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Literature on the History of South America
Venezuela Ecuador
First posted on March 26th 2002, last revised on December 1st 2013

History of Colombia : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

For the country's earlier history, see History of the Viceroyalty of Peru, History of the Viceroyalty of New Granada
1819-1830 . 1830-1863 . 1863-1903 . 1903-1918 . 1918-1948 . 1948-1958 . 1958-1974 . 1974-1990 . Since 1990

Gran Colombia 1819-1830 . With Bolivar victorious at Boyaca, the new Republic OF Gran Colombia was stabilized. But Spain was not yet willing to recognize it and still held on to the central Andes region; Bolivar thus continued to campaign in Panama (Colombian in 1821) and Ecuador (Colombian in 1822).
Grand Colombia was declared a republic, with Simon Bolivar as president and Bogota as capital. It comprised of the entire territory of the former Spanish viceroyalty of New Granada, i.e. it included modern Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. A constitution was passed in 1821.
The new republic was plagued by the old controversy between centralists and federalists. In 1826 there was a Venezuelan revolt. President Bolivar was out of the country campaigning, liberating Peru and Bolivia; he returned in 1827. Finding the administration hard to control, he had a new constitution passed in 1828 and ruled hard-handed.
Federalists soon criticized Bolivar as infringing on their autonomy. Bolivar resigned in 1830. The successor, Jose Domingo Caicedo, appointed by Bolivar, not elected, could not prevent Venezuela and Ecuador declaring their independence - Grand Colombia fell apart.
In 1827 the University of Popayan was founded.

New Granada, 1830-1863
A dispute over the form of government resulted in the secession of Ecuador and Venezuela from Gran Colombia in 1830; the remainder (modern Colombia with Panama) in 1831 took on the new name of Republic of New Granada (1831-1863). In 1863 it was renamed Colombia.

Colombia 1863-1903 . The new federal constitution of the United States of Colombia (1863-1886) did not bring the political stability longed for. Another civil war erupted in 1885, after which a new centralized constitution was passed (1886) under president Rafael Nunez (1884-1894). After his departure, the country went through another civil war (1895).
From 1886 onward, the Conservative Party dominated the presidency; the Catholic Church exerted considerable influence on the party, to such an extent that it was rumoured the Archbishop of Bogota had 'named' every president from 1886 to 1930 (Gunther 1967 p.456).

Colombia 1903-1918 . French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps failed in his attempt to construct a canal across the isthmus of (Colombian) Panama. Tropical diseases killed the workers in large numbers, and the company went bankrupt. Early in the 20th century, the United States of America planned to take up the project again, as a Panama Canal would shorten the searoute from New York to San Francisco considerably. Colombia, since 1899 going through yet another civil war, was unwilling to permit the construction. The US indicated that it would support an independent Panama and the provincial administration, suspicious of the centralist government in Bogota, declared its independence in 1903.
President Rafael Reyes (1904) was a vigorous reformer, striving to develop the country's economy. His rule was dictatorial rather than democratic, frequently changing the constitution.
In 1904/1907 the border with Brazil was fixed by treaties, to the disadvantage of Colombia. The town of Tabatinga became Brazilian, such as large stretches of jungle north of tha Amazon.
During World War I, the Entente urged the South American nations to formally declare war on the Central forces, in order to deny the German fleet harbours. The declaration of war would later be rewarded with a share in the booty, such as ships from the German navy. Also, German/Austro-Hungarian property within the country could be confiscated.
Colombia, still deeply suspicious of the United States of America over the secession of Panama, resisted the temptation and stayed neutral.

Colombia 1918-1948 . Administration . The presidency was held by Marco Fidel Suarez (Conservative) 1918-1922, by Pedro Ospina Velasquez (Conservative) 1922-1926, by Miguel Abadia Mendez (Conservative) 1926-1930, then by Enrique Alfredo Olaya Herrera (Liberal) 1930-1934, by Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo (Liberal) 1934-1938, 1942-1945, by Eduardo Santos Montejo (Liberal) 1938-1942, by Luis Mariano Ospina Perez (Conservative) 1946-1950.
Foreign Policy . Regarding foreign policy, Colombia had entered the League of Nations in 1920. In 1916/1920, the border to Ecuador had been fixed by treaty, in 1925 the border to the Peruvian province of Oriente (which was contested by Ecuador). In 1932, Peru occupied the Colombian Amazon port of Leticia; in 1934 Peru recognized the Colombian claim over Leticia. In World War II, Colombia long stayed neutral; it joined the allies in 1942 when it declared war on Germany. The declaration was rather a formality; Colombian troops did not participate in the fighting. Colombia joined the United Nations in 1945 and in 1948 was founder-member of the OAS (Organization of American States).
Political History . The conservatives lost their hold to power, and the liberals were to rule the country from 1930 to 1946. The main achievements of the liberal administration were to reestablish social peace by legalizing the occupation of coffee/banana plantations by squatters and to promote the industrialization of the country, in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign imports.
The Economy . Since the 1880es, Colombia's share in the world coffee market had steadily increased. In the 1920es, Colombia's economy depended heavily on three products, coffee, petrol and bananas; the country was heavily dependent on exports. With the Great Depression setting in, exports declined and the crisis reached Colombia.
Coffee production was 195,000 metric tons in 1930, 368,000 metric tons in 1948 (IHS p.222); the country's potato production rose from 33,000 metric tons in 1915 to 418,000 metric tons in 1945 (IHS pp.178, 183), rice production from 13,000 metric tons in 1915 to 123,000 metric tons in 1945 (IHS pp.178, 183). Colombia had 1,231 km of railroad lines in 1918, 3,486 km in 1948 (IHS pp.546, 548).
In 1919, in Colombia SCADTA was founded, the world's second commercial airline (after KLM), founded by Germans and using German Junkers planes. It operated both air mail and passenger service, connecting many remote mountain communities with the political and economic centers. In 1940 the company, for political reasons, was taken over by Colombians and renamed Avianca.
Social History . In 1918, Colombia had 5.8 million inhabitants, in 1948 10.8 million (Lahmeyer).
Cultural History . The Colombian national football team played its first international game in 1938; the Colombian Football Federation had been founded in 1924. Colombian athletes participated in the Summer Olympic Games held in Los Angeles 1932 and in Berlin 1936. Colombia's first radio station, Radio Bucaramanga, began broadcasting in 1924.

