebellions in Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo, which were suppressed. In 1840 the secessionist Republic of Santa Catarina had been terminated, in 1845 Rio Grande do Sul's era as an independent state was brought to an end. In 1848 Pernambuco became the center of the Praieira Revolution, inspired by events in France; it was suppressed in 1850.
The major political issue of the 1860es to 1880es was slavery; while Dom Pedro II. and many politicians were convinced that the institution weas outdated, the Brazilian economy was heavily dependent on the institution and progress was slow (see under economy).
Foreign Policy : Separatist tendencies existed in Brazil, too; in 1836-1842, Rio Grande do Sul fought a war for independence, in which Italian maverick Giuseppe Garibaldi was engaged. The attempt failed, Brazilian unity was preserved.
In 1851, Brazilian troops interfered in the Argentine Civil War, contributing to ousting the tyrant of Buenos Aires, Juan Manuel de Rosas. In 1854 the Uruguayan president requested Brazilian troops to help end the civil war in that country; they were to stay for years. In 1864 Atanasio Cruz Aguirre seized power in Uruguay; Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul was affected) presented him with an ultimatum. Paraguay supported Aguirre; the affair developed into the War of the Triple Alliance; Aguirre was toppled in Uruguay, and Paraguay fought Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina simultaneously, bringing state and nation to the verge of extinction. The allies had a number of reasons to fight the war with such severity - the desire to partition Paraguay, the firm intention to see Paraguay's dictator resign, and to terminate the Paraguayan social model.
The Economy : In 1846, a currency reform introduced the Milreis as the new monetary unit of Brazil. In 1854 the first railway in Brazil was built. The war against Paraguay 1865-1870 was costly in terms of money as well as lives.
Brazil adhered to slavery, outlawing the import of African slaves only in 1850. However, African slaves continued to be smuggled into the country, at first at an accelerating rate. Now, slave breeding farms were established to supply the continuing demand. In 1871 a law was passed granting liberty to children born to slaves after that date. In 1880 the Brazilian Abolitionist Society was founded; in 1885 a law was passed granting liberty to all slaves over 60 years of age.
In the latter half of the 19th century, the demand for Brazilian rubber increased, which was won from trees growing wild in the Amazon region. Brazil forbade the export of rubber trees and seeds, and for a number of years had a virtual monopoly on rubber, until rubber seeds were smuggled out in 1876, and rubber plantations were set up in the Straits Settlements (modern Malaysia).
Demography : immigration continued and accelerated, steamship technology allowing for the transit to be conducted in shorter time, and larger numbers of people to be transported.
The southern states of Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro) profited most from immigration; in 1850, German immigrants founded the city of Blumenau, in the years 1875 following large numbers of Italian immigrants arrived in Rio Grande do Sul.

