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Literature on the History of South America
Argentina Brazil
First posted on June 17th 2002, last revised on March 22nd 2011







History of Paraguay : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
For the country's earlier history, see also History of the Viceroyalty of la Plata.
1536-1811 . 1811-1870 . 1870-1918 . 1918-1945 . 1945-1954 . 1954-1989 . Since 1989


Colonial History, 1536-1811 . Spanish expeditions (Sebastian Cabot in 1527) exploring the La Plata region in the early 16th century intended to find a new route to Peru, such a route being offered by the Parana-Paraguay river system. In 1536, both the cities of Buenos Aires and Asuncion were founded, by Juan de Ayolas and Domingo Martinez de Irala, the latter ruling Paraguay until 1556.
Buenos Aires soon was given up due to pressure from hostile Indios. The remaining population was moved to Asuncion, which became the administrative center of the La Plata colony. From Asuncion, new Spanish cities were established in modern Argentina, such as Tucuman (1565), Rosario and Cordoba (1573) and, again, Buenos Aires (1580). Asuncion remained the capital of the La Plata colony until it was split in two provinces in 1617, in Argentina (Buenos Aires) and Paraguay (Asuncion). The Diocesis of Asuncion had been established in 1547. Paraguay was treated as being part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, the capital of which was Lima; communication between Asuncion and Lima was poor.
Since late in the 16th century the Jesuits were active in the area, establishing Missions in Indio territory, most successful in the rain forest region of Paraguay and adjacent Brazilian territory, among the Guarani. The oldest mission within Paraguay was San Ignacio Guazu (1616). The Guarani were converted to Catholicism and adapted to Spanish methods in agriculture and the crafts. There economy was based on communal property; the missions were economically competitive and successful. Their language continued to be Tupi Guarani.
With the growth of the colony in Argentina and the decline of Peru's mining industry (i.e. Bolivia's), Paraguay's strategic importance diminished, and the area was neglected by Spanish authorities. In 1721, a revolt of the Comuneros lead by Jose de Antequera was successful, Paraguay virtually independent for the following decade.
In the 1750es, the Jesuit missions came under attack by settlers envious of their commercial success and keen on forcing the Indios protected by the missions to work for them; the missions were dissolved by force, the Jesuits expelled.
In 1776 the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata was formed, capital Buenos Aires. Paraguay with Asuncion was allocated to La Plata. In 1811, Paraguay declared independence from Spain.


1811-1870 . In 1811, Spanish rule in Paraguay was terminated, to be succeeded by a chain of dictators ruling the country in the following decades, Jose Gaspar Rodriguez Francia (1811-1840), Carlos Antonio Lopez (1842-1862) and the latter's son, Francisco Solano Lopez.
Francia (1811-1840), after having secured Paraguayan independence in a conflict with Argentina, pursued a policy of strict isolation; foreigners were barred from entering the country. The dominating political stream was Anticlericanism; relations with the Papal State were cut.
His successor Carlos A. Lopez opened the country; under him a Europeanization took place.
Paraguay meanwhile was regarded a backward country. Francisco Solano Lopez in 1865 provoked a war in which the small, thinly populated country faced a coalition consisting of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Although the Paraguayan army held out against numerically superior and better equipped forces, the result was a disaster. Paraguay lost more than half of it's population. The war ended in 1870; only about 28,000 Paraguayan men are said to have survived it.
Domestically, Paraguay, under Dictator Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Francia, underwent a radical social restructuring. Garcia was regarded as honest, just, modest; the changes implemented transformed Paraguay from a colonial society into a nation. The cohesion thus prepared enabled Paraguay to hold out in the war against Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay 1865-1870.
In Paraguay, large estates (haziendas) were almost non-existent. The state was the largest landowner who rented land to farmers. Schools were established in every village, the Catholic Church nationalized.

1870-1918 . After the war was concluded in 1870, Paraguay was occupied by the allied forces for another 5 years. The country was given a republican constitution (1870). The political institutions established during the decades of dictatorship, which had made seem the existence of Paraguay a threat to their neighbours, were dismantled.
In 1874 the Colorado Party was formed, representing the landowning elite; in 1887 the Liberal Party was established. The Colorados ruled until 1904, the Liberals from 1904 to 1940. Paraguay had many short-lived governments, 4 alone in 1912 (administrations formed by members of the same party).