Colombia 1948-1958 . Administration . The presidency was held by Mariano Ospina Perez (Conservative, 1946-1950), succeeded by Laureano Gomez (Conservative, 1950-1953), Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (Military, 1953-1957). From 1957 to 1958, a military junta headed by Gabriel Paris Cordillo was in power. Parliamentary elections were held in 1954, presidential elections in 1949 and 1954. Constitutional amendments were made in 1954, 1957 and 1958.
Foreign Policy . Colombian forces participated in the Korean War.
Political History . Colombia's dominant parties, the Conservatives (established in 1843) and the Liberals (established in 1848) were engaged in an intense rivalry. From 1946 to 1953, the Conservatives held the presidency. The assassination of Jorge Eliecer Gaitan, the popular Liberal major of Bogota, in 1948 escalated into the violencia, uncontrolled violence between groups associated with the two main political parties, the Conservatives (Blues) and the Liberals (Reds). The Violencia cost between 200,000 and 300,000 lives and only was stopped when, in 1957, Liberal Alberto Lleras Camargo and Conservative Laureano Gomez agreed on forming the National Front - both parties agreeing on governing jointly, with parity in political offices and alternation in the presidency strictly observed. In 1954, women were granted the right to vote.
The Economy . In 1948, Colombia produced 368,000 metric tons of coffee, in 1958 469,000 metric tons (IHS p.222). Wheat production was 118,000 metric tons in 1948, 155,000 metric tons in 1958 (IHS p.183), potato production 486,000 metric tons in 1948, 565,000 metric tons in 1958 (IHS p.183), rice production 303,000 metric tons in 1948, 410,000 metric tons in 1958 (IHS p,.183).
Coffee continued to be Colombia's major export product. As the coffee price dropped from 80 cents a pound in 1954 to 48 cents a pound in 1964, this had a serious impact on Colombia's economy.
Despite the violencia, consumer prices in Colombia in 1948 to 1958, for Latin American standards, experienced only a moderate rise, in 1951-1952 even declining (IHS p.713).
Social History . Colombia went through a phase of strong population growth (10.8 million in 1948, 14.4 million in 1958 - Lahmeyer), and experienced even stronger urbanization, Bogota's population having risen from 450,000 in 1940 to over 1,700,000 in 1965.
Cultural History . Colombian athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of London 1948 and Melbourne 1956. Television broadcasting began in 1954.

Colombia 1958-1974 . Administration . The presidency was held by Alberto Lleras Camargo (Liberal, 1958-1962), Guillermo Leon Valencia (Conservative, 1962-1966), Carlos Lleras Restrepo (Liberal, 1966-1970) and Misael Pastrano Borrero (Conservaive, 1970-1974). Presidential elections were held in 1962, 1966 and 1970; the traditional rivals, the Conservatives and Liberals, alternated in power.
Political History . The formation of the National Front terminated the violencia, but deprived the country of political alternatives. The differences between social classes being large, the political competition, hitherto between Conservatives and Liberals, shifted toward a competition between the established parties (Conservatives and Liberals) and organizations voicing the demands of the underprivileged. Army and police used harsh-handed measures in suppressing political unrest / dissent deemed illegitimate.
In 1965 fighting resumed, now guerrilleros, associated with communist Cuba, responsible for it; FARC was established 1964-1966.
In 1965 J.P. Sartre and S. de Beauvoir published a manifesto in which they criticized the Colombian armed forces for having used excessive cruelty in an anti-guerilla campaign; the manifesto was reprinted in the Colombian press - freedom of the press traditionally was highly valued in this nation proud of her high standard of education. A young priest and protagonist of Liberation Theology, Camilo Torres Restrepo, who demanded revolutionary social reforms and went into the countryside, was killed in what the official report called "an ambush in which an army patrol killed a group of 25 armed guerilleros".
The Economy . In 1958, Colombia produced 469,000 metric tons, in 1974 540,000 (IHS pp.222-223). Wheat production was 155,000 metric tons in 1958, 59,000 metric tons in 1974 (IHS p.183), potato production 565,000 metric tons in 1958, 1.01 million in 1974 (IHS p.183), rice production 410,000 metric tons in 1958, 1.54 million in 1974 (IHS p,.183).
Coffee continued to be Colombia's major export product. As the coffee price dropped from 80 cents a pound in 1954 to 48 cents a pound in 1964, this had a serious impact on Colombia's economy.
Despite the violencia, consumer prices in Colombia in 1958 to 1974, for Latin American standards, experienced only a moderate rise, in 1951-1952 even declining (IHS p.713).
Social History . In 1958, Colombia had 14.4 million inhabitants, in 1974 22.9 million (Lahmeyer). Colombia went through a phase of strong population growth, and experienced even stronger urbanization, Bogota's population having risen from 450,000 in 1940 to over 1,700,000 in 1965.

