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First posted on November 27th 2010

The territory of modern Venezuela was conquered by Spain in the early 16th century. Since the mid 16th century part of the Audiencia of Santo Domingo (Viceroyalty of New Spain). Between 1717 and 1777 the provinces of Caracas, Cumana, Guyana, Trinidad and Margarita were transferred from the Audiencia of Santo Domingo to the Viceroyalty of New Granada. The Captaincy General of Venezuela, with Caracas as capital, was established in 1777. In 1802 Spain ceded the island of Trinidad (to Britain. In 1823 Venezuela achieved independence as part of Gran Colombia; in 1830 Venezuela declared independence from the latter..

Provinces : Venezuela (Coro, Caracas, established 1526),
Trinidad (established 1532; in 1595 merged with Guyana to form Trinidad-Guyana),
Cumana (established 1568 by uniting New Andalucia and Paria; in 1633 New Catalonia was formed out of parts of Venezuela and New Andalucia, until 1777 under Audiencia of Santo Domingo),
Margarita (est. 1525),
Guyana (est. 1530, 1591-1731 formed united province of Trinidad de Guyana, 1731-1762 integrated into province of New Andalucia, 1762- Comandancia de Guyana, until 1786 under Bogota, since under Caracas,
La Grita established 1570; 1607 Merida annexed, 1676 Maracaibo (hitherto part of Venezuela) annexed, in 1777 placed under Audiencia de Santo Domingo, in 1786 Province of Barinas split off.

In pre-independence sources, Venezuela is often simply referred to as Terra Firma, of which it formed part.