Paraguay's economy developed slowly, the country encouraged immigration, both minute in comparison with its big neighbours Argentina and Brazil. In World War I Paraguay stayed neutral, as the country had a small but influential community of German immigrants. In 1889 the University of Asuncion was founded. In 1897 the Diocesis of Asuncion was elevated into an Archdiocesis.

1918-1945 . After World War I, Paraguay continued to see numerous short-lived governments. The Liberals ruled until 1940, then to be succeeded, after a coup, by the Colorados. In 1932 Bolivia, striving to gain a port on the navigable Paraguay river, provoked a war over the ill-defined border to Paraguay. Against expectations, Paraguay's army gained the upper hand, and when the war was ended in 1935, Bolivia had lost most of it's Chaco province to Paraguay.
The war had exhausted tiny Paraguay, both militarily and economically.
Paraguay joined the League of Nations in 1935. In 1936 the Communist Party was outlawed. Through most of World War II, it remained neutral, declaring war on Germany in 1945.


1945-1954 . Between 1940 and 1948, Paraguay saw a stable government under President Higinio Morigino. The country recovered economically, its infrastructure was improved. Paraguay is bilingual, Spanish and Guarani being the official languages.
The country became a founding member of the United Nations.
In 1948, Morigino's dictatorship was overthrown. Morigino's Colorado Party dominated, the Liberals having been a tolerated and controlled opposition.
"This landlocked shoebox of a country has the most resonantly martial history in South America, a passionate patriotism, no TV, no stock exchange, and no income tax. Paraguay is one of the least-known nations in the world, far off the beaten track, derelict and remote." .. John Gunther, 1964

1954-1989
Administration . Dictatorship under General Alfredo Stroessner from 1954 to 1989.
Political History . Stroessner's Colorado Party dominated, the Liberals having been a tolerated and controlled opposition. In 1960 a Christian Democratic Party was formed. In 1967 a new constitution was introduced.
Foreign Policy . Following the establishment of the Communist Castro dictatorship on Cuba, the U.S., fearing the spread of Communism in Latin America, supported anti-Communist regimes in the region; the Paraguayan dictatorship, while exposed to international criticism because of her infringement in the citizens' civil liberties and because of her poor human rights record, escaped political isolation. In the 1980es the U.S. administration shifted away from supporting military dictatorships in Latin America, and the end of the Stroessner dictatorship coincided with the fall of Communism in Eastern Central Europe (1989).
The Economy . Paraguay is landlocked; much of the country is covered by tropical rainforest. When Stroessner began his presidency, the infrastructure was poor, the population density low, the economy mainly based on agriculture. In the 1970es hydroelectric power stations were constructed, agricultural production expanded. Wheat production rose from 2,000 metric tons of wheat in 1954 to 7,000 in 1964, 35,000 in 1974, 140,000 in 1984 to 432,000 in 1989 (IHS p.184). Soy beans and cotton were grown for export. The country suffered from the oil crisis; Paraguay's main trade partners are Argentina and Brazil. The Bolsa de Valores in Asuncion (stock exchange) was established in 1977. Until 1963, the import of Coca Cola was not permitted.
Social History . The country's population rose from 1.53 million in 1954 to 1.81 million in 1962 (census), 2.35 million in 1971 (census), 3.47 million in 1983 (census), 4.18 million in 1989 (J. Lahmeyer).

Since 1989
Administration . Dictator General Afredo Stroessner retired in 1989; he was succeeded by Andres Rodriguez Pedotti 1989-1993, J.C.M. Wasmosy-Monti 1993-1997, R.A.C. Grau 1997-2001, L.A.G. Macchi 2001-2005 and O.N.D. Frutos since 2005, all from the Colorado Party (ANR-PC). The presidency of A.R. Pedotti marks the transition from military dictatorship to parliamentary democracy.
Foreign Policy . Paraguay did not participate in the Operation Desert Storm (Kuwait 1991), the international force in Afghanistan since 2001, the Coalition of the Willing (Iraq 2003). Paraguay was a founder member of Mercosur in 1991.
The Economy . Paraguay exports agricultural products such as soybeans, cotton, grain, cattle and sugar, further timber and electricity.
Social History . The country's population rose from 4.18 million in 1989 to 5.21 million in 1998 (J. Lahmeyer); the estimate for 2007 is 6.66 million.

