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Literature on the History of South America
Colombia Peru
First posted on March 26th 2002, last revised on November 26th 2013







History of Ecuador : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE

For the country's earlier history, see History of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
1820-1830 . 1830-1870 . 1870-1918 . 1918-1945 . 1945-1970 . Since 1970


Ecuador during the fight for Independence and as part of Grand Colombia, 1820-1830 . Spanish conquest of the territory of modern Ecuador in the 1530es; establishment of the Royal Audiencia of Quito in 1563. From 1563 to 1717 and from 1723 to 1739 it was subordinate to the Viceroyalty of Peru, from 1717 to 1723 and from 1739 to 1822 to the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
The quest for independence from Spain began in 1820, when Esmeraldas was the first province to declare it; many other provinces soon followed. Most importantly, patriots gained control of Guayaquil that year. The Spanish held on to Quito and Ecuador became a battleground. Both old ties to New Granada and the desperate need for military support and leadership made the new authorities in Guayaquil appeal to Simon Bolivar, the president of newly independent Gran Colombia. In 1822 the revels in Ecuador joined the Republic of Gran Colombia
Ecuador now became the battleground in a war involving three parties, the Royalists (Spanish), the Argentinians under General San Martin, campaigning in/from Peru, and the Colombians commanded by Gen. Sucre. Quito was liberated in 1822; Bolivar annexed Quito and Guayaquil for Gran Colombia that year.
In 1824/25, the Spanish forces in Peru were decisively defeated. Meanwhile, Bolivar had imposed martial law over Ecuador, ruling with heavy hand. This causes an anti-Bolivarian rising in Lima/Peru. Rebel forces occupied parts of Ecuador. In 1829, Colombian troops under Sucre defeated the Peruvians, Colombian authority over Ecuador was restored.


Early Independence, 1830-1870 . While Ecuador was a battlefield, the political decisions were made by foreigners - Colombians, Spanish royalists, Peruvians. Bolivar and his staff, in order to finance/organize the struggle for independence, ordered taxation, enforced conscription, cantonment and severe punishments in case of violations. Soldiers excesses added to the suffering of the people.
When Bolivar's rule was challenged all over Gran Colombia in 1830, The Department of Quito, renaming itself Ecuador, followed Venezuela's example and declared independence from Gran Colombia. It was soon joined by Guayaquil and Cuenca. The independence was financed by British credits.
A new constitution was passed, reserving the right to vote for men with property and education. The Indios were declared wardens of the clergy. In 1832, the Galapagos islands were annexed.
Factional fighting continued, as unpaid troops, local administration chiefs pursued their own agenda. In addition, Ecuador found itself in a conflict with Peru over the countries' borders. Ecuador's civil war ended in 1836 with a victory of the Conventionales over the Restauradores; with Jose Vicente Rocafuerte Rodriguez assuming the presidency, independence (from Colombia) is finally secured. In 1840, Ecuador's independence was recognized by Spain.
The country still lacked political stability, The constitution was frequently changed (2nd, 1835, 3rd 1843, 4th 1845, 5th 1851, 6th 1852, 7th 1861, 8th 1869), the armed forces interfered in the democratic process by not recognizing presidential authority (1845, 1850), to which the invasion of mercenary troops lead by disgruntled Ecuadorian politicians (Flores 1852, Urbina 1865) and armed insurrections (1864) only added. War declared by Ecuador on Colombia in 1862 and 1863 (ending in two military defeats, without border changes) did not help either. Regarding the political structure of Ecuador, a dichotomy emerged, Quito becoming the center of the conservatives and Guayaquil the center of the iberals. Ecuador, caught in factional fighting, was the object of ambitious politicians, the political aims of whom were often difficult to separate from personal ones. The country lacked the belief in a common good, the willingness to invest trust in (other) politicians and in the constitution.
In 1832, the border to Colombia was fixed by treaty, Ecuador ceding territory north of the Carchi river. In 1853 Peru annexed the upper Amazon region, disputed by Ecuador.
In the 1830es, under president Rocafuerte, the state introduced a public education system. In Guayaquil, a steamship was built in 1840. Slavery was abolished in 1851. In 1857, cocoa production peaked.

1870-1918 . Political instability (assassination of Pres. Moreno 1875, a rebellion centering in Guayaquil, soon taking power, the 9th constitution passed in 1878, civil war in 1883, 10th constitution pased in 1884, revolution in 1885, again civil war 1895/96, 11th constitution passed in 1897, 1905 coup d'etat, 1906 civil war, 1906 12th constitution, revolution 1913) continued.
The border disputes with Peru, and less frequent, with Colombia, again and again turned into hot conflicts; many treaties being signed, no permanent solution was found and Ecuador's relation with Peru remained tense.
The years of troubles saw a frequent change in the policy toward the church, with the banishment, readmittance and again banishment of the Jesuit Order etc. In 1900, the Registry Office was introduced, taking this responsibility out of the hands of the church.