Colombia 1974-1990 . Administration . The presidency was held by Alfonso Lopez Michelsen (Liberal, 1974-1978), Julio Cesar Turbay Ayala (Liberal, 1978-1982), Belisario Betancur Cuartas (Social Conservative, 1982-1986) and Virgilio Barco Vargas (Liberal, 1986-1990). Presidential elections were held in 1974, 1978 and 1982 and 1986. The constitution was amended in 1984.
Foreign Policy . Colombia maintained an independent stand, not joining in the boycott of the Moscow Olympic Games in 1980. The country received U.S. support in its strive to fight both a leftist insurrection, and the illicit drug industry.
Political History . The Liberal Party dominated politics in the late 1970es and 1980es. The non-implementation of a land reform meant the maintenance of a huge gap between the classes of estate owners and the campesinos. Organizations such as FARC continued to wage a guerilla war against the government, which deteriorated into organized crime, the development of a large-scale drug industry, and the abduction of persons, often foreigners, for ransom.
The Economy . In 1974, Colombia produced 540,000 metric tons of coffee, in 1990 845,000 (IHS p.223). Wheat production was 59,000 metric tons in 1974, 54,000 metric tons in 1990 (IHS p.183), potato production 1.01 million metric tons in 1974, 2.31 million in 1990 (IHS p.183), rice production 1.54 million metric tons in 1974, 2.11 million in 1990 (IHS p,.183).
The country's inflation rate between 1974 and 1990 ranged between 15 and 25 % annually (IHS p.713).
Social History . In 1974, Colombia had 22.9 million inhabitants, in 1990 32.3 million (Lahmeyer).
Cultural History . The FIFA World Cup in 1986 originally was scheduled to be hosted by Colombia, but due to the ongoing violence in that country, was moved to Mexico.

Colombia since 1990 . Administration . The presidency was held by Cesar Gaviria (Liberal, 1990-1994), Ernesto Samper (Liberal, 1994-1998), Andres Pastrana (Conservative, 1998-2002) and Alvaro Uribe (Primero Colombia, 2002-). Presidential elections were held in 1990, 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2006. A new constitution was promulgated in 1991.
Foreign Policy . Colombia did not join in the liberation of Kuwait in 1991, the invasions of Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003. The country received U.S. support in its strive to fight both a leftist insurrection, and the illicit drug industry.
Political History . Organizations such as FARC continued to wage a guerilla war against the government, which rathr camouflaged organized crime, the development of a large-scale drug industry, and the abduction of persons, often foreigners, for ransom. FARC holds Colombia's former first lady, Ingrid Betancourt, hostage since 2002. The killing of notorious druglord Pablo Escobar in 1993 was a success for Colombia's authorities, but failed to break FARC and the narcotic industry.
The Economy . In 1990, Colombia produced 845,000 metric tons of coffee, in 2000 630,000 (IHS p.223). Wheat production was 54,000 metric tons in 1990, 36,000 metric tons in 1999 (IHS p.183), potato production 2.31 million metric tons in 1990, 2.77 million in 1999 (IHS p.183), rice production 2.11 million metric tons in 1990, 2.19 in 1999 (IHS p,.183).
The country's inflation rate between 1990 and 2000 ranged between 8 and 25 % annually (IHS p.713).
Social History . In 1990, Colombia had 32.3 million inhabitants (Lahmeyer), in 2007 44.3 million.
Cultural History . In 2001 Colombia hosted, and won, the Copa America.

Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)
Students' Paper : Song, Jeeun : History of Metallurgy and Mining in the Andean Region (2009)