United States of Brazil, 1889-1914
The Revolution : In 1889, the Brazilian military staged a coup d'etat, dethroning Pedro II. and ending the monarchy. Brazil was proclaimed a republic, and the institution of slavery was abolished, the separation of church and state proclaimed. The new republic was referred to as the United States of Brazil; provinces had become states.
Political Groupings : At the time of the revolution there were two major political forces in Brazil, the Liberals and the Positivists. The Escola Militar (Military Academy) was identified as the origin of positivist thought; positivists believed in a strong central authority; it had been military officers inspired by positivism which had implemented the revolution, the very liberal principles of emancipation of the slaves and of separation of church and state. The Brazilian army was dominated by men from the southernmost Brazilian state, Rio Grande do Sul. The Liberals or Federalists had been associated with the now defunct Empire; the attempts of Presidents Deodoro de Fonseca and Floriano Peixoto to establish a strong central authority failed, the Federalists or Republicans, among whom the Paulistas formed the most influential group, prevailed.
Brazilian political parties developed on state level; here interest groups managed to control politics, the so-called oligarchies, coffee growers being the main lobby in Sao Paulo, mining and the dairy industry in Minas Gerais, cattle and mining in Rio Grande do Sul, the three economically and politically most important states of the federation. Presidents Prudente de Moraes Barros (1894-1898), Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales (1898-1902) and Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves (1902-1906) were all Paulista Republicans; from then onward Republicans from Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais alternated in office.
Deodoro de Fonseca, a career military officer, had ruled in authoritarian style. Facing an ever-growing opposition, the refusal of parts of the army to obey orders and a potential coup, he resigned in 1891. His opponent and successor Floriano Peixoto ruled in dictatorial style. Rio Grande do Sul experienced a civil war (1892-1893), facing Floriano's supporters and enemies against each other; in 1893 the navy decided to impose a blockade on Rio de Janeiro in order to force Floriano to resign; international forces prevented the blockade to be imposed. The naval officers involved in the blockade, in search for asylum, entered Portuguese vessels and were transported to Argentina.
Floriano was succeeded in 1894 by an elected successor, Prudente de Moraes Barrios. He had to deal with the Canudo Rebellion in the impoverished state of Bahia - bandits gathering around a mystical figure. With Prudente began a series of democratically elected presidents; the coups ceased, rebellions in the provinces became less frequent; Brazil entered an era of political stability, or so it seemed. Only a small elite controlled political power, in the states as well as on federal level. Corruption was notorious. The election of Hermes de Fonseca in 1910 brought political stability to an end; anti-Fonseca coups in several provinces of the north, political unrest in Ceara and the Contestado conflict in area disputed by Parana and Santa Catarina followed.
The Economy : Immediate after the revolution of 1889, the central authority made use of her privilege to print money; during the 1890es, Brazil had an oversupply of capital. The country's leading export product was Coffee, mainly grown in the states of the south, most of all in Sao Paulo. Coffee exports accounted for more than 60 % of Brazil's exports. Decreasing coffee prices in 1897 resulted in a crisis; Brazil was unable to pay her international debts and had to come to an arrangement with her creditor banks. The state government of Sao Paulo undertook steps to raise the coffee price.
Brazil's textile industry grew; the cultivation of cotton was extended.
The export of rubber, tapped from wild trees growing in the Amazon jungle, continued to boom. The city of Manaus, located on the middle Amazon, founded in 1669, suddenly became wealthy. The rubber boom ended suddenly during the Hermes presidency, as cheaper rubber from the Malayan plantations replaced Brazil's rubber on world markets.
Foreign Policy : The revolution meant a shift in Brazil's foreign policy, which hitherto had focussed on Great Britain, and now turned to the United States as her major partner. Relations with Argentina remained sensitive.
The economic importance of rubber lead to intensified conflicts over rain forest territory. The border to Bolivia had been fixed in a treaty of 1867. In 1899, a political adventurer had declared Bolivia's northern rain forest region of Avre an independent free state and annexed adjacent Peruvian territory. In 1903, Brazil, Peru and Bolivia signed the Treaty of Petropolis, according to which most of Acre was allocated to Brazil, which paid a financial compensation to Bolivia. Similarily, the borders to French Guiana (1897), Colombia (1904/07), Venezuela (1905) were fixed by treaty.
Society : In 1897 the city of Belo Horizonte was founded. Cities such as Rio de Janeiro (688,000 inhabitants in 1900) and Sao Paulo (239,000 inh. in 1900) experienced rapid growth. Brazil saw continuing immigration - 2,724,000 immigrants between 1887 and 1914 - and clearly was the most populated country in South America. The largest groups of immigrants were Italians, Portuguese and Spaniards; late in the 19th century, they were joined by Poles, Russians, then Syrians and Lebanese. Japanese immigrants began to arrive in 1908. More than half of these immigrants settled in the state of Sao Paulo.
In the years 1903 to 1906 campaigns against yellow fever and smallpox were undertaken, drastically reducing the mortality figures attributed to these diseases.

Early in World War I, Brazil pursued a policy of neutrality. At first, Brazilian exports declined, but then considerably increased as the Allies' demands increased.
In 1915, Jose Gomes Pinheiro Machado, influential conservative politician from Rio Grande do Sul and strongman behind the Hermes presidency (1910-1914), was assassinated.
Brazil joined the Entente late in World War I (1917). The country did not dispatch combat troops.
During World War I, Brazil's rubber exports lost out to the competition from Malaya; Asian rubber claimed 68 % of the world market in 1915, up from just over 13 % in 1910.

Foreign Policy : Brazil became a founding member of the League of Nations in 1920, but withdrew in 1926.
The Economy : The Brazilian industry developed, a steel plant with Belgian investment in Minas Gerais (1924), a cement factory in Sao Paulo (1926) were established. Refrigeration technology was introduced, a great improvement for Brazil's cattle industry (centered on Rio Grande do Sul). Attempts to establish rubber plantations in Brazil (so successful in Malaya and on Sumatra) failed. Brazil had significant foreign debts, the largest of any Latin American country.
The year 1930 saw a sharp fall in prices for Brazil's leading exports, most notably that for coffee; the Great Depression had an impact on Brazil.
Political Groupings : While the oligarchies of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais continued to aarange presidencies alternating between candidates from these two states (the "milk and coffee arrangement") the growing urban elite sought to reform Brazilian democracy, to establish clean elections. They were joined in their opposition by the representatives of Rio Grande do Sul, who felt excluded by the Paulista-Mineiro clique.
A revolt of military officers in July 1922 marks the beginning of a series of events which is seen as indicators of dissatisfaction with the 'Old Republic', which came to an end in 1930. President Arturo da Silva Bernandes (1922-1926) lacked popularity. In 1924 further military rebellions occurred, they temporarily took control of Sao Paulo. The rebels remained in armed opposition to the government until 1926. The rebels criticized the republic for its oligarchic structure - a literacy clause excluded the vast majority of Brazilians from the voting process, and a caste of corrupt politicos was in control.
When President Washington L. Pereira de Souza (1926-1930) in 1930 failed to stick to the agreement and named another Paulista his candidate for the presidency (it was the Mineiro's turn), the Mineiros withdrew their support. The same year Getulio Vargas, Governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, took over in a coup d'etat.
In 1922, the Brazilian Communist Party was founded.