In 1884 a new currency was introduced, the Sucre (1 Sucre = 100 centavos), replacing the old Peso (1 Peso = 8 Reales). In 1907, Ecuador's economy suffers from a sharp fall in the price of cocoa (the country's major export product). In 1908, the railroad between Guayaquil and Quito began operation, rising from sea level (Guayaquil) to 2.800 m (Quito). In 1914, oil was found.
Late in World War I, Ecuador joined the Entente. No troops were dispatched.

1918-1945 . Political instability (Indian uprising 1923, revolution 1925, 13th constitution passed 1929, army rebellion 1931, civil war 1931/32, 14th constitution 1938, 1939 12th constitution reinstated, 1941/1942 war with Peru over border claims, 1944 army rebellion, 1945 15th constitution passed) continued.
In the 1920es, Ecuador's economy was in a crisis, effected by the crisis the world economy found itself in after World War I, a fungus attacking the cocoa tree affected production. Increased competition and the Great Depression further reduced the country's exports. In 1934 Ecuador introduced social security.
In 1942 Ecuador terminated diplomatic relations with the Axis Powers, permitted the U.S. to establish bases on Ecuadorian territory. German, Italian and Japanese nationals were detained, German etc. institutions closed down. Ecuador did not actively participate in the war overseas. The border conflict with Peru 1941/42 was not part of World War II.

1945-1970 . Political instability (presidential coup d'etat 1946; 16th constitution passed 1946; insurrection 1956, 1959, coup d'etat 1961, 1963, 1966 revolt at Univ. of Quito, 17th constitution passed 1967) continued, although the years 1948-1960 saw a continuity of constitutional rule and less political unrest than in other periods of Ecuador's troubled history.
In the 1950es, Ecuador lived through a banana boom. In 1955 Ecuador claimed a 200 mile exclusive fishing zone, causing a conflict with the U.S.A. Beginning in 1964, oil exploration (Texaco) increased. The nation's currency, the Sucre, was devalued in 1961 and 1970.
In the mid 1960es the Huasipungo System, according to which an Indio was given a small plot of land by a landlord in exchange for his labour and a low wage, was abolished and the Indio permitted to own land outright. Ecuador used the Galapagos Islands as a penal colony.
Ecuador, staunchly anti-communist, began to reconsider it's foreign policy, as political maverick and 5-time president Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra was an outspoken critic of the United States and the fishery conflict lingered on.

Since 1970 . Administration . The presidency was held by Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra 1968-1972, then by dictator Guillermo Rodriguez 1972-1976, followed by dictator Alfredo Poveda 1976-1979, by democratically elected Jaime Roldos Aguilera 1979-1981, Osvaldo Hurtado 1981-1984, Leon Febres Cordero 1984-1988, Rodrigo Borja Cevallos 1988-1992, Sixto Duran Ballen 1992-1996, Abdala Bucaram 1996-1997, Fabian Alarcon 1997-1998, Jamil Mahuad 1998-2000, Gustavo Noboa 2000-2003, Lucio Gutierrez 2003-2005, Alfredo Palacio 2005-2007, Rafael Correo since 2007. 1981-2000 and since 2000, Ecuador is a functioning democracy; since 1996 no president has lasted his full term of 4 years. Ecuador adopted new constitutions in 1996 and in 1998.
Political History . As elsewhere in Latin America, the military dictatorship 1972-1979 was part of the Cold War, the dictators being supported by the U.S., and taking an anti-Communist stand. Democratic governments since 1979 have attempted, with varying emphasis, to open the country's economy and to address the social problems, poverty both urban and rural, and the situation of the country's ethnic minorities. Demonstrations of indigenous Ecuadorians forced President Jamil Mahuad to resign in 2000. The democratic governments also were threatened by occasional military coup attempts respectively revolts (2000).
Foreign Policy . During the dictatorship 1972-1979, Ecuador was closely allied to the U.S.; following the restoration of parliamentary democracy, Ecuador took a more distant stand to the U.S.; Ecuador sent a team of athletes to the Summer Olympics held in Moscow in 1980, thus boycotting the boycott. 1991. Ecuador did not participate in the military coalitions liberating Kuwait in 1991, invading Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003. In 1995 Ecuador and Peru fought a brief war, the Cenepa War, over disputed border territory. Ecuador enjoys associate status with Mercosur (established in 1991).
The Economy . Inflation, by comparison to other Latin American economies, was moderate until 1987 when it accelerated (IHS p.661). Oil production in 1970 was 193,000 metric tons, rose to 10 million metric tons in 1973, remained at 8-10 million until 1982, at 14-15 million 1985-1991, at 19-20 million 1995-1997 (IHS p.320). Cocoa production rose from 54,000 metric tons in 1970 to 100,000 metric tons in 2000, coffee production from 72,000 metric tons in 1970 to 134,000 metric tons in 2000 (IHS p.223). Rice production rose from 232,000 metric tons in 1970 to 1.24 million metric tons in 2000.