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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Colombia
Article : Colombia, from Wikipedia
Historical F. Hall, Colombia, its Present State .. 1825, IA
The present state of Colombia, by an officer late in the Colombian service 1827, IA
E.A. Morales, The Political and Economical Situation of Colombia, The North America Review Sept. 1 1902, IA
Th.Cl. Dawson, The South American republics (1903) vol.2 (has Colombia section pp.403-472), IA
Links General from Lanic
Category : Colombia, from Wikipedia
Categoria : Historia de Colombia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Colombia, from Wikipedia
Historical Text Archive : Colombia
Organizations Asociacion Colombiana de Historiadores
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Asociacion Colombiana de Historia Regional y Local
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Instituto Colombiana de Antropologia e Historia
Historical Dictionaries T.C. Mosquera, Diccionario geografico de los Estados Unidos de Colombia (1868) in Spanish, IA
J.E. Ortiz, Diccionario jeografico de los Estados Unidos de Colombia (1879) in Spanish, IA
M.M. Zamora, Guia de la Republica de Colombia, 1907, IA
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Review of Atlas Basico de Historia de Colombia, by Blaa Virtual, has detailed timeline in Spanish
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia; from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Historia de Colombia, from Presidencia de la Republica, in Spanish
Historical G.N. Lallement, Historia de la República de Colombia 1827, IA
J.M. Restrepo, Compendio de la historia de Colombia 1833, IA
P.I. Cadena, Anales diplomaticos de Colombia (1878) in Spanish, IA
J.J. Borda, Compendio de historia de Colombia: Por José Joaquin Borda 1904, IA
S. Acosta de Samper, Lecciones de historia de Colombia 1908, IA
Specific Periods D. Bushnell, The Santander Regime In Gran Colombia (1954), IA
R.B. Cunninghame-Graham, The conquest of New Granada (1922), IA
C.R. Markham, The conquest of New Granada (1912), IA
J. Posada Gutierrez, Memorias historico-politicas : ultimos dias de la gran Colombia y del Libertador vol.1 1920, vol.2 1920, IA
J.M. Restrepo, Historia de la revolucioon de la republica de Colombia en la Ameerica Meridional, 1858, IA
C.F. Vargas, Compendio de la historia de la Revolucion de Colombia: Para el uso de las escuelas 1881, IA
Historiography M.M. Munoz Monsalve, La construccion de la idea de ciudadano desde los manuales escolares, en el proceso de formacion de la nacion Colombiana, 1910-1948, thesis Univ. Nacional 2012
M.J. Cabrera, Writing civilisation: the historical novel in the Colombian national project, thesis Wollongong 2004
Politics Politics of Colombia, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Colombia
Governments on the WWW : Colombia
Articles Constitutional History of Colombia, Colombian Constitution of 1991, Elections in Colombia, from Wikipedia
Colombia Profile, from International Crisis Group
D. Orrego Fernandez, Ficciones constitucionales en el Nuevo Reino de Granada y la Gran Colombia: entre el Hispanismo y la Nacion (1808-1830), thesis Univ. Nacional 2012
S. Tijerina, A "Clearcut Line": Canada and Colombia, 1892-1979, thesis Univ. of Maine 2011
J.D. Schneider, A shift in policy, a shift in peace : Colombian civil society peace initiatives (1997-2008), thesis Univ. of California San Diego 2009
Var i Dali et al., Oppositionsbevægelsers politiske kamp i Colombia, thesis Roskilde 2013
M.E. Parsons, The Relations between Colombia and the United States, 1904-1944, thesis Loyola Univ. Chicago 1944
D.O. Sofer, El Pueblo and La Rosca: a political dialogue in Colombia, 1944-1958, thesis Univ. of Texas 2003
A. Trujillo Gomez, The Role of Women in Peacebuilding in Colombia, thesis Georgetown 2013
J.H. Latane, The Treaty Relations of the United States and Colombia, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 22 1903, IA
J.M. Samper, Los partidos en Colombia: Estudio historico-politico 1873, IA
Military Wars of Colombia 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data
CASCON Case COL : Colombia (M-19) 1974-1990, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
Colombia Military Guide, from Global Security
Latin American Para-Military Groups : Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, FARC, Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional, from Global Security
A.H. Castano, Are the Guerillas Gone? A Historical Political Economy and Social Analysis of the Rise and Demise of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Colombianas (FARC), 1964-2010, thesis Nava; Postgraduate School Monterrey 2009
B. Huson, Persistent Revolutions in Colombia and Peru: A Comparative Analysis, thesis Indiana State 2011
IISS, The Farc Files: Venezuela, Ecuador and the Secret Archive of 'Raul Reyes' 2011, summaric introduction
C. Medina Gallego, FARC-EP y ELN. Una historia política comparada (1958- 2006), thesis Univ. Nacional 2010
S.L. Tarrent, Are the Guerrillas Gone? a historical political economy and social analysis of the rise and demise of the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias Columbianas (FARC), 1964-2010, thesis Naval Postgraduate School Calhoun 2009 [!]
M.P. Perez Santiago, Institutionalized amnesia : the (mis)representation of paramilitarism in Colombia, thesis Univ. of Texas Austin 2013
J.C. Sanchez Sierra, Worshiping Leadership : Morality, Revolutionary Values, and the Politics of Magnicidio (Assassination) in the Case of Camilo Torres and Fabio Vasquez with the ELN, Colombia 1963-1978, thesis Virginia Tech 2011
C. Gutierrez, Colombia at War, thesis Central Connecticut State 2003
G.W. Borch, The Internal Dynamics of a Non-State Conflict Actor: The Organisational Resources and Internal Legitimacy of the FARC-EP in Colombia, thesis Tromsø n.d.
J.D. Rosen, Plan Colombia And Beyond: Pastrana to Santos (2000 to 2012), thesis Miami 2012
Economy & Finances General Article Economy of Colombia, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Colombia, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Colombia 2007
Category : Enterprise Colombia, from Economy Point
Economic History International Bureau of the American Republics, Colombia, a Handbook (1892), IA
US Dept. of Commerce, Colombia : a commercial and industrial handbook (1921), IA
J.D. Powles, New Granada: its internal resources, 1863, GB
J.C. Villamizar, La influencia de la CEPAL en Colombia 1948-1970, thesis Univ. Nacional 2012
Currency & Finances Entry Colombia, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
J. Gomez et al., The Implementation of Inflation Targeting in Colombia, 2002
J.A. Timote Bojaca, Desempeno Economico y Regimen Monetario Colombiano en el Siglo XIX: De la Banca Libre a la Centralizacion, thesis Univ. Nacional de Colombia 2010
J.J. Pinto Bernal, Finanzas de la Republica de Colombia, 1819-1830, thesis Univ. Nacional 2011
C. Brando, The political economy of financing late development: credit, capital and industrialisation; Colombia 1940-67, thesis LSE 2012
Institutions History of the Bolsa de Valores de Colombia