Historic Encyclopedias on Paraguay, 1809-1915


Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference, from Index Mundi
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Paraguay
Article Paraguay, from Wikipedia
Historical A.L.H.G. Marbais du Graty, La Republique du Paraguay, 1865, IA
M.G. Mulhall, Handbook of the river Plate, comprising the Argentine Republic, Uruguay and Paraguay 1875 ed., IA; on Paraguay pp.385-401; 1892 ed., IA; on Paraguay pp.637-652
International Bureau of the American Republics : Paraguay, a Handbook, 1892 ed., IA
Pan-American Union, Paraguay - General Descriptive Data 1916, IA
Links General from Lanic at UTexas
Category : Paraguay, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History
Category : History of Paraguay, from Wikipedia
Organizations Academia Paraguaya de la Historia
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia
Paraguay : Country Information, A Brief History and Pictures, from Amateur Radio Station ZP5YW
Casa Historia : Paraguay, English language Website
Historical A. de la Cruz, Historia politica del Paraguay (1893) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
A. Zinny, Historia de los gobernantes del Paraguay, 1535-1887 (1887), posted on Internet Archive
C.A. Washburn, The History of Paraguay: With Notes of Personal Observations, and Reminiscences of Diplomacy (1871), IA
Specific Periods Article : History of Paraguay (to 1811), from Wikipedia
Articles Gobernacion del Rio de la Plata y del Paraguay (1534-1617), Gobernacion del Paraguay (1617-1782), Intendencia del Paraguay (1782-1811), from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Blas Garay, La Revolucion de la independencia del Paraguay (1897) in Spanish, IA
G. Benites, Anales diplomatico y militar de la guerra del Paraguay (1906), IA
J.R. Rengger, The Reign of Doctor Joseph Gaspard Roderick de Francia in Paraguay (1827), IA
P. Lozano, Historia de las revoluciones de la provincia del Paraguay (1721-1735) obra inedita (1905) in Spanish, IA
E.Cl. Shepard, Francia : a tale of the revolution of Paraguay from authentic sources (1851), IA
M.K. Huner, Sacred Cause, Divine Republic : A History of Nationhood, Religion and War in Nineteenth Century Paraguay, 1850-1870, thesis Chapel Hill 2011
B. Garay, La Revolución de la independencia del Paraguay 1897, IA
D. Muriel, Historia del Paraguay desde 1747 hasta 1767, 1918, IA
Politics Politics of Paraguay, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Paraguay; Country Report : Paraguay, from Polity IV; For the Record 2000 : Paraguay, from UN Human Rights System; Governments on the WWW : Paraguay
Paraguay : The Party System 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, from Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : a Cross-National Survey, NY : Free Press 1980 pp.528-529
S. Danielsen, Regime Building and Consolidation in Paraguay : In Perspective of Agrarian Legislation, 1954-2008, thesis Bergen 2009
M. Ramos-Reyes, Law as the Handmaid of Politics : The Case of Paraguay, n.d.
C. Baez, La tiranía en el Paraguay: Sus causas, caracteres y resultados 1903, IA
A. Zinno, Historia de los gobernantes del Paraguay, 1535-1887 1887, IA
P. Sharkey, Ciriaco Duarte and Anarchism in Paraguay
N.R. Powers, The Transition to Democracy in Paraguay : Problems and Prospects, Kellogg Institute Working Paper 171, 1992
Military Wars of Paraguay 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data
R.F. Burton, Letters from the battle-fields of Paraguay (1870), IA
G. Thompson, The War in Paraguay: With a Historical Sketch of the Country and Its People .. (1869), IA
F.F.P. da Costa, Historia da guerra do Brasil contra as Republicas do Uruguay e Paraguay (1871) in Spanish, IA
L. Bethell, The Paraguayan War, 1864-1870 1996
G. Benitez, Anales diplomático y militar de la guerra del Paraguay 1906, IA
J.C. Centurion, Memorias del coronel Juan Crisostomo Centurion o sea Reminiscencias historicas sobre la guerra del Paraguay vol.1 1894, vol.2 1894, vol.3 1894, vol.4 1894, IA
L. Schneider, A guerra da triplice alliança : Imperio do Brazil, Republica Argentina e Republica Oriental do Uruguay, contra o governo da Republica do Paraguay, 1864-1870 vol.1 1902, vol.2 1902, IA
Ryan Lindsay, The Chaco War, ICE Case Studies 1997
The U.S. War With Paraguay 1858-1859, by Robert C. Kennedy
Economy & Finances General Article Economy of Paraguay, Category Economy of Paraguay, from Wikipedia
Economic History US Dept. of Commerce, Paraguay, a Commercial Handbook (1920), IA
E. le Bourgade la Dardye, Paraguay: The Land and the People, Natural Wealth and Commercial Capabilities (1892), IA
C.G. Fernandez Valdovinos et al., Economic Growth in Paraguay, 2004; has economic history of Paraguay