Social History . The population of Ecuador in 1970 is estimated at 5.96 million; the census of 1974 counted 6.52 million, the census of 1982 8.06 million, the census of 1990 9.64 million, the census of 2001 12.09 million (Lahmeyer). The 2007 estimate is 13.55 million.

Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)
Students' Papers : Song, Jeeun : History of Metallurgy and Mining in the Andean Region (2009)





WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Ecuador
Article : Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Historical M. Villavicencio, Geografia de la republica del Ecuador, 1858, in Spanish, GB
Th.Cl. Dawson, The South American republics (1903) vol.2 (has Ecuador section pp.285-346), posted on Internet Archive
Links General from LANIC
Category : Ecuador, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Categoria : Historia de Ecuador, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Historical Text Archive : Ecuador
Organizations Academia Nacional de Historia, Ecuador
Instituto de Historia Maritima, Ecuador
Historical Dictionaries E.A. Pino, Enciclopedia del Ecuador, in Spanish; as of Dec 3 2010 does not work
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
A.T. Cevallos, A.B. Gonzalez, Cronologia de la Historia Resumida del Ecuador, in Spanish, extensive
Chronology of a Brief History of Ecuador : Under Spanish/Colombian Rule and The Republic, by Alfredo Tinajero Cevallos and Amparo Barba Gonzales, very detailed timelines
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia; from Wikipedia Spanish edition
F.X. Martinez (trsl.), The Histories of Enrique Ayala Mora (translated excerpts); Enrique Ayala Mora is Ecuador's preeminent historian
Historical F.G. Suarez, Historia general de la Republica del Ecuador (1892) in Spanish, IA
C.R. Enoch, Ecuador, its ancient and modern history, topography and natural resources, industries and social development (1914), IA
Specific Periods Articles : Pre-Columbian Ecuador, Royal Audience of Quito, History of Ecuador (1830-1860), Marcist Revolution, History of Ecuador (1860-1895), History of Ecuador (1895-1925), History of Ecuador (1925-1944), History of Ecuador (1944-1960), History of Ecuador (1960-1990), History of Ecuador (1990-present), from Wikipedia
Articles : Reino de Quito, Real Audiencia de Quito, Presidencia de Quito, Provincia Libre de Guayaquil, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
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Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Ecuador; Governments on the WWW : Ecuador
General Politics of Ecuador, from Wikipedia; Country Report : Ecuador, from Polity IV; For the Record 2000 : Ecuador, from UN Human Rights System
Article : Historia del constitutionalismo Ecuatoriano, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Institutions Constitutionnet : Constitutional History of Ecuador
E. Kingman Garces et al., Seguridad y Policia de la ciudad : Quito en el siglo XIX e inicios del XX (Investigacion), FLACSO Ecuador, Programa de Estudios de la Ciudad, May 2009 pp.74-82
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Foreign Relations IISS, The Farc Files: Venezuela, Ecuador and the Secret Archive of 'Raul Reyes' 2011, summaric introduction
CASCON Case EUS : Ecuador-USA 1963-1975, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
International Boundary Studies, search for Ecuador
Jeffrey Franco, Peru-Ecuador Border Dispute, ICE Case Studies 1997
Military Wars of Ecuador 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data
Category : Ecuadorian-Peruvian War, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances General Article Economy of Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Ecuador 2007
Category : Enterprise Ecuador, from Economy Point
Economic History IMF Working Paper : The Late 1990s Financial Crisis in Ecuador: Institutional Weaknesses, Fiscal Rigidities, and Financial Dollarization at Work, 2004
THE Boletin : Historia Economica Gubernamental : Juan Jose Flores (1830-1835), Nov. 2001, Vicente Rocafuerte (1835-1839), Dec. 2001, El segundo gobierno de Juan Jose Flores (1839-1845), Jan. 2002, La economia en las gobiernos de Roca, Noboa e Ascazubi (1845-1851), May 2002, La economia en el gobierno de Jose Maria Urbina (1851-1856), June 2002, La economia en el gobierno de Francisco Robles (1856-1859), July 2002, La economia en el gobierno de Gabriel García Moreno (1861-1865), Dec. 2002, La economia en el gobierno de 1867-1869, Jan. 2003, La economia en el segundo gobierno de Gabriel García Moreno (1869-1875), Mar. 2003, La economia en los gobiernos de Leon, Eguiguren y Borrero (1875-1876), Apr. 2003, La