Trade M.A. Perez Rincon, Colombian International Trade from a Physical Perspective : Towards an Ecological "Prebisch Thesis", working paper 2006
D. Healey, The U.S. - Colombia free trade agreement - A historical placement of the FTA, thesis De Paul 2010
H.A., Lindow, A market for U.S. products : Colombia 1964, IA
Agriculture Article : Coffee production in Colombia, Wikipedia
F. Estrada, The paths of coffee: A brief economic history of coffee in Colombia, Credencial Historia, Banco de la Republica IV.261 (2011) pp.1-16, REPEC
H.G. Porter, Cotton in Colombia 1971, IA
H.G. Porter, The Cotton Industry in Colombia, 1961, IA
G.A. Bennett et al., Agricultural production and trade of Colombia 1973, IA
Mining Company History : Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos, from Funding Universe
Article : Mineral History of Colombia, Wikipedia
F. Pereira Gamba, Riqueza mineral de la Repu?blica de Colombia 1901, IA
Other Company History : Avianca Aerovia Naciolales de Colombia SA, from Funding Universe
Social History Crime Colombia, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Health Colombia, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
E. Enciso, Health Organization in Colombia, 1922, IA
Youth C.A. Reina Rodriguez, Historia de los Jovenes en Colombia 1903-1991 , thesis Univ. Nacional 2012
Women A. Mendoza, Women rewriting the nation : gendered violence in Colombian narratives (1950-2004) , thesis Univ. of California San Diego 2010
Identity A.A. Villegas Velez, Heterologias: Pasado, Territorio y Poblacion en Colombia, 1847-1941, thesis Univ. Nacional 2012
Americanization D.A. Corcoran, The Infrastructure of Influence: Transnational Collaboration and the Spread of US Cultural Influence in Colombia, 1930s-1960s, thesis Univ. of New Mexico 2011
Social Welfare W.M. Vega Vargas, Transformaciones en la proteccion social en Colombia. 1946-1993, thesis Univ. Nacional 2010
Education C.A. Guerrero Garcia, La incidencia de las reformas educativas en la ensenanza de la historia en Colombia, 1973-2007, thesis Univ. Nacional 2012
Protest, Violence Z.C. Urrego Mendoza, De protestas, violencias y otras fiebres tropicales. Aportes para una historia socio-politica de la salud publica en Colombia, 1974-2004, thesis Univ. Nacional 2011
Human Rights M.L. Calle Meza, Constitucion y guerra. Una revision del sistema de derechos fundamentales de Colombia durante el siglo XX, thesis Zaragoza 2007
Class S.B. Wilson, The status quo of politics or the politics of the status quo: The political role of the Colombian middle class, thesis Univ. of Illinois 1995
A.R. Lopez, "We have everything and we have nothing": Empleados and Middle-Class Identities in Bogota, Colombia: 1930-1955, thesis Virginia Tech 2001
D.T. Geithman, Money and income in Colombia, 1950-1960 thesis Univ. of Florida 1964, IA
Slavery E.A. Perez Morales, Itineraries of Freedom Revolutionary Travels and Slave Emancipation in Columbia [!] and the Greater Caribbean. 1789-1830 thesis Univ. of Michigan 2013
Labour R. Ramirez Becca, History of Labour on a Coffee Plantation. La Aurora Plantation, Tolima-Colombia, 1882-1982, thesis Göteborg 2002
A. Rojas et al., Social organization in an urban factory in Colombia, 1966, IA
Land M.S. Nieswiadomy, Land Reform and Conflict Resolution in Colombia, thesis Naval Postgraduate School Monterrey 2003
Ethnography Languages of Colombia (101), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Colombia, from Wikipedia
Colombia : Blacks, Indigenous People, from Minorities at Risk
Colombia, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Colombia
M. Caviedes Pinilla, Oro a cambio de Espejos: Discurso hegemonico y contra­hegemonico en el Movimiento indigena en Colombia 1982­1996, thesis Univ. Nacional 2011
R. Cardenas Gonzalez, Articulations of blackness: Journeys of an emplaced politics in Colombia. , thesis Univ. of California Santa Cruz 2012
Y.P. Zelinka, The evolution of the Afrocolombian social movement : a way of resistance, thesis Central Connecticut State 2009
S.C. Herrera, A History of Violence and Exclusion: Afro-Colombians from Slavery to Displacement, thesis Georgetown 2012
F.C. Nicholas, The Aborigines of the Province of Santa Marta, Colombia, American Anthropologist 3 1901, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Colombia, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Colombia, from Wikipedia
Patron Saint Index : Colombia
A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings : Colombia, from Prolades
Country Report : Colombia, from ARDA
J.F. Cordoba Restrepo, En tierras paganas. Misiones catolicas en Uraba y en La Guajira, Colombia,1892-1952, thesis Univ. Nacional 2012
V.L. Brisbin, The Influence of the Roman Catholic Church on Modernization in Colombia , thesis McMaster 1977
J.P. Restrepo, La iglesia y el estado en Colombia 1885, IA
Persecucion de la Iglesia en Colombia: Carta pastoral, 1878, IA
R. Perez, La compania de Jesus en Colombia y Centro-america despues de su restauracion 1896, IA
History of Regions Article Departments of Colombia, from Wikipedia
Categories : Departments of Colombia, Subdivisions of Colombia, from Wikipedia
Departments of Colombia, from www.statoids.com
Municipalities of Colombia, from www.statoids.com
S.A. Sæther, Identities and Independence in the Provinces of Santa Marta and Riohacha (Colombia) ca.1750-ca.1850, thesis Warwick 2001
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republica de Colombia 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Colombia, from Wikipedia
History of Bogota, from Bogota D.C., Wikipedia
History of Barranquilla, Cartagena
Cali, Leticia, Medellin, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Broadcasting in Colombia, from The Broadcast Archive
History of Avianca, from Wikipedia
The Tramways of Bogota, by Allen Morrison
Colombia, from Airline History
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Colombia
J.E. Benavides Campos, Historia de la television en Colombia y su funcion publica (1953-1958), thesis Univ. Nacional 2012
Culture Colombia, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
J.D. Arias Calle, La industria musical en Medellin 1940-1960: cambio cultural, circulacion de repertorios y experiencias de escucha, Univ. Nacional 2012
O. Saldarriaga Velez, "Nova et Vetera" : o de como fue apropiada la filosofia neotomista en Colombia, 1868-1930, thesis Louvain 2005
Biographies List of Colombians, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Colombia, from Relief Web
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
IRIS, International Digital Earthquake Archives : 1967 Huila (Colombia) Earthquake Archive
J.P. Aguado Alvarez, El agua en el territorio, la cultura y la política de San Andrés Isla: una historia ambiental del siglo XX para el siglo XXI, thesis Univ. Nacional 2010
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Colombia
Articles Colombia at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Lina Betancourt, Plan Pacifico in the Choco Region of Colombia, TED Case Studies 2005; Regina Kreger, Urra and the Embera-Katio, Colombia, ICE Case Studies 2005