Currency & Finances Entry Paraguay, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor; Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Historia del Guarani, from Banco Central de Paraguay, in Spanish
Institutions Resena Historica, from Bolsa de Valores, Asuncion, in Spanish
Trade The foreign trade of Latin America : a report on the trade of Latin America with special reference to trade with the United States vol.II section 7 : Paraguay, 1940, IA
Agriculture E.G. Mulhall, The cotton fields of Paraguay and Corrientes, 1864, GB
A. Demersay, Du tabac au Paraguay: culture, consommation et commerce 1851, IA
Social History Health Paraguay, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Crime Paraguay, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Land J.R. Gillette, A Rhetorical Analysis of the Campesinos Sin Tierra Struggle for Land Reform in Paraguay , thesis Pittsburgh 2005
Labour Article : 1958 Paraguayan general strike, Wikipedia
Language J.A. Gomez Rendon, Typological and social constraints on language contact : Amerindian languages in contact with Spanish, thesis Amsterdam 2008; on Equadorian Quechua, Paraguayan Guarani and Mexican Otomi; has brief histories of these languages
Languages of Paraguay (22), from Ethnologue
Category : Languages of Paraguay, from Wikipedia
Ethnography Indigenous Paraguay : Indigenous Peoples, from Minorities at Risk
M.S. Bertoni, La civilizacion guarani 1922, IA
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Paraguay
W. Vallentin, Paraguay, das Land der Guarani?s 1907, IA
European Descent B.Förster, Deutsche Colonien in dem oberen Laplata-gebiete mit besonderer Berücksichtigung von Paraguay 1886, IA
K. Granville-Jones, New Australia: The Australian Colony in Paraguay, The Argentina Independent, Jan. 25 2008
Migration Heritage Center, New South Wales : 1893 The New Australia Colony Collection
Religion General Country Report : Paraguay, from ARDA
International Religious Freedom Report 2003 : Paraguay, from U.S. Department of State
Category : Religion in Paraguay, from Wikipedia
Catholicism Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Paraguay, from Kirken in Norge
Article : Jesuit Reductions, from Wikipedia
N. del Techo, Historia de la provincia del Paraguay de la compania de Jesus vol.1 (1897), vol.2 (1897), vol.9 (1897), vol.12 (1897), in Spanish, IA
Historia de la Compana de Jesus en la provincia del Paraguay (Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Peru, Bolivia y Brasil) segn los documentos originales del Archivo General de Indias vol.1 (1912), vol.2 (1912), vol.3 (1912), vol.4 (1912) in Spanish, IA
R.B. Cunninghame Graham, A Vanished Arcadia: being some account of the Jesuits in Paraguay 1607-1767 (1900), IA
M.C. Caddell, A history of the missions in Paraguay (1896), IA; C.M. Caddell, A history of the missions in Japan and Paraguay, 1856, GB
Protestantism A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings : Paraguay, from Prolades
History of Regions Departments of Paraguay, from www.statoids.com
Districts of Paraguay, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republica del Paraguay 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
C. Baez, The Paraguayan Chaco; or, A brief statement of the titles of Paraguay on the ownership of the territory of that name 1904, IA
History of Cities Category : Cities in Paraguay, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Broadcasting in Paraguay, from The Broadcast Archive
Breve Resena, from Universidad Nacional de Asuncion, in Spanish
Paraguay, from Airline History
Culture M.F. Fernandez, Brief History of the Guarani Language 2002
Article : Guarani Language, from Wikipedia
Article Paraguay at the Olympics, Primera Division de Paraguay, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Paraguayans, from Wikipedia
W.B. Parker, Paraguayans of to-day, 1921, IA
Environmental History Disaster History by Country : Natural Disasters, Paraguay, from Relief Web
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Ryan Lindsay, The Chaco War, ICE Case Studies 1997
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Paraguay

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Bishops List of Bishops and Archbishops of Asuncion, from Wikipedia
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Paraguay, from NNDB; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Asuncion (Paraguay), from Wikipedia German edition; Embajadores de Mexico en Paraguay, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Direccion Nacional de Estadistica, Encuesta y Censos, Paraguay
Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
World Life Expectancy : Paraguay