In 1930 Getulio Vargas seized power in a coup d'etat. He dissolved assembly and senate, terminating the Old Republic. He appointed a cabinet of able ministers and integrated regional militias into the regular army.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929 lead to an immediate, drastic fall of coffee prices. Export revenues decreases rapidly; unemployment rose; the Brazilian currency, overall, remained remarkably stable throughout the Vargas administration. In order to stabilize coffee prices, the Vargas administration bought up part of the harvest and destroyed it, a policy discontinued only in 1944.
On October 12th 1931, the statue of Christ the Redeemer, overlooking the port of Rio de Janeiro, was unveiled. Vargas improved relations with the Catholic church; religious education was introduced in state schools (1931). The Vargas administration passed laws regulating trade unions, to limit the influence of leftist groups. She also promoted the development of higher education; the University of Sao Paulo was founded in 1934, the University of the Federal District (Rio) in 1935. Vargas increased the defense budget.
The Sao Paulo Revolt July-October 1932 failed. A National Constituent Assemby was convened in May 1933, a new constitution adopted in July 1934; Vargas was formally elected president.
In 1934, Brazil's communists, whose meetings frequently were attacked by the ultraright Integralistas, founded the ANL (Alliance for National Liberation; in 1935 Brazil passed the National Security Law, permitting the state to take actions against radical political organizations willing to use violence. In 1936 the National Security Tribunal was created, an organization which was used to silence the political opposition. In 1937, based on planted, false information about an Integralista coup, Vargas accepted the suggestion by a numbr of state governors to continue to rule in a time of political turmoil; from now on he ruled in autoritarian style, without the limitations placed on him by a republican constitution and her institutions. On November 10th 1937 Vargas had Congress surrounded by police. He announced the establishment of the Estado Novo, the new state, in essence the Vargas dictatorship. Political parties were dissolved, a step also affecting the ultraright integralistas. A May 1938 integralista coup failed; the coupists sought refuge in the Italian Embassy.
The Vargas policies of 1930-1937 were continued; industrialization emphasized. In 1938 Vargas nationalized the oil refineries. The state took on the function of the protector of the workers (1939-1940), following policies implemented in Mussolini's Italy. Political parties were banned, among the, the Integralistas (ultrarights).
By 1938, Germany had become Brazil's leading foreign trade partner. This trade collapsed with the British Blockade of Germany beginning in 1939, and the USA filled the gap. In 1941, universal womanhood suffrage was introduced.
In World War II, Brazil joined the allies in August 1942. The war boosted Brazil's economy, as demand for Brazilean rubber picked up (the Far East was occupied by Japan). The US established military bases in Brazil's northeast. On June 30th 1944 Brazil did sent an expeditionary corps, 20,000 men strong, which fought alongside American units in Italy; of them 454 died.
Brazil, under the leadership of President Vargas, had joined the Alliance against the Axis; yet the Vargas regime was not democratic, but rather resembled Fascist Italy. Brazilians resented press censorship most of all; in 1943 protest actions were undertaken against it.

In 1945, parliamentary democracy was reintroduced. A new constitution was adopted in 1947, which maintained women's voting right, but did not foresee a divorce - marriage was regarded inseparable. In 1947 the PCB (Communist Party) was declared unconstitutional and banned; the party had gained c. 10 % of the votes in the 1945 election.
The country saw a succession of mostly short-lived governments. The new democratic administration pursued a liberal economic policy, stressed non-interference; while the exchange rate of the Brazilian Cruzeiro to the US Dollar had been stable during the later Vargas years, the Cruzeiro now began to fall.
The deteriorating economy resulted in the election of ex-dictator Getulio Vargas as president in 1950.
The same year Brazil staged the soccer world cup, entering the final game as heavy favourite, but surprisingly losing to neighbour Uruguay 2-1. As soccer is taken very serious in Brazil, it was regarded a disgrace.
The economic problems continued. The year 1953 saw massive strikes. A matter president Vargas took to heart; he committed suicide (1954). The following election was turbulent; Juscelino Kubitschek won, but found the army opposed to him taking office. After a period of arm-twisting, Kubitschek was inaugurated in 1956. President Kubitschek pursued a policy of supporting economic development; which required investment; in 1957-1959 the Brazilian Cruzeiro lost ground against the Dollar. Industrial output rose considerably. Ford and Volkswagen (1953) built factories in Brazil.
In 1960, the capital was moved from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia. Another ambitious program, the opening of the Amazon jungle by constructing the Transamazonica, was begun. Wide areas of rain forest were cut or burnt down, turned into pasture; the world's environmentalists began to become concerned about the Amazon rain forest, one of the world's most important biotopes.