economia en el gobierno de Ignacio de Veintemilla (1876-1883), May 2003, La economia en el gobierno de Jose Maria Placido Caamano (1883-1888), June 2003, La economia en el gobierno de Antonio Flores Jijon (1888-1892), July 2003, La economia en el gobierno de Luis Cordero (1892-1896), Oct. 2003, La economia en el gobierno de Eloy Alfaro (1895-1901), Nov. 2003, La economia en el gobierno de Leonidas Plaza Gutierrez (1901-1905), Dec. 2003, La economia en el gobierno de Eloy Alfaro (1906-1911), Jan. 2004, La economia en el gobierno de Leonidas Plaza Gutierrez (1911-1916), Mar. 2004, La economia en el gobierno de Alfredo Baquerizo Moreno (1916-1920), Apr. 2004, La economia en el gobierno de Jose Luis Tamayo (1920-1924), May 2004, La economia en el gobierno de Gonzalo Cordoba (1924-1925), July 2004, La economia en el periodo de las juntas julianas. La economia en el gobierno de Isidro Ayora, Oct./Nov. 2004, La economia en los gobiernos postjulianes, Dec. 2004, La economia en los gobiernos postjulianes, Jan. 2005, La economia en los gobiernos de Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra, Antonio Pons, Federico Paez, Alberto Enriquez Gallo 1934-1938, Apr. 2005, La economia en los gobiernos de 1938-1940, May 2005, La economia en el gobierno de Dr. Carlos Alberto Arroyo del Rio (1940-1944), June 2005, La economia en los gobiernos de Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra, Carlos Mancheno Cajas, Mariano Suarez Veintimilla y Carlos Julio Arosemena Tola, 1944-1948, Oct. 2005, La economia en el gobierno de Galo Plaza Lasso, 1948-1952, Nov./Dec. 2005, La economia en el gobierno de Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra, 1952-1956, Jan. 2006, La economia en el gobierno de Camillo Ponce Enriquez, 1956-1960, Apr. 2006, La economia en los gobiernos de Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra (1960-1961) y Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy (1961-1963), Oct. 2006, La economia en el gobierno de la Junta Militar 1963-1966, Jan. 2007, La economia en los gobiernos de Clemente Yerovi Indaburu (1966) y Otto Arosemena Gomez (1966-1968), Mar./Apr. 2008, La economia en el gobierno de Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra (1968-1972), April 2010
J.J. Paz et al., Breve descripcion del desajuste politico y economico del 1925-1947: de la Revolucion Juliana a "La Gloriosa", THE Boletin Apr. 2010
J.J. Paz et al., Ecuador en la Globalizacion: 1975-2005 , Historia Actual, no.18 (2009), pp.25-39
J. Oleas Montalvo, La política económica del Banco Central del Ecuador, ciclos recesivo y expansivo de política monetaria y control del tipo de cambio 1927-1937, thesis Quito 1995, FLACSO Ecuador
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Steve H. Hanke, Money and the Rule of Law in Ecuador, 2003
Article : 1998-1999 Ecuador Banking Crisis, from Wikipedia
C. Perez, Dollarization and Banking Stability in Ecuador , thesis Connecticut College 2012
Talleres de "El Commercio", Resumen Historico de Deuda Externa del Ecuador 1923, THE Boletin Mar, 2010
Trade U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Report on trade conditions in Ecuador (1909), IA
A.S. Peck, Industrial and Commercial South America (1922), Ecuador section pp.114-147, IA
H. Ibarra, Tierra, mercado y capital comercial en la sierra central : el caso de Tungurahua 1850-1930, thesis Quito 1987, FLACSO 1987
Institutions Quienes Somos, from Bolsa de Valores, Quito, in Spanish
Agriculture Company History : Chiquita Brands International, Inc., from Funding Universe
Breve Historia del cacao en el Ecuador, from G. Quirola, in Spanish
T. Winkel, Ecuador and Cacao : An Old Alliance, thesis Colorado State 2013
Article : Banana Production in Equador, Wikipedia
USDA, The Banana Sector in Ecuador. Trade. Supply Chain. U.S. Cooperation, 2011 Report
J. Sanbrailo, Ecuador: Never a Banana Republic, Latin Business Chronicle May 29 2012; Book Review
Fishery Cascon Case EUS: Ecuador-USA 1963-75
N.H. Bellinger, Globalization and Neoliberalism in Ecuador : The Expansion and Effects of the Commercial Tuna Fishing Industry, thesis Univ. of Oregon 2011
Mining Company History : Petroleos del Ecuador, from Funding Universe
E.M. Leon, Limites y Linderos: Una interpretacion decolonial de los conflictos territoriales en la Region Norte de Esmeraldas durante los finales del siglo XIX, thesis Duke 2013
M. Arsel et al., Property rights, nationalization and extractive industries in Bolivia and Ecuador n.d.
Other D.S. Emmerman, Breaking the Resource Curse. A Case Study of Smallholder Empowerment and Environmental Stewardship in Chone, Ecuador, thesis Amherst 2011; contains an Economic History of E.