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Election Results from Psephos (since 2001); from IFES Election Guide
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques
Selected Newspaper Articles History of Paraguay and Uruguay, from World History Archives
Revolution in Paraguay: pp. 444-478 in The North American Review Vol.26 No.59, 1828, posted by Cornell Digital Library
The Republic of Paraguay; Since the Death of the Dictator Francia, pp.245-260 in The American Whig Review Vol.6 No.3, 1847, posted by Cornell Digital Library
S.G. Bulfinch, Paraguay, and the Present War, from The North American Review Vol.109 No.225, pp.510-544, 1869, posted by Cornell Digital Library
General M.T. McMahon, Paraguay and her Enemies, in , Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Vol.40 No.37 pp.421-430, Feb. 1870; General M.T. McMahon, The War in Paraguay, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine Vol.40 No.39 pp.633-647, Apr. 1870, posted by Cornell Digital Library
Theodore Child, The Republic of Paraguay, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, June 1891, pp.222-242, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Paraguay, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Worldpress.org (links)
Online Yearbooks - Paraguay Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Paraguay 1870 pp.546-549, GB, 1871, pp.546-550, IA, 1872, pp.545-549, IA, 1873, pp.546-550, IA, 1874, pp.545-549, IA, 1875, pp.546-550, IA, 1876, pp.550-554, IA, 1877, pp.557-561, IA, 1878, pp.557-561, IA, 1879, pp.557-561, IA, 1880, pp.557-561, IA, 1881, pp.557-561, IA, 1883, pp.557-561, IA, 1884, pp.597-601, IA, 1885, pp.608-613, IA, 1886, pp.623-628, IA, 1887, pp.647-652, IA, 1888, pp.649-654, IA, 1889, pp.653-659, IA, 1890, pp.791-795, IA, 1891, pp.795-799, IA, 1892, pp.805-809, IA, 1894, pp.805-809, IA, 1895, pp.805-809, IA, 1896, pp.805-809, IA, 1898, pp.805-809, IA, 1899, pp.852-857, IA, 1903, pp.934-939, IA, 1913, pp.1118-1124, IA, 1919, pp.1128-1134, IA, 1921, pp.1157-1162, IA
Annuario pontificio 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Paraguay
Staatskalender
Newsreels
Films on History/Society Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with Country of Origin : Paraguay, from IMDb
List of Paraguayan Films, from Wikipedia
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Paraguay de Antes
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections Plusesmas, Galeria de Fotos Antiguas, Paraguay
Universal Collections
Items on Paraguay
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Paraguay, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Paraguay
Archival Deposits National Security Archive (U.S.), Electronic Briefing Books, ENN 239a : En el 15 Aniversario del Archivo del Terror el National Security Archive Pone en Linea 60,000 Registros de la Policia Secreta del Dictador Stroessner, EBB 239d : Rendition in the Southern Cone : Operation Condor Documents Revealed from Paraguayan 'Archive of Terror', EBB 239 : Localizar y detener al Dr. Goiburu. Documentos del Archivo del Terror de Paraguay implican a Fuerzas de Seguridad paraguayas y argentinas en el secuestro
EBB 266 : "No se Registro Novedad Digna de Mencionar". Documentos del Archivo del Terror de Paraguay Desmienten la Fuga de Prisioneros Apuntan a un Encubrimiento de la Desaparicion Forzosa de Cuatro Jovenes en 1976
Open Society Archives (OSA), Budapest : Paraguay
Constitutions Political Database of the Americas, Constitutions of Paraguay
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Paraguay, from ILO, 36 docs. since 1919
Codigo Penal de la Republica del Paraguay, 1892, IA
Leyes de inmigracion y de colonizacion y hogar, Paraguay, 1905, IA
Coleccion de leyes sancionadas por el Congreso de la nacion en sus sesiones extraordinarias de 1876, Paraguay 1877, IA
Registro Oficial (Paraguay, list of presidential decrees), 1899 1900, IA
Leyes.com.py
Treaties General Treaty Collections C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
Bilateral Treaty Collections Paraguay, pp.885-986 in vol.10 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Consular Reports Consular Recommendations on South American Trade 1915 U.S. consuls, Paraguay pp.20-23
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Paraguay, Aug. 2 1915, May 12 1916, Dec. 31 1917, Dec. 24 1918, Oct. 2 1919, IA
Historiography P.F.X. de Charlevoix, Historia del Paraguay, 1910, IA; Charelevoix died in 1761
P.F.X. de Charlevoix, The history of Paraguay : containing amongst many other new, curious, and interesting particulars of that country, a full and authentic account of the establishments formed there by the Jesuits, from among the savage natives, in the very centre of barbarism: establishments allowed to have realized the sublime ideas of Fenelon, Sir Thomas More, and Plato vol.1 1769, vol.2 1769, IA