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Colombia, from Wikipedia, U.S. Ambassadors to Colombia, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Colombia, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Bogota (Kolumbien), from Wikipedia German edition; Embajadores de Mexico en Colombia, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Heads of Post, Colombia, from MOFA Canada
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Colombia, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops Articles : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Barranquilla, Bogota, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cartagena, Ibague, Manizales, Medellin, Nueva Pamplona, Popayan, Santa Fe de Antioquia, Tunja, Villavicencio, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica, Colombia
Population Figures from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
World Life Expectancy : Colombia
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Election Results from Colombia (since 1998); from IFES Election Guide
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Colombia
Gazeta de Colombia 1821, IA
Selected Articles History of Colombia, from World History Archives
H.R. Lemly, Santa Fe de Bogota, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, June 1885, pp.47-59; Ricardo Becerra, The Republic of Columbia, ditto, Nov. 1889, pp.920-928, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Colombia, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Worldpress.org (links)
Online Yearbooks - Colombia Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Colombia 1870 pp.526-530, GB, 1871, pp.526-531, IA, 1872, pp.525-530, IA, 1873, pp.515-520, IA, 1874, pp.515-520, IA, 1875, pp.517-522, IA, 1876, pp.521-526, IA, 1877, pp.528-533, IA, 1878, pp.528-533, IA, 1879, pp.528-533, IA, 1880, pp.528-533, IA, 1881, pp.528-533, IA, 1883, pp.528-533, IA, 1884, pp.562-566, IA, 1885, pp.571-577, IA, 1886, pp.584-590, IA, 1887, pp.606-612, IA, 1888, pp.607-614, IA, 1889, pp.612-619, IA, 1890, pp.422-428, IA, 1891, pp.426-432, IA, 1892, pp.433-439, IA, 1894, pp.433-439, IA, 1895, pp.433-439, IA, 1896, pp.433-439, IA, 1898, pp.433-439, IA, 1899, pp.471-478, IA, 1903, pp.521-528, IA, 1913, pp.739-745, IA, 1919, pp.767-774, IA, 1921, pp.770-778, IA
Annuario pontificio 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Colombia
Films on History/Society Article : Cine de Colombia, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with Country of Origin : Colombia, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango, Fotografia Historica de Colombia
Systematic Collections
Accidental Collections Photo Archive (CO), Fotpografias antiguas historicas
Universal Collections
Items on Colombia
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Colombia, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Colombia
Search Scripophily for Colombia
Archival Deposits Portada de Pares, Archivos de Espana
Search National Archives (UK), Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
Colombia Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
The Colombia Documentation Project, from National Security Archive
Nationaal Archief, NL : Inventaris van het Archief van de Nederlandse Gezantschap, later de Ambassade Colombiua te Bogota en het consulaat in Colombia te Barranquilla van het Ministerie van Buitenlandse zaken, 1948-1974
Open Society Archives (OSA), Budapest : Colombia
Constitutions Constitutions of Colombia, from Political Database of the Americas
Constituciones de Colombia 1892, IA
Constitucion de los Estados Unidos de Colombia 1870, IA
Constitución de la Republica de Colombia 1886, IA
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Colombia, from ILO, 59 docs. since 1919
GlobaLex : Colombia; Legislation Colombia, from World Law Guide
M.A. Montoya (ed.), Todas las Leyes de Colombia desde 1992
Codigo Penal Colombia (Ley 19 de 1890), IA
Coleccion de las leyes dadas por el Congreso Constitucional de la Republica de Colombia en las sesiones de los anos 1823 y 1824, IA
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
Bilateral Treaties, from Banco Juriscol, in Spanish
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Colombia, from United States Institute of Peace
Colombia, pp.855-1003 in vol.6 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
P.I. Cadena, Coleccion de tratodos publicos de los Estados Unidos de Colombia (1884) in Spanish, IA
Consular Reports Consular Recommendations on South American Trade 1915 U.S. consuls, Colombia pp.17-20
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Colombia June 30 1915, Nov. 13 1916, Nov. 28 1916, Cartagena, Aug. 9 1917, Cartagena, Oct. 16 1918, Barranquilla, May 5 1919, IA
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections Documentos Historicos : Colombia, from Wikisource Spanish edition
Proclamas de Simon Bolivar, libertador de Colombia 1853, IA
Actos oficiales del gobierno provisorio de los Estados Unidos de Colombia 1862, IA
Individual Documents Incredibili, Encyclica by Pope Pius IX., Sept. 17th 1863, On Persecution in New Granada
Historical Maps Responsible Authority
collections Mapas de Colombia, from IGAC
Mapas Historicos, from IGAC