Administration . Following a military coup d'etat in 1964, the presidency was held by Humberto de Alencar Castello Branco 1964-1967, by Artur da Costa e Silva 1967-1969, by Emilio Garrastazu Medici 1969-1974, by Ernesto Geisel 1974-1979, by Joao Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo 1979-1985. Despite being classified as a military dictatorship between 1964 and 1985, presidential elections were held in Brazil in 1964, 1966, 1969, 1974, 1978 and 1985, parliamentary elections in 1966, 1970, 1974, 1978 and 1982. The sixth constitution was adopted in 1967; presidential powers were extended.
Political History . Castello Branco saw himself as a caretaker for ousted president Goulart. He ordered the cleansing of Brazil's military, Congress and state administrations of leftist elements, and oversaw the reorganization of Brazil's politics. In 1965, all political parties were dissolved, in 1967 a new constitution adopted. Brazil experienced leftist urban guerilla actions (Revolutionary Movement 8th October, climax in 1969), which in turn caused the government to take repressive actions, such as the limitation of civil rights in 1968. Construction of the Transamazonica began in 1970. Brazil was a camouflage democracy, the presidency handed over within the military. Political opposition to military rule intensified from 1974 onward; President de Oliveira Figueiredo saw himself as a caretaker, preparing the return to parliamentary democracy.
Foreign Policy . The Anti-Communist policy of the early military administration earned Brazil the support of the U.S. In consequence of the oil crisis of 1973, Brazil moved toward more distance from hitherto close Israel. In 1974, Brazil and the PR China established diplomatic relations.
The Economy . Brazil pursued the long-term policies of (a) industrialization in order to reduce the dependence of the country on imports (agreement with the FRG to build nuclear power plants in Brazil, 1975) and (b) to tap into the country's vast natural resources (construction of the Transamazonica, from 1970 onward).
The policy of cleansing military, congress and bureaucracy of leftist elements, and subsequent guerilla warfare, disrupted the economy; the First Oil Crisis of 1973 greatly affected the country's economy. The annual inflation rate ranged from 20 to 30 % in 1964-1979, then accelerated to reach 180 % in 1984, 200 % in 1985 (IHS pp.713-714). The situation was caused not only by increased prices for Brazil's import products, most notably oil, but also by a decrease in prices for the country's traditional export products. Rising interest rates (Reagonomics) caused the country to spend more on debt service, accelerating inflation in the mid-1980es. In 1967, the currency was reformed ; 1 New Cruzeiro was valid 1,000 (old) Cruzeiros.
Brazil produced 1.04 million metric tons of coffee in 1964, 1.91 million metric tons in 1985 (IHS pp.222-223), 4 million metric tons of sugar in 1964, 8.2 million in 1985 (IHS p.198), 643,000 metric tons of wheat in 1964, 4.3 million in 1985 (IHS p.182), 7.5 million metric tons of rice in 1964, 10.3 million in 1985 (IHS p.182), 2.0 million metric tons of meat in 1964, 3.0 million in 1985 (IHS p.273).
The number of passenger cars on Brazil's roads rose from 1.1 million in 1964 to 9.5 million in 1985 (IHS p.597).

A banknote over 1000 Cruzeiros, overprinted 1 New Cruzeiro, Brazil 1967.

Courtesy Ron Wise, whose World Paper Money, webpage offers an extensive collection of 20th century paper money.

Social History . In 1964, Brazil hat 78.4 million inhabitants, in 1985 135.5 million (Lahmeyer).

Cultural History . Brazilian athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Tokyo 1964, Mexico City 1968, München 1972, Montreal 1976, Moscow 1980 and Los Angeles 1984. In 1970 Brazil won the soccer world cup, the national team lead by Pele.

In 1958, 1962 Brazil won the soccer world cup, the national team lead by PELE.

Brazil since 1985
Brazil 1964-1985
Brazil 1945-1964
Brazil 1930-1945
Brazil 1918-1930
Brazil 1914-1918
Brazil 1889-1914
Brazil 1840-1889
Brazil 1831-1840
Brazil 1822-1831

Brazil 1807-1822
Brazil 1750-1807
Brazil 1661-1750
Brazil 1624-1661 : Dutch Rule
Brazil 1549-1630
Brazil 1500-1549

Historical Atlas, Brazil Page

States of Brazil : Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia,
Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso,
Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco,
Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe

Students' Papers : Na, Kunho, A World History of Synchretic Religions, 1450-1750 (2011)
Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)
Students' Paper : Cha, Sung Jik, The Ecological History of Brazil since 1500 (2008)
Students' Paper : Kim, Young Yoon, Social and Environmental History of Pre-Colonial Brazil (2008)
Students' Paper : Nam, Hyunwoo, The Industrialization of Brazil (2008)
Students' Paper : Lim, Seung Hwan, History of Sugar Plantations (2008)