Voltaire, On Paraguay (1733), posted by Online Library of Liberty
Document Collections Documentos, from Museo Memoria de la Ciudad, Asuncion
Commission Under the Convention Between the United States & Paraguay, 1859, GB
Archivo diplomatico y consular del Paraguay... vol.1 1908, IA
F. de Azara, Correspondencia Oficial e Inedita sobre la Demarcacion de Limites entre el Paraguay y el Brasil, IA
A. de la Cruz et al. (ed.), Historia politica del Paraguay: Balmaceda, documentos historicos 1893, IA
Peru, Ministerio de las Relaciones Exteriores : Correspondencia diplomatica relativa a la cuestion del Paraguay 1867, IA
Documents officiels relatifs a la médiation pacifique de la republique du Paraguay 1860, IA
Correspondencias cambiadas entre el Ministerio Dr[i.e. De] relaciones exteriores de la republica y el Senor Charles Washburn, ministro residente de los Estados Unidos de America sobre la conspiracion fraguada contra la patria y el gobierno en combinacion con el enemigo; y el atentado de asasinado a la persona del Exmo. Senor Mariscal Lopez por nacionales y estrangeros 1868, IA
Individual Documents Proclama. El gobernador de Montevideo a los havitantes del Paraguay. La fidelidad de vuestra conducta en medio de las agitaciones de la provincia, y el acierto de las disposiciones de vuestro respetable governador 1810, IA
Proclama el Virrey de las Provincias del Rio de la Plata a los habitantes del Paraguay. : Valientes y fieles paraguayos, en vuestras loables acciones y victorias lucen a porfia la lealtad, el valor, y la generosidad 1811, IA
Report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, on the Memorial of Porter C. Bliss and George F. Masterman, in relation to their imprisonment in Paraguay 1870, IA
Chaco paraguayo: Memoria presentada al arbitro por Benjamin Aceval 1896, IA
Historical Maps Responsible Authority
collections Paraguay Maps, from PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Paraguay, from Wikimedia Commons, from Thomas Hoeckmann
Category : Maps of the history of Paraguay, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Old Maps of Paraguay, from Wikimedia Commons
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for South America, Paraguay
Historical Paraguay Maps, from Library of Congress Map Collection
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Paraguay, modern Southern Cone 1799, 1814, 1823, 1828, 1853, 1883, 1884-1999, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Paraguay, contemporary Mapa Historico del Paraguay 1875, from Zonu
Mapa Geografico, Estadistico e Historico del Paraguay, 19th century, from Museo Memoria de la Ciudad, Asuncion
Bolivia and Paraguay in 1921, Mappery
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Wartime Map of the Chaco, 1933, Mappery
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Paraguay, Asuncion, Villa Rica, Villa del Pilar, EB 1911, from Classic Enccyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Paraguay, Asuncion, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Paraguay, Guarani Indians, Reductions of Paraguay, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Economic
Geographical Paraguay, pp.456-465 in vol.5 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1826, GB; definition of Paraguay includes Uruguay, Buenos Aires
Paraguay, pp.471-472 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
The Dictatorship of Paraguay, pp.576-581 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
The Dictatirship of Paraguay, pp.373-376 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Paraguay, pp.670-671 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Paraguay, pp.220-221 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Paraguay, pp.292-328 in E. Reclus, South America, 1905
Paraguay, pp.479-480 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnological Paraguay, Formosa and Chiragua pp.377-378, in A. Hamilton, Marriage rites, customs, and ceremonies, of all nations of the universe, 1822, GB
Republique du Paraguay, pp.464-465 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Paraguay p.81 in R.D. Owen, The wrong of slavery, the right of emancipation, and the future of the African race in the United States, 1864, GB
Paraguay, pp.904-907 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Historical The Backward States : Paraguay, p.183 in W.W. Sweet, A History of Latin America, 1929, GB
Other Article : Paraguay, in : Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, 1912, in German, posted by Zeno
Parliamentary Debates Paraguay. Congreso Nacional. Camara de Diputados, Actas de las sesiones del periodo legislativo del ano 1871, IA