J. Sanchez, La crisis, el ajuste y la pequena produccion urbana en Ecuador: 1988-1992, thesis Quito 1996, FLACSO Ecuador
Social History Ecuador, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Ecuador, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Article : Esclavitud : Ecuador, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
M.L. Gallardo Montoya, Ethnicity Based Wage Differentials in Ecuador's Labor Market, thesis Cornell 2006
M. Shappeck, Quichua-Spanish Language Contact in Salcedo, Ecuador : Revisiting Media Lengua Syncretic Language Practices, thesis Univ. of Illinois 2011; has chapter on the History of Quichua in Ecuador
G. Carillo Garcia, Historia agraria y organizacion social en la costa austral de Ecuador, 1950-2010. Estudio de caso de una cooperativa agricola : la Union Regional de Organizaciones Campesinas del Litoral, UROCAL, thesis Murcia 2013
P. Pilar, Cuando los montes se vuelven carbon : la transformacion de los paisajes en los alrededores de Quito 1860-1940, thesis Quito 1995, FLACSO Ecuador
J.A. Gomez Rendon, Typological and social constraints on language contact : Amerindian languages in contact with Spanish, thesis Amsterdam 2008; on Equadorian Quechua, Paraguayan Guarani and Mexican Otomi; has brief histories of these languages
Ethnography Languages of Ecuador (24), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Ecuador : Blacks, Highland Indigenous People, Lowland Indigenous People, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Ecuador
J.D. Bowen, Decolonizing Democratic Hegemony : The Indigenous Movement and Democratization in Ecuador, thesis Virginia Polytech 2002
M.D. Aviles, Narratives of Resistance : An Ethnographic View of the Emergence of the Huaorani Women's Association in the Ecuadorian Amazon, thesis Univ. of Florida 2008
D. Johns, Historical Influences in Contemporary Discourse, thesis Duke 2010; a comparative analysis and discussion on affirmative action for blacks in Ecuador and Brazil
E. Toche Medrano, El estado ecuatoriano y la poblacion indigena 1830-1860, thesis Quito 1994, FLACSO Ecuador
Religion General Category : Religion in Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Country Report : Ecuador, from ARDA
M. Candelo-Ramirez, Iglesia-Estado en Colombia y Ecuador 1830-1860, thesis Univ. Andina Simon Bolivar 1999
Catholic Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Ecuador, from Kirken i Norge
F.G. Suarez, Historia eclesiastica del Ecuador desde los tiempos de la conquista hasta nuestros dias (1881) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
J. Lehmann, The Shuar and the Salesian Mission in Ecuador During the 1960s and 1970s, History Department Vassar College 2008
Protestant A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings : Ecuador, from Prolades
Jewish Article : History of the Jews in Latin America : Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Article : Historia de los Judios en America Latina : Ecuador, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
The Virtual Jewish History Tour : Ecuador
Islam Article : Islam in Ecuador, from Wikipedia
History of Regions Article Provinces of Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Category : Provinces of Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Article Cantons of Ecuador, from Wikipedia
Provinces of Ecuador, from www.statoids.com
Cantons of Ecuador, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republica del Ecuador 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
S. Palomeque, La región de Cuenca en el siglo XIX, thesis Quito 1987, FLACSO Ecuador
Local History List of Cities in Ecuador, from Wikipedia
History of Quito, from In Quito, from Equaguia, from Wikipedia
History of Guayaquil, from Wikipedia
History of Cuenca, from Wikipedia
Institutions Transport The Ecuadorian Railroad and what is left of it, from Upside Down World
Ecuador, from Airline History
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Ecuador
H. Villagran, Eloy Alfaro: La Historia del Ferrocarril del Ecuador, El Nuevo Empresario 2007, in Spanish
Media History of Broadcasting in Ecuador, from The Broadcast Archive
D.E. Rivera Rogel, Breve historia de la prensa en Ecuador : el aporte de Loja (Portada), Breves historias de los medios en Ecuador, Quito : CIESPAL, (no.119, Sept. 2012): pp.3-16
Education Historia, from Universidad San Francisco de Quito, in Spanish
Culture Ecuador, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Article Ecuadior at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies R. Perez Pimentel, Diccionario Biografico del Ecuador, 23 volumes, online
List of Ecuadorians, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Disaster History by Country : Ecuador, from Relief Web
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
S. McCook, Las epidemias liberales: Agricultura, ambiente y globalizacion en Ecuador (1790-1930) Estudios sobre historia y ambiente en America, ed. Bernardo Garcia Martínez and Maria del Rosario Prieto, 2 2002 pp.223-246
IRIS, International Digital Earthquake Archives : 1970 Peru-Ecuador Earthquake Archive
Article : El Nino, Wikipedia
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