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Historical G.H. Ivy, A comparative analysis of selected Latin American dictatorships (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil), thesis Texas Tech 1951
O. Lima, Historia diplomatica do Brazil : o reconhecimento do imperio (1901) in Portuguese, IA
O. Lima, The evolution of Brazil compared with that of Spanish and Anglo-Saxon America (1914), IA
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Historiography F.L. Borges Machado, Assis Cintra: uma outra história: o limiar da história e outros lugares da historiografia brasileira. thesis Univ. Fed. de Minas Gerais 2004
Politics Politics of Brazil, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Brazil; For the Record 2000 : Brazil, from UN Human Rights System
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A.M. Dietrich, Nazismo tropical? O partido Nazista no Brasil, thesis Sao Paulo 2007
Military Wars of Brazil 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data
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Article Military History of Brazil, from Wikipedia
Th. Cochrane Earl of Dundonald, Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, Peru and Brazil,: from Spanish and Portuguese Domination, vol.1 (1854), vol.2, IA
Economy & Finances Entry Brazil, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
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The Origin of Brazil's Textile Industry : an Overview, by Roberta Marx Delson
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Category : Enterprise Brazil, from Economy Point
Pedro Carvalho de Mello, Institutional Development in the Cotton Commodities Exchange : The Economic History of Brazil's BMSP 2006
Fonseca, Pedro Cezar Dutra. Banco Regional de Desenvolvimento do Extremo-Sul: A Regional Pro-Development Institution. Business and Economic History 27, no. 2 (Winter 1998): 367-77.
Pinsdorf, Marion K., Varig Airlines of Brazil : An Enterprising German Investment. Business and Economic History, 2d ser., 21 (1992): 159-70.
Priest, Tyler. An Open Vein: Manganese Ore and the Central do Brasil Railway, 1894-1920. Business and Economic History 24, no. 1 (Fall 1995): 164-75.
Historical Exchange Rate Regime of Asian Countries [!] : Brazil, from International Economics
C. Huelsz, Middle Power Theories and Emerging Powers in International Political Economy: A Case Study of Brazil, thesis Manchester 2009
Ch.P. MacKie, Brazil: The Gold-fields of Brazil: Their History, Production and Future Importance (1887), IA
Ch.E. Akers, The rubber industry in Brazil and the Orient (1914), IA
N. Grinberg, Transformations in the Korean and Brazilian processes of capitalist development between the mid-1950s and the mid-2000s: the political economy of late industrialisation, thesis LSE 2011
A.B. Bick, Governing the Free Sea: The Dutch West India Company and Commercial Politics, 1618-1645, thesis Princeton 2012
L.A. Vicente Galante, Uma historia da circulaçao monetaria no Brasil do seculo XVII, thesis Brasilia 2009
Social History J. Baten et al., The anthropometric history of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th century, Economics and Human Biology 7 (2009) pp.319-333
R. Wendorf, Catlyst [!] of Abolition: The Paraguayan War and Brazilian Demands for Emancipation, 1864-1870, thesis Univ. of Wisconsin 2008
Leubolt/Tittor, Social Policies and Statehood in Argentina and Brazil, draft 2009
J.M. Taylor, Riding the wave of a changing tide : the establishment of the welfare state in Argentina and Brazil, thesis Univ. of Georgia 2002
Für Dom Pedro. Export aus Europas Armenhäusern und Gefängnissen (For Dom Pedro; Export from Europe's Poorhouses and Prisons), from Kriegsreisende.de, in German
Article Abolicionismo no Brasil, from Wikipedia (Port.)
Brazil 1961-1964. Introducing the Marvellous New World of Death Squads, from William Blum, Killing Hope, U.S. interventions in the Third World, posted by Third World Traveller
Th.R.H. Thomson, The Brazilian slave trade, and its remedy : shewing the futility of repressive force measures, also, how Africa and our West Indian colonies may be mutually benefited (1850), IA
L.O. Conachi Craice, Manuel da Nobrega e a Companhia de Jesus na sistematizaçao pedagogica no Brasil do seculo XVI, thesis Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo 2008
Ethnography Languages of Brazil (235), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Brazil, from Wikipedia
Brazil : Afro-Brazilians, Amazonian Indians, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Brazil
S.W. Kidd, A Case Study among the Enxet of the Chaco (Mission history), thesis Durham 1992
D. Divina, Ideology and Confederado Migration From the American South to Brazil, 1865-1877, thesis Columbia 2013
C.C. Figueiredo, Invisible Migrants : Norwegians in Brazil, 1820-1940, thesis Oslo 2012
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Brazil, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Brazil, from Jewish Virtual Library
Category : Religion in Brazil, from Wikipedia
Brazil, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
Patron Saints Index : Brazil
Atheism in Brazil, from Zona Latina
A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings : Brazil, from Prolades
Country Report : Brazil, from ARDA
C.E. Bartel, O movimento sionista e a formaçao da comunidade judaica brasileira (1901-1956), thesis Univ. Federal Rio Grande do Sul 2012
F.J. de Souza Viraçao, Igreja Reformada Potiguara (1625-1692), A Primeira Igreja Protestante do Brasil, thesis Univ. Presbiteriana MacKenzie 2012
History of Regions Articles Provinces of Brazil, Regions of Brazil, from Wikipedia
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States of Brazil : Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, at this site
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : REepublica dos Estados Unidos do Brasil 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
History of Cities List of Cities in Brazil, from Wikipedia
History of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Salvador de Bahia, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Belem, Manaus, Brasilia, from Wikipedia
Institutions A Brief History of the Brazilian Railways, by The Brazilian Trains Reference Page, posted by Fapinto
History of Broadcasting in Brazil, from The Broadcast Archive
Brazil, from Airline History
Article Brazilian Academy of Sciences, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Brazil
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Brazil
V.M. Berthold, History of the telephone and telegraph in Brazil, 1851-1921 (1922), IA
Culture G.A. Malosetti, Campos magneticos de la modernidad latinoamericana: una historia intelectual de Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay (1900-1935), thesis Washington Univ. of St. Louis 2010
Biographies List of Brazilians, from Wikipedia
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Brazil, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Disaster History by Country : Natural Disasters, Brasil, from Relief Web
Brazil, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Articles Brazil at the Olympics, Sport in Brazil, Football in Brazil, Brazilian Carnival, from Wikipedia
The History of he Masonry in Brazil, anonymous; The History of Freemasonry in Brasilien, Brazil, from Maçonaria Brasileira
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Elizabeth A. Crittenden, Amazon Deforestation and Brazil Land Problems, ICE Studies 1997; Stephanie Bier, Conflict and Human Rights in the Amazon : The Yanomami, ICE Studies 2005; Laura J. Molinari, Land Conflicts between Grileiros and Peasants in Para, Brazil, ICE Case Studies 2005