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Modern Article : Captaincy General of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Article : Capitania General de Venezuela, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
L. Vitale, La Capitania General de Venezuela, 2002
Historical Ch.2 : The extent, climate, soil, product, rivers, chief towns and trade of the province of New Andalusia, pp.353-355, ch.4 : The province of Venezuela, its soil, productions, chief towns, trade &c., pp.357-362, in J. Campbell, An account of the Spanish settlements in America, 1762, GB
R.H. Bonnycastle, Spanish America, vol.1, 1818, vol.2, 1818, GB
J.J.D. Lavaysse, A statistical, commercial, and political description of Venezuela, Trinidad, Margarita and Tobago, 1820, GB
Links Category : Captains General of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Categoria : Capitania General de Venezuela, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
BitBlioteca : Venezuela
Organizations Academia Nacional de la Historia
Historical Dictionaries La Venciclopedia, in Spanish
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia; from Venezuela Tuya
Historical H. Michael Tarver and Julia C. Frederick, The History of Venezuela, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 987 T196t
Bureau of the American Republics : Venezuela [a handbook] (1899), posted on Internet Archive
E. Blanco, Venezuela Heroica: Cuadros historicos (1881) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
J.M. de Rojas, Bosquejo historico de Venezuela (1888) in Spanish, osted on Internet Archive
J.M. Spence, The land of Bolivar; or, War, peace and adventure in the republic of Venezuela, vol.1, vol.2 (1878), posted on Internet Archive
J.F. Heredia, E. Pineyro, Memorias sobre las revoluciones de Venezuela (1895) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
R.M. Baralt, R. Diaz, Resumen de la historia de Venezuela (1841) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
J. de Oviedo y Banos, Historia de la conquista y poblacion de la provincia de Venezuela (1885) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive; here 1824 Spanish edition, GB; The Conquest and Settlement of Venezuela (1723) Engl trsl. by J.J. Varner 1987, GB
Specific Periods
Administration Links Conformacion politica de las provincias en el territorio venezolano y su organizacion politica, by Denys Vasquez, in Spanish
La Real Audiencia de Caracas, from Efemerides Venezolanas, in Spanish
Political Discussion
Economy & Finances
Social History Comuneros en la Capitania General de Venezuela, Biblioteca Nacional, Colombia
Ethnography Languages of Venezuela (46), from Ethnologue
Venezuela, from L'amenagement linguistique dans le monde, in French
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Venezuela, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Venezuela, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Daniel Pilo, Evolucion Politica de las Provincias que formaran posteriormente Venezuela, in Spanish
A. Caulin, Historia coro-graphica natural y evangelica de la Nueva Andalucia, 1779, in Spanish, GB
Local History List of Cities in Venezuela, from Wikipedia
History of Caracas, from Wikipedia
History of Maracaibo, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Venezuelans, from Wikipedia
Others Venezuela, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Venezuela, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops Article : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Coro, Caracas, Merida, from Wikipedia
Population Figures from Population Statistics (Jan Lahmeyer)
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Portada de Pares, Archivos de Espana
Search National Archives (UK), Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
Constitutions, Laws
Consular Reports
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections Documentos Historicos : Venezuela, from Wikisource Spanish edition
Documentos : Historia de Venezuela, from BitBliography
Real Cedula del 8 de setiembre de 1777, from BitBliography; from Academia Nacional de la Historia
Interesting official documents relating to the United Provinces of Venezuela, 1812, GB
Documentos para los anales de Venezuela desde el movimiento separatista de la Union colombiana vol.1 1890, vol.2 1890, vol.4 1890, vol.6 1891, vol.7 1891, Secundo Periodo vol.1 1891, vol.2 1891, vol.3 1892, vol.4 1892, in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Documents Relating to the Question of Boundary Between Venezuela and British Guiana (1896), posted on Internet Archive
Historical Maps Map : Virreinato de Santa Fe y Capitania General de Venezuela, from Wikimedia Commons (Atlas geografico e historico de la Republica de Colombia, 1890)
Categoria : Mapas antiguos de Venezuela, from Wikipedia, in Spanish
South America map to 1799, by J. de Salas Vara de Rey
Caracas 1775, 1814, from David Rumsey Map Collection
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Venezuela, Caracas, Maracaibo, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Venezuela, pp.164-165 in U. Cerri, An account of the state of the Roman-Catholick religion throughout the world, 1715, GB
Geographical G. Coleti O.S.J., Dizionario Storico-Geografico dell' America Meridionale, vol.1 & 2, 1771, in Italian, GB
The Province of Venezuela pp.383-384, The Province of New Andalucia p.384 in vol.8 of Th. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
J. Morse, The American Gazetteer, 1804, Entries : Caracoas, Comana, Leon de Caracas, Maracaibo, New Andalusia, Paria, Terra Firma, Venezuela, GB
A. de Alcedo, The geographical and historical dictionary of America and the West Indies, Entries : Caracas, pp.296-308 in vol.1, 1812, Cumana, pp.555-558 in vol.1, 1812, Maracaibo, pp.447-450 in vol.2, 1812, New Andalusia, p.383 in vol.3, 1812, Venezuela, pp.155-205 in vol.5, 1814, GB
Historical Terra Firma. 5. Venezuela. 6. Comana. 7. New Andalusia. 8. Caribiana. 9. Guiana. 10. Paria, pp.252-257 in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1746, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues F.J. Pons, A voyage to the eastern part of Terra Firma, or the Spanish Main, vol.1, 1806, vol.2, 1806, vol.3, 1806, GB
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Archivo General de la Nacion, Venezuela; Academia Nacional de Venezuela, click Archivo y Biblioteca
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
Coins, Banknotes Venezuela banknotes, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Venezuela Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Historia de la Moneda Venezolana, Epoca Capitania General, from Monedas de Venezuela

Bibliography General RHS Bibliography
on Venezuela Venezuela, from The Online Books Page
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Commented Bibliography from Venezuela Analysis
Colombia, Venezuela, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia, a Bibliography by E. Murray
Bibliography Venezuela, from NNDB
Numismatic Catalog of Venezuela, Blbliography
Bibliografia Venezolana (description), from Biblioteca Nacional de Venezuela, in Spanish
Bibliography : Andes, from Environmental History of Latin America; Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Latin American Books
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
Academia Nacional de Venezuela, click Publicaciones
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
on Venezuela Biblioteca Digital Venezolana
Biblioteca Digital Academica Venezolana
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
Thesis Server TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Cuba
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On Venezuela
General Accounts John Charles Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire. A Concise History of Latin America, N.Y. : W.W. Norton 2002 [G]
H. Michael Tarver and Julia C. Frederick, The History of Venezuela, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 987 T196t
Specific Topics Tucacas, pp.261-268 in : Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002
Historical Dictionaries Donna Keyse Rudolph and G.A. Rudolph, Historical Dictionary of Venezuela, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1971 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]

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