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Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Ecuador, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassador to Ecuador, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Ecuador, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Quito (Ecuador), from Wikipedia German edition
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Ecuador, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops Articles : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quito, Cuenca, Guayaquil, Portoviejo, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Ecuador
Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
World Life Expectancy : Ecuador
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Election Results from Ecuador (since 1998); from IFES Election Guide
Documents Historical Newspapers History of Ecuador, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Ecuador, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Worldpress.org (links)
Online Yearbooks - Ecuador Entries Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Ecuador 1870 pp.535-537, GB, 1871, pp.535-538, IA, 1872, pp.535-538, IA, 1873, pp.524-527, IA, 1874, pp.523-526, IA, 1875, pp.525-528, IA, 1876, pp.529-532, IA, 1877, pp.536-539, IA, 1878, pp.536-539, IA, 1879, pp.536-539, IA, 1880, pp.536-539, IA, 1881, pp.536-539, IA, 1883, pp.536-539, IA, 1884, pp.571-575, IA, 1885, pp.581-585, IA, 1886, pp.594-598, IA, 1887, pp.616-620, IA, 1888, pp.618-622, IA, 1889, pp.623-627, IA, 1890, pp.450-455, IA, 1891, pp.454-459, IA, 1892, pp.461-467, IA, 1894, pp.461-467, IA, 1895, pp.461-467, IA, 1896, pp.461-467, IA, 1898, pp.459-465, IA, 1899, pp.499-505, IA, 1903, pp.552-558, IA, 1913, pp.769-775, IA, 1919, pp.804-811, IA, 1921, pp.820-826, IA
Annuario pontificio 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Ecuador
Appletons' annual cyclopaedia and register of important events 1869 p.237, GB
J. Whitaker, An Almanack for the Year of our Lord 1897 p.542, GB
Staatskalender
Newsreels
Films on History/Society Article : Cine de Ecuador, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with Country of Origin : Argentina, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
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D. Galas, Fotos Antiguas del Ecuador
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Items on Ecuador
Search Scripophily for Ecuador
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Ecuador, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Ecuador
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Peace Corps Digital Library (more of an archive)
Ecuador Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Open Society Archives (OSA), Budapest : Ecuador
Constitutions Constitutions of Ecuador, from Political Database of the Americas
Constitucion de la republica del Ecuador: Dada en 1845 por la Convencion Nacional, 1845, in Spanish, GB
Constitucion de la republica del Ecuador: dada por la Convencion nacional 1850, 1851, GB
Constitucion, leyes, decretos y resoluciones del Congreso de 1853 y decretos reglementarios del Poder Ejecutivo, 1853, GB
Constitucion politica de la Republica del Ecuador, 1907, in Spanish, GB
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Ecuador, from ILO, 59 docs. since 1934
Constitucion, leyes, decretos y resoluciones del Congreso de 1853 y decretos reglementarios del Poder Ejecutivo, 1853, GB
Leyes de Ecuador, 1855, GB
Codigo penal de la Republica del Ecuador sancionado por la lejislatura de 1837, 1862, in Spanish, GB
Coleccion de leyes decretos dados por el Congreso constitucional de 1863, in Spanish, GB
Abocados del Ecuador, Codigos y leyes del Ecuador
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
Categoria : Tratados de Ecuador, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Ecuador-Peru, from United States Institute of Peace
Ecuador, pp.296-461 in vol.7 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Concordato celebrado entre su santidad el sumo pontifice Pio IX y el presidente de la Republica del Ecuador, 1866, in Spanish, Gb
Concordato celebrado entre su santidad Pio IX y el gobierno del Ecuador, 1863, in Spanish, GB
Tratado de paz y amistad celebrado entre Espana y la Republica del Ecuador, 1840 1841, GB
Tratados celebrados entre la Republica del Ecuador y varias naciones de Europa y America, 1862, GB
Equator, pp.247-252 in L. Hertslet, ed., Hertslet's commercial treaties,
Consular Reports Annual Report on Foreign Trade, Ecuador, Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries 1857, pp.214-216, GB
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Ecuador : Oct. 12 1915, Nov. 19 1917, Nov. 18 1918, Nov. 8 1919, IA
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Historiography
Document Collections Truth Commissions : Ecuador, from United States Institute of Peace
Family Search : Ecuador Catholic Church Records 1565-1996
Individual Documents F. Hassaurek, How to Conduct a Latin American Revolution, 1865, from Modern History Sourcebook, based on observations in Ecuador
Dum Multa, Encyclical by Pope Leo XIII, Dec. 24th 1902, On Marriage Legislation, marriage, Ecuador, sacrament, law, family
Historical Maps Responsible Authority Instituto Geografico Militar, Ecuador
collections Wikimedia Commons, Atlas of Ecuador
Category : Old Maps of Ecuador, Maps of the History of Ecuador, from Wikimedia Commons
Maps of Ecuador, PCL, UTexas
Historical Ecuador Maps, from Library of Congress Map Collection