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Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
Historical Abortion Statistics : Brazil, from Johnston's Archive
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Online Yearbooks - Brazil Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Brazil 1870 pp.491-507, GB, 1871, pp.491-508, IA, 1872, pp.491-506, IA, 1873, pp.484-498, IA, 1874, pp.484-498, IA, 1875, pp.484-498, IA, 1876, pp.488-502, IA, 1877, pp.494-508, IA, 1878, pp.494-508, IA, 1879, pp.494-508, IA, 1880, pp.494-508, IA, 1881, pp.494-508, IA, 1883, pp.494-508, IA, 1884, pp.524-538, IA, 1885, pp.532-547, IA, 1886, pp.544-559, IA, 1887, pp.564-580, IA, 1888, pp.566-581, IA, 1889, pp.570-585, IA, 1890, pp.389-400, IA, 1891, pp.393-404, IA, 1892, pp.399-410, IA, 1894, pp.399-410, IA, 1895, pp.399-410, IA, 1896, pp.399-410, IA, 1898, pp.399-410, IA, 1899, pp.434-445, IA, 1903, pp.481-493, IA, 1913, pp.687-698, IA, 1919, pp.711-723, IA, 1921, pp.713-726, IA
Annuario pontificio 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Brazil
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Bilateral Treaty Collections Brazil, pp.792-1079 in vol.5 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1976, GB
Brasilien, pp.34-35 in Johann Vesque von Püttlingen, Uebersicht der Verträge Oesterreichs mit den auswärtigen Staaten, 1854, in German, GB
C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
Consular Reports Consular Recommendations on South American Trade 1915 U.S. consuls, Brazil pp.10-14
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Brazil : May 12 1915, Bahia, Aug. 11 1915, Rio Grande do Sul, Apr. 6 1916, July 6 1916, Bahia, Aug. 30 1916, Santos, Oct. 23 1916, Bahia, Sept. 25 1917, Dec. 28 1917, Feb. 24 1919, Bahia, May 23 1919, May 24 1920, IA
Document Collections Brazilian Government Document Digitization Project
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Bolivia, from ILO, 90 docs. since 1919
Brazil Documents, from Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
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Individual Documents In Plurimis, Encyclical by Pope Leo XIII, May 5th 1888, on the occasion of the freeing of many slaves in Brazil as part of celebrations of the pope's 50th anniversary. Notes the slave trade is continuing in Africa and condemns it harshly
Leo XIII to the Bishops of Brazil on the church and slavery (1888), IA
Pierre Denis: from The Coffee Fazenda of Brazil, 1911, from the Modern History Sourcebook
Brazil's Reaction to Germany's Policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, 6 February 1917, from First World War.com
Brazil's Severing of Diplomatic Relations with Germany, 4 June 1917, from First World War.com
Brazil's Explanation to the Vatican of the Reasons for War, October 1917, from First World War.com
The Brazilian green book, consisting of diplomatic documents relating to Brazil's attitude with regard to the European war, 1914-1917 (1918), IA
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South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
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South America 1905, from Zonu
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Encyclopedia Entries
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Religious Article Brazil, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907 edition
Article Recife, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
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Economical Brazil, pp.469-478 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Brazil pp.182-184
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Bahia, Brasilien, Pernambuco, Rio Janeiro, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Brasilien, vol.2 1830 pp.73-81, vol.4 1844 pp.134-140, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Rio de Janeiro, pp.163-166, Pernambuco pp.204-205, Maranham p.230, Bahia p.94 in J. Daniel, Shipowner's and shipmaster's directory to the foreign port charges, 1844, GB
Brazil, pp.480-492 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
The Empire of Brazil, pp.584-604 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
The Empire of Brazil, pp.377-385 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Brasilien, pp.672-680 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
The Empire of Brazil, pp.221-226 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Brazil, pp.77-291 in E. Reclus, South America, 1905
Ethnological Brazil pp.362-375, in A. Hamilton, Marriage rites, customs, and ceremonies, of all nations of the universe, 1822, GB
Empire du Bresil, pp.435-439 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Brazil, pp.829-848 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
The Tupi-Guarani, Caribs and Arawaks pp.289-290, the Botocuds pp.290-292 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Brazil, pp.479-514 in vol.1B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