Cartografia Historica de Colombia, from Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango
Atlas Historico de Colombia, from Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango
Historical Colombia Maps, from Library of Congress Map Collection
Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango, Cartografia Historica (del Colombia)
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for South America, Colombia
Colombia Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Colombia, Maps of the history of Colombia, from Wikimedia Commons
Atlas of Colombia, from Wikimedia Commons
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Colombia, Modern
Colombia, Contemporary Blaeu 1640 : Terra Firmum, from Flickriver
American Historical Perspectives : Gran Colombia
Map of Colombia and Venezuela 1898, from History NYC
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Colombia, Bolivar (department), Cauca (department), Antioquta (department), Cundinamarca (department), Medellin (city), Manizales (city), Barranquilla (city), Cartagena (city), Cali (city), Buenaventura (city), Bogota (city), EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Kolumbien, Antioquia, Bogota, Bolivar, Cali, Cartagena, Cauca, Medellin, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Colombia, Bogota, Medellin, Cali, Cartagena, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907 edition
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Angostura, Bogota, Columbien, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : Ecuador, Venezuela und Neugranada, vol.4 1844 pp.109-112, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Colombia, pp.339-341 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Columbien, pp.652-656 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Colombia, pp.456-458 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnological Colombia, pp.856-861 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
The Andean North pp.187-209, in vol.11 of L.H. Gray, The Mythology of all Races, 1920, GB
The Muyscas and Eldorado pp.281-284 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Historical The Backward States : Colombia, pp.179-181 in W.W. Sweet, A History of Latin America, 1929, GB
Other Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1864 (vol.16) : Panama, p.387, GB
Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1867 (vol.19) : Panama, p.422, GB
Article : Columbia, in : Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, 1912, in German, posted by Zeno
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides, Travelogues Pacific line guide to South America; containing information to travellers & shippers to ports on the east & west coasts of South America 1895, IA; Colombia pp.75-85
A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Colombia pp.95-100
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Colombia pp.185-203
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives Colombia, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
National Archives : Latin America, from UNESCO Archives Portal
Archivo General de la Nacion, Colombia; Archivo Nacional de Panama
Musea Museo Nacional de Colombia
Category : Museums in Colombia, from Wikipedia
Banco de la Republica, Museo de Oro
Monuments Showcaves : Colombia
World Heritage Site : Colombia
Monumentos Nacionales de Colombia, from Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango
Libraries Biblioteca Nacional de Panama; Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia
Libraries in Colombia, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Colombian banknotes, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Numismondo
Colombia Coins, from World Coin Gallery; from Numista, from ColNect, from OmniCoin
Search Coin Archives for Colombia; Colombia, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Colombia Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Catalogue Colombian Stamps 1859-1894, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Colombia survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.233-280 in R.H. Davis, Historical Dictionary of Colombia, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
Bibliography Colombia, from NNDB
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Colombia, Venezuela, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia, a Bibliography by E. Murray
Bibliography, from Colombia in Context
serial publications
general bibliographies
Colombia entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Bibliography : Andes, from Environmental History of Latin America; Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Latin American Books
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
C. Ream, Africans in Lation America, Bibliography
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on Colombia Biblioteca Digital Colombiana
Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango - Biblioteca Virtual
Biblioteca Nacional de Panama - Biblioteca Digital
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Colombia
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish)
Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango, Revista, Articulos y Tesis, scroll down for Celeccion Tests
Univ. Nacional, Biblioteca Digital, Repositorio Institucional