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for South America, Ecuador
Geoportal Ecuador, Cartografia de libre acceso
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Ecuador, Modern
Ecuador, Contemporary
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Ecuador, pp.265-268 in vol.9 of Penny cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 1837, GB
Articles Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, Guayas, prov., Azuay, prov., Oriente, prov., Quito, city, Guayaquil, city, Cuenca, city, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Ecuador, Quito, Guayaquil, Oriente, Cuenca, Ibarra, Cajabamba, Loja, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ibarra, Quito, Riobamba, Loja, Mendez and Gualaquiza, Cuenca, Canelos and Macas, Zamora, Quichua Indians, Jibaro Indians, Gabriel Garcia Moreno, Pedro de Alvarado, Rafael Ferrer, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Guayaquil und Quito, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : Ecuador, Venezuela und Neugranada, vol.4 1844 pp.109-112, posted by DTBSWS
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Ecuador p.191
Geographical Republic of the Equator, pp.189-190 in A. Balbi, An abridgement of universal geography, 1835, GB
Republic of the Equator, p.454 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
Ecuador, pp.259-261 in S.A. Mitchell, A general view of the world, 1846, GB
The Republic of Equador, pp.517-524 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
Ecuador, p.274 in Th.C. Callicot, Hand-book of universal geography: being a gazetteer of the world, 1853, GB
Equador, pp.344-345 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Ecuador, pp.658-660 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Ecuador, pp.204-207 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Ecuador, pp.458-460 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnological Republique de l'Equateur, pp.462-464 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Ecquador pp.79-80 in R.D. Owen, The wrong of slavery, the right of emancipation, and the future of the African race in the United States, 1864, GB
Ecuador, pp.862-865 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Ecuador, pp.1625-1644 in vol.3A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Historical Republica del Ecuador, pp.171-172 in H. Belloc, Historia de America desde los tiempos mas remotos hasta nuestros dias, 1845, in Spanish, GB
The Backward States : Ecuador, pp.181-183 in W.W. Sweet, A history of Latin America, 1926, GB
Other Article : Ecuador, in : Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, 1912, in German, posted by Zeno
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides, Travelogues Pacific line guide to South America; containing information to travellers & shippers to ports on the east & west coasts of South America 1895, IA; Equador pp.86-92
A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Equador pp.100-105
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Equador pp.203-221
A.S. Peck, The South American Tour - A Descriptive Guide 1916, IA; on Equador pp.36-43
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives Archivo Nacional del Eduador
National Archives : Latin America, from UNESCO Archives Portal
Ecuador, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Musea Museums of Ecuador, from Ecuador Travel Guide
Museos Ecuador
Libraries Libraries in Ecuador, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Ecuador banknotes, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Ecuador Coins, from Numista, from Colnect, from OmniCoin, from World Coin Gallery
Historia Numismatica del Ecuador, from Numisecu, in Spanish
Ecuador, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Ecuador Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Catalogue Ecuador Stamps 1865-1896, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Ecuador survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.175-192 in A.W. Bork, G. Maier, Historical Dictionary of Ecuador, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
Michael T. Hamerly, Bibliografia Historica del Ecuador
Bibliography Ecuador, from NNDB
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies E. Salazar, Bibliografia Basica de la Arqueologia del Ecuador
Bibliografia : La Concepcion del Tiempo y Espacio en el Mundo Andino, Ecuador, Volvere May 2004
Bibliografia : Movimentos Indigenos en America Latina : Ecuador, Volvere July 2004
M. Catherine Peeke, A Bibliography of the Waorani in Ecuador (2003)
Books on Galapagos
Saraguro Bibliografia General by J. & L. Belote (2002)
Bibliography : Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia
Bibliography on Ecuador, OECD 1965, GB
serial publications
general bibliographies
Ecuador entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Bibliography : Andes, from Environmental History of Latin America; Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Latin American Books
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
Lists of Recent Theses/Theses in Work Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar, Ecuador, Area de Historia (Tesis); almost excvlusively on Ecuadorian history
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on Ecuador Bibliotecas Digitales, from El Ecuadoriano