The Tropical Rainforest : the Amazon and Brazil pp.281-315, in vol.11 of L.H. Gray, The Mythology of all Races, 1920, GB
Historical Brazil, p.428 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
The Rise of the Progressive States : Brazil, pp.196-200 in W.W. Sweet, A History of Latin America, 1929, GB
Other Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1857 (vol.9) : Dom Pedro II, p.360, Recife and Francisco (Pernambuco), p.361, GB
Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1864 (vol.16) : Bahia and San Francisco, p.384, Dom Pedro II, p.386, Pernambuco, p.388, Sao Paulo, p.389, GB
Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1867 (vol.19) : Bahia and San Francisco, p.416, Pernambuco, p.423, Sao Paulo, p.424, GB
Article : Brasilien, in : Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, 1912, in German, posted by Zeno
Tour Guides, Travelogues Pacific line guide to South America; containing information to travellers & shippers to ports on the east & west coasts of South America 1895, IA; on Brazil pp.31-48
A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Brazil pp.75-87
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Brazil pp.99-159
A.S. Peck, The South American Tour - A Descriptive Guide 1916, IA; on Brazil pp.286-360
H.M. Tomlinson, The Sea and the Jungle, 1912, a narrative of a Journey from Swansea to Brazil, then up the Amazon, posted by mediaone.net, 594 K
Residence Memoirs H.Ch. Dent, A year in Brazil : with notes on the abolition of slavery, the finances of the empire, religion, meteorology, natural history (1886), IA
Archives, Musea, Libraries National Archives : Latin America, from UNESCO Archives Portal
State and Regional Archives : Brazil, from UNESCO Archives Portal
Brazil, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Museums Category : Museums in Brazil, from Wikipedia
Libraries Article : Mational Library of Brazil, from Wikipedia
Libraries in Brazil, from LibDex
National Symbols Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Brazil banknotes, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : Brazil, bilingual Russian-English page
Brazil Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Brazil
Brazil, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
WIC coins from Brazil 1645/46, commented and shown on Ron Haller's homepage, detailed comment
Stamps Rare Brazil Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery, Stamps Brazil 1843-1894 from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Brazil survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Garraux, Bibliographie bresilienne: catalogue des ouvrages français & latins relatifs au Bresil (1500-1898) 1898, IA
pp.229-297 in R.M. Levine, Historical Dictionary of Brazil, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1979 [G]
Anexo : Bibliografia da historia do Brasil, from Wikipedia Portuguese edition
Consulate General of Brazil in Hong Kong and Macau, General Bibliography on Brazil
Brazil, from The Online Books Page
Bibliography Brazil, from NNDB
annual bibliographies Bibliografia Boliviana; pdfs per year 2006-2011
specialist bibliographies Bibliography Brazil, from Environmental History of Latin America
Buddhism in Brazil : a Bibliography
Migration Bibliography Brazil, from Discover Nikkei ; Bibliography Brazil, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia
Books on Genocide and Related Topics in Portuguese, from Prevent Genocide
Bibliografia : Gramsci e o Brasil
L.C. Villalta, Bibliografia de Historia do Brasil Colonial
G.M. Asher, A bibliographical and historical essay on the Dutch books and pamphlets relating to New-Netherland, and to the Dutch West-India company and to its possessions in Brazil, Angola, etc. 1854, IA
serial publications
general bibliographies
Brazil entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
B.F. Elson, Indian Tribes : Classification, Bibliography and Map of Present Language Distribution
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
Latin American Books
Bibliography : Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on Brazil
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Brazil
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Directory of Open Access Journals
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
On Brazil LANIC, Academic Journals : Brazil
Historiography Article : Brazilian Historiography, by Nilo Odalia, pp.106-108 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
On Latin America Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
General Histories Boris Fausto, A Concise History of Brazil, Cambridge UP, 1999, 368 pp., KMLA Lib.Sign. 981 F268a
Donald E. Worcester, Brazil : from Colony to World Power, NY : Scribner 1973 [G]
Specific Periods J. Armitage, The history of Brazil, from ... 1808, to ... 1831. A continuation to Southey's History (1836), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