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Directory of Open Access Journals
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
On Colombia LANIC, Academic Journals : Colombia
Revista Credential Historia, 1990-2010
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de Cultura 1-26, 1963-1999
Revista Historia Critica, selection of articles from issues 17 to 31 posted
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
Specific Topics Chapter XI : Hail Colombia, pp.160-175, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
Chapter 24 : Colombia : The Background of the Violencia, pp.431-480 in : John Gunther, Inside South America, NY : Harper & Row (1964) 1967 [G]
Luz Marina Diaz, The Migration of Labour in Colombia, pp.223-225 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
Historical Dictionaries R.H. Davis, Historical Dictionary of Colombia, Methuen : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
Articles : Antioquia pp.25-27, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp.1076-1079, 1944 pp.199-200, 1945 pp.199-200, 1946 pp.223-224, 1947 pp.223-224, 1948 pp.211-212, 1948 pp.211-212, 1949 pp.181-182, 1950 pp.189-190, 1951 pp.194-195, 1952 pp.193-194, 1953 pp.185-186, 1954 pp.186-187, 1955 pp.238-239, 1956 pp.177-178, 1957 pp.235-237, 1958 pp.174-175, 1958 pp.174-175, 1959 pp.174-175, 1960 pp.173-174, 1961 pp.180-181, 1962 pp.169-170, 1963 pp.282-283, 1964 pp.264-265, 1965 p.249, 1966 pp.196-198, 1967 pp.214-215, 1968 pp.210-212, 1969 pp.208-219, 1970 pp.215-217, 1971 pp.203-204, 1972 pp.186-187, 1973 pp.182-183, 1974 pp.193-194, 1975 pp.174-175, 1976 pp.194-195, 1977 pp.196-197, 1978 pp.252-253, 1979 p.255, 1980 pp.249-250, 1981 pp.248-249, 1982 pp.245-246, 1983 pp.242-243, 1984 pp.238-239, 1985 pp.584-585, 659, 1986 pp.575, 655, 1987 pp.544-545, 624, 1988 pp.498, 576, 1989 pp.497-498, 576, 1990 pp.514-515, 591, 1991 pp.499, 576, 1992 pp.472, 576, 1993 pp.480-481, 586, 1994 pp.480-481, 586, 1995 pp.395, 586, 1996 pp.393, 586, 1997 pp.409-410, 584, 2002 pp.408-409, 581 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook 1878 pp.528-533, 1889 pp.612-619, 1895 pp.433-438, 1898 pp.433-439, 1901 pp.497-504, 1902 pp.511-518, 1905 pp.544-551, 1907 pp.833-840, 1910 pp.706-712, 1918 pp.769-776, 1919 pp.767-774, 1924 pp.762-769, 1925 pp.772-779, 1926 pp.749-756, 1928 pp.759-767, 1929 pp.752-759, 1932 pp.758-765, 1937 pp.795-803, 1942 pp.797-805, 1943 pp.793-802, 1961-1962 pp.907-915, 1970-1971 pp.820-827, 1973-1974 pp.827-834, 1975-1976 pp.831-838, 1976-1977 pp.842-849, 1978-1979 pp.350-356, 1979-1980 pp.350-357, 1980-1981 pp.353-359, 1981-1982 pp.358-365, 1982-1983 pp.361-368, 1983-1984 pp.363-368, 1984-1985 pp.361-366, 1985-1986 pp.363-368, 1986-1987 pp.367-373, 1987-1988 pp.368-373, 1988-1989 pp.370-375, 1989-1990 pp.373-378, 1990-1991 pp.372-377, 1991-1992 pp.372-377, 1992-1993 pp.373-378, 1993-1994 pp.373-378, 1994-1995 pp.364-369, 1995-1996 pp.352-357, 1996-1997 pp.363-368, 1997-1998 pp.372-377, 1998-1999 pp.408-413, 2000 pp.472-478, 2001 pp.459-464, 2002 pp.478-484, 2003 pp.476-482, 2004 pp.477-483, 2005 pp.474-480, 2006 pp.468-475 [G]
Other Article : Colombia, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.202-204, 1899 pp.207-210, 1900 pp.229-232 [G]
Article : Colombia, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.181-183, 1908 pp.170-172, 1909 pp.172-173, 1910 pp.173-174, 1913 pp.178-180, 1914 pp.175-177, 1916 pp.156-157, 1917 pp.164-166, 1918 pp.148-149, 1919 pp.169-170, 1920 pp.158-159, 1921 pp.162-164, 1922 pp.168-169, 1923 pp.169-170, 1924 pp.171-173, 1925 pp.168-169, 1926 pp.186-188, 1928 pp.178-179, 1929 pp.202, 204-206, 1930 pp.181-183, 1931 pp.218-221, 1932 pp.197-200, 1933 pp.172-174, 1934 pp.154-155, 1935 pp.156-158, 1938 pp.166, 168-170, 1939 pp.153-155, Events of 1940 pp.147-149, 1941 pp.138-140, 1942 pp.158-160, 1943 pp.136-138, 1944 pp.140-142, 1945 pp.129-132 [G]
Article : Colombia, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.189-193, 1894 pp.144-145 [G]
Article : Colombia, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.204, 217-218, 1928 pp.198-200, 1930 pp.198, 212-213, 1931 pp.213, 227-228, 1932 pp.176, 189-190, 1933 pp.183, 198-199, 1934 pp.157-158, 173, 1935 pp.164, 179-180, 1936 pp.165, 180-181, 1937 pp.170-171, 1938 pp.158, 179-180, 1939 pp.263-264, 1940 pp.203-205, 1943 pp.175, 201, 1944 pp.166, 193-194, 1945 pp.182, 209-210, 1946 pp.184, 211-212, 1947 pp.157, 184-185, 1957 pp.168, 186-188, 1958 pp.167, 182-183, 1959 pp.160, 175-176, 1960 pp.159, 174-176, 1961 pp.153, 169-170, 1962 pp.153, 170-171, 1963 pp.166-167, 1964 pp.155, 167, 1965 pp.181-182, 1966 pp.198-199, 1967 pp.196-197, 1968 p.186, 1969 pp.198-199, 1970 p.200, 1971 p.213, 1972 p.201, 1973 p.197, 1974 pp.181-182, 1975 pp.190-191, 1976 p.195, 1977 p.168, 1978 p.158, 1979 p.163, 1980 pp.176-177, 1981 pp.191-192, 1983 p.181, 1984 pp.181-182, 1985 p.186, 1986 p.183, 1987 p.187, 1988 p.191, 1989 p.190, 1990 p.186, 1992 p.194, 1993 p.190, 1994 p.190, 1995 pp.185-186, 2002 pp.145-146 [G]
Article : Colombia, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.120-122, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.120-122, 4th ed. 1984 pp.121-122 [G]

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