Bibliotecas del Ecuador, Metabuscador
Academnia, Documents in Ecuador
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Ecuador
Repositorio Digital FLACSO Andes, based in Ecuador
Repositorio Digital de la PUCE, Universidad Andina Simon Bolivar Digital, Repositorio Digital de Instituto de Altos Estudios Nacionales, Universidad Estatal de Bolivar, Repositorio Digital Academico, Repositorio Digital Universidad de las Americas, Repositorio Digital Universidad Laica "Eloy Alfaro" de Manabi, Repositorio Digital de la Universidad San Francisco de Quito
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish)
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Directory of Open Access Journals
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
On Ecuador LANIC, Academic Journals : Ecuador
Taller de Historia Economica : Boletin 2001- ; General Index (not linked to the issues/articles)
Boletínes de la Academia Nacional de Historia Ecuador Collection, no.s 179-182, Scribd; no.185 2011, IAEN
Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia 1991-

Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
Specific Topics Chapter XIII : Ecuador on Edge, pp.187-196, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
Chapter 23 : The Curious Entity of Ecuador, pp.417-430 in : John Gunther, Inside South America, NY : Harper & Row (1964) 1967 [G]
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Albert William Bork and Georg Maier, Historical Dictionary of Ecuador, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp.1083-1084, 1944 p.244, 1945 pp.244-245, 1946 pp.271-272, 1947 pp.277-278, 1948 pp.261-262, 1949 p.217, 1950 pp.237-238, 1951 p.238, 1952 p.236, 1953 pp.231-232, 1954 pp.233-234, 1955 pp.282-283, 1956 p.221, 1957 p.279, 1958 p.218, 1959 p.215, 1960 p.216, 1961 pp.223-224, 1962 pp.217-218, 1963 pp.331-332, 1964 pp.319-320, 1965 pp.303-304, 1966 p.261, 1967 pp.306-307, 1968 pp.307-308, 1969 pp.307-308, 1970 pp.310-311, 1971 pp.296-297, 1972 pp.266-267, 1973 pp.259-260, 1974 pp.270-271, 1975 pp.256-257, 1976 p.301, 1977 p.294, 1978 p.341, 1979 p.335, 1980 pp.332-333, 1981 p.336, 1982 p.332, 1983 p.328, 1984 p.329, 1985 pp.585-586, 670, 1986 pp.578, 666, 1987 pp.547, 636, 1988 pp.501, 588, 1989 pp.501, 588, 1990 pp.517, 603, 1991 pp.501-502, 588, 1992 pp.475, 588, 1993 pp.483, 599, 1994 pp.483, 599, 1995 pp.401, 599, 1996 pp.399-400, 599, 1997 pp.414, 597, 2002 pp.417-418, 595 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook 1878 pp.536-539, 1889 pp.623-627, 1895 pp.461-466, 1898 pp.459-465, 1901 pp.527-533, 1902 pp.541-547, 1905 pp.582-589, 1910 pp.730-742, 1918 pp.800-806, 1919 pp.804-811, 1924 pp.816-822, 1925 pp.826-833, 1926 pp.802-808, 1928 pp.814-820, 1929 pp.804-810, 1932 pp.805-812, 1937 pp.845-851, 1942 pp.841-849, 1943 pp.833-846, 1961-1962 pp.961-968, 1970-1971 pp.870-875, 1973-1974 pp.871-877, 1975-1976 pp.877-882, 1976-1977 pp.887-892, 1978-1979 pp.410-415, 1979-1980 pp.412-418, 1980-1981 pp.411-416, 1981-1982 pp.416-422, 1982-1983 pp.422-428, 1983-1984 pp.424-429, 1984-1985 pp.423-428, 1985-1986 pp.425-430, 1986-1987 pp.429-435, 1987-1988 pp.436-441, 1988-1989 pp.438-443, 1989-1990 pp.441-446, 1990-1991 pp.440-445, 1991-1992 pp.440-445, 1992-1993 pp.507-511, 1993-1994 pp.513-517, 1994-1995 pp.500-504, 1995-1996 pp.497-501, 1996-1997 pp.437-441, 1997-1998 pp.446-450, 1998-1999 pp.489-494, 2000 pp.564-570, 2001 pp.547-552, 2002 pp.570-575, 2003 pp.573-578, 2004 pp.573-578, 2005 pp.572-577, 2006 pp.566-572 [G]
Other International Year Book 1898 pp.279-281, 1899 pp.284-286, 1900 pp.314-315 [G]
New International Year Book 1907 pp.235-236, 1908 pp.219-220, 1909 pp.216-217, 1910 p.220, 1913 pp.217-219, 1914 pp.216-217, 1916 pp.197-198, 1917 pp.208-209, 1918 pp.184-185, 1919 pp.211-212, 1920 pp.200-201, 1921 p.200, 1922 pp.210-211, 1923 pp.267-268, 1924 pp.212-213, 1925 pp.208-209, 1926 pp.233-234, 1928 pp.225-226, 1929 pp.253-255, 1930 pp.233-235, 1931 pp.270-271, 1932 pp.247-248, 1933 pp.232-233, 1934 pp.202-203, 1935 pp.205-207, 1938 pp.221-223, 1939 pp.209-211, Events of 1940 pp.197-199, 1941 pp.176-178, 1942 pp.202-204, 1943 pp.169-170, 1944 pp.175-177, 1945 pp.163-165 [G]
Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.304-306, 1894 p.248 [G]
Americana Annual 1927 pp.273-275, 1928 pp.243-245, 1930 pp.255-257, 1931 pp.264-265, 1932 pp.225-227, 1933 pp.244-246, 1934 pp.199-200, 1935 pp.220-222, 1936 pp.221-223, 1937 pp.207-208, 1938 pp.217-218, 1939 pp.248-249, 1940 pp.245-246, 1943 pp.246-247, 1944 pp.231-232, 1945 pp.243-244, 1946 pp.243-245, 1947 pp.216-218, 1957 pp.236-237, 1958 pp.231-232, 1959 pp.223-224, 1960 pp.226-227, 1961 pp.224-225, 1962 pp.228-229, 1963 pp.212-213, 1964 pp.211-212, 1965 p.239, 1966 pp.245-246, 1967 pp.246-247, 1968 p.235, 1969 p.256, 1970 p.259, 1971 p.270, 1972 pp.255, 396, 1973 p.248, 1974 p.217, 1975 p.213, 1976 p.217, 1977 p.189, 1978 p.176, 1979 p.183, 1980 p.191, 1981 p.208, 1983 p.198, 1984 p.200, 1985 pp.204, 1986 p.206, 1987 p.209, 1988 p.209, 1989 p.207, 1990 p.208, 1992 p.215, 1993 p.215, 1994 p.208, 1995 p.206, 2002 p.192 [G]
The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.125-126, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.125-126, 4th ed. 1984 pp.125-127 [G]
Entry : Ecuador, pp.428-433 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]