J.F. Rippy, The United States and the establishment of the republic of Brazil (1922), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Topics Herbert S. Klein, European and Asian Migration to Brazil, pp.208-214 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Ch.C. Griffin, The States of Latin America, pp.516-541 in F.H. Hinsley, The New Cambridge History, vol.XI : Material Progress and World-wide Problems 1870-1898, Cambridge : UP (1962) 1978 [G]
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
The Jews in Dutch Brazil, pp.13-18 in : Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002 [G]
Mitsuru Shimpo, Indentured Migrants from Japan, pp.48-50 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Brazil, in : Jasper H. Stembridge, The Oxford War Atlas Volume II, 1 September 1941 to 1 January 1943, Oxford : UP 1943 [G]
Chapter XXIII : Getulio Vargas, pp.350-369; Chapter XXIV : Behold Brazil, pp.370-390; Chapter XXV : About Commodities, pp.391-399, Chapter XXVI : Brazilian Roll Call, pp.400-410, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. [G]
Historical Dictionaries Robert M. Levine, Historical Dictionary of Brazil, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1979, 297 pp. [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Brazil, 1913 pp.1071-1074, 1944 pp.120-123, 1945 pp.117-119, 1946, pp.138-141, 1947, pp.140-143, 1948, pp.131-133, 1949, pp.113-114, 1950, pp.122-123, 1951 pp.118-119, 1952, pp.116-117, 1953, pp.116-117, 1954, pp.115-116, 1955, pp.176-177, 1956, pp.115-116, 1957 pp.174-176, 1958, pp.115-117, 1959, pp.116-118, 1960, pp.117-118, 1961, pp.116-118, 1962, pp.104-106, 1963 pp.219-221, 1964 pp.195-197, 1965 pp.194-196, 1966 pp.157-159, 1967 pp.180-181, 1968 pp.177-179, 1969 pp.178-180, 1970 pp.177-179, 1971 pp.172-173, 1972 pp.157-158, 1973 pp.154-156, 1974 pp.162-164, 1975 pp.146-148, 1976 pp.174-176, 1977 pp.177-179, 1978 pp.230-232, 1979 pp.228-230, 1980 pp.225-226, 1981 pp.223-224, 1982 pp.223-224, 1983 pp.220-222, 1984 pp.216-218, 1985 pp.582-583, 643-644, 1986 pp.572-573, 639-640, 1987 pp.541-543, 608-609, 1988 pp.495-496, 560-561, 1989 pp.495-496, 560-561, 1990 pp.512-513, 576-577, 1991 pp.496-497, 560-561, 1992 pp.469-471, 560-561, 1993 pp.478-479, 570-571, 1994 pp.478-479, 570-571, 1995 pp.382-384, 570-571, 1996 pp.380-381, 570-571, 1997 pp.399, 401, 568-569, 2002 pp.398-399, 565-566 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Article : Brazil, in : Statesman's Year Book 1895 pp.399-409, 1898 pp.399-410, 1901 pp.459-470, 1905 pp.498-510, 1919 pp.711-723, 1924 pp.704-716, 1925 pp.715-727, 1926 pp.693-705, 1928 pp.702-714, 1929 pp.696-708, 1932 pp.702-714, 1937 pp.736-747, 1942 pp.742-754, 1943 pp.739-758, 1970-1971 pp.767-776, 1973-1974 pp.778-788, 1975-1976 pp.779-788, 1976-1977 pp.786-796, 1978-1979 pp.226-235, 1979-1980 pp.225-235, 1980-1981 pp.226-235, 1981-1982 pp.230-241, 1982-1983 pp.231-242, 1983-1984 pp.228-237, 1984-1985 pp.227-236, 1985-1986 pp.226-235, 1986-1987 pp.227-237, 1987-1988 pp.227-236, 1988-1989 pp.227-236, 1989-1990 pp.229-237, 1990-1991 pp.229-237, 1991-1992 pp.229-237, 1992-1993 pp.229-237, 1993-1994 pp.229-237, 1994-1995 pp.224-231, 1995-1996 pp.216-223, 1996-1997 pp.232-239, 1997-1998 pp.237-245, 1998-1999 pp.264-273, 2000 pp.317-327, 2001 pp.308-317, 2002 pp.323-332, 2003 pp.321-330, 2004 pp.322-331, 2005 pp.317-326, 2006 pp.313-324 [G]
Americana Annual Brazil, 1927 pp.117-121, 1928 pp.107-110, 1930 pp.121-124, 1931 pp.118-121, 1932 pp.116-118, 1933 pp.104-107, 1934 pp.114-116, 1935 pp.107-109, 1936 pp.97-99, 1937 pp.85-86, 1938 pp.87-88, 1939 pp.92-95, 1940 pp.81-83, 1943 pp.109-112, 1944 pp.102-107, 1945 pp.104-109, 1946 pp.111-117, 1947 pp.92-95, 1957 pp.96-98, 1961 pp.87-90, 1962 pp.85-87, 1963 pp.97-100, 1964 pp.97-99, 1965 p.124, 1967 pp.127-129, 1968 pp.118-120, 1969 pp.131-133, 1970 pp.133-135, 1971 pp.162-164, 1972 pp.164-166, 395-396, 1973 pp.158-160, 1974 pp.46-57, 146-147, 336, 1975 pp.184-185, 1976 pp.143-144, 1977 pp.135-136, 1978 pp.130-131, 1979 pp.133-135, 1980 pp.143-145, 1981 pp.161-162, 1983 pp.143-144, 1984 pp.148-149, 1985 pp.147-148, 1986 pp.145-147, 1987 pp.148-149, 1988 pp.152-154, 1989 pp.150-151, 1990 pp.147-149, 1992 pp.160-162, 1993 pp.153-155, 1994 pp.153-155, 1995 pp.149-151, 2002 p.118 [G]
Other Article : Brazil, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 pp.78-84 [G]
Article : Brazil, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.124-129 [G]
Article : Brazil, in : New International Year Book 1919 pp.110-113, 1920 pp.97-100, 1921 pp.97-99, 1922 pp.98-100, 1923 pp.99-102, 1924 pp.101-106, 1925 pp.101-105, 1926 pp.107-111, 1928 pp.107-110, 1929 pp.112-116, 1930 pp.107-111, 1931 pp.114-117, 1932 pp.107-110, 1933 pp.104-107, 1934 pp.95-97, 1935 pp.96-99, 1938 pp.100-104, 1939 pp.87-90, Events of 1940 pp.83-86, 1941 pp.75-78, 1942 pp.85-89, 1943 pp.73-78, 1944 pp.76-80, 1945 pp.73-76 [G]

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