Tour Guides Pacific line guide to South America; containing information to travellers & shippers to ports on the east & west coasts of South America 1895, IA; on River Plate (Monte Video, Uruguay, Argentine Republic, Paraguay) pp.49-57
A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Paraguay pp.105-110
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Paraguay pp.239-257
A.S. Peck, The South American Tour - A Descriptive Guide 1916, IA; on Paraguay pp.257-272
Travelogues T.J. Page, La Plata, the Argentine confederation, and Paraguay. Being a narrative of the exploration of the tributaries of the river La Plata and adjacent countries during the years 1853, '54, '55, and '56, under the orders of the United States government 1859, IA
H. Bolland et al., Exploraciones practicadas en el Alto Paraguay y en la laguna Gaiba por el capitan de marina Enrique Bolland, de orden y por cuenta del gobierno de Bolivia. Fundacion de un puerto 1901, IA
Residence Memoirs J.P. and W.P. Robertson, Four years in Paraguay, vol.1, 1838, vol.2, 1838, GB
J.P. and W.P. Robertson, Francia's Reign of Terror, Being a Continuation of Letters on Paraguay: comprising an account of a four years' residence in that Republic, under the Government of the Dictator Francia vol.3 1839, IA
G.F. Masterman, Seven eventful years in Paraguay, 1870, IA
Exhibition Catalogues Catalogo de los objetos que la Republica del Paraguay exhibe en la Exposicion Universal de Barcelona 1888, IA
Institutions Archives National Archives Latin America, from UNESCO Archives Portal
Paraguay, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Musea Casa de la Independencia Museum
Museo Etnografico "Andres Barbero"
Museo Memoria de la Ciudad, Asuncion
Monuments UNESCO World Heritage List, scroll down for Paraguay; UNESCO World Heritage, Tentative List : Paraguay
Libraries Biblioteca Nacional de Paraguay
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Paraguay Banknotes, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : Paraguay, bilingual Russian-English page
Paraguay Coins, from Numista, from Colnect, from OmniCoin, from World Coin Gallery
Stamps Rare Paraguay Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Paraguay Stamps 1870-1900, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1820 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Paraguay survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Bibliografia paraguaya 1906, IA
pp.277-282 in C.J. Kolinski, Historical Dictionary of Paraguay, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
Kuprienko, Bibliografia general de la historia de Paraguay
Bibliography Paraguay, from NNDB
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Paraguay
J.S. Decoud, A List of Books, Magazine Articles, and Maps Relating to Paraguay: Books, 1638-1903. Maps, 1599-1903 1904, IA
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Migration Bibliography Paraguay, from Discover Nikkei ; Bibliography : Paraguay, Uruguay, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia
serial publications Publicaciones, from Academia Paraguaya de Historia, in Spanish
general bibliographies
Paraguay entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Latin American Books
Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
Books on Genocide and Related Topics in Portuguese, from Prevent Genocide
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; International Boundary Studies
on Paraguay Biblioteca Virtual de Paraguay
Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, Biblioteca Americana, Paises : Paraquay
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Paraguay
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Directory of Open Access Journals
LANIC, Academic Journals : Paraguay
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
Specific Topics The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
John Gunther : A Semi-Affectionate Look at Paraguay, in : John Gunther, Inside South America, NY : Harper & Row 1964, pp.238-256 [G]
Chapter XVIII : Paraguay is Ruritania, pp.271-281 in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Row 1940 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Charles J. Kolinski, Historical Dictionary of Paraguay, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Paraguay, 1913 pp.1092-1094, 1944 p.532, 1945 p.533, 1946 pp.560-561, 1947 pp.580-581, 1948 pp.570-571, 1949 p.507, 1950 pp.533-534, 1951 pp.542-543, 1952 pp.546-547, 1953 pp.550-551, 1954 pp.550-551, 1955 pp.598-599, 1956 pp.535-536, 1957 pp.599-600, 1958 pp.532-533, 1959 p.531, 1960 p.532, 1961 p.540, 1962 p.530, 1963 pp.632-633, 1964 pp.642-643, 1965 pp.615-616, 1966 pp.597-598, 1967 p.606, 1968 p.605, 1969 p.586, 1970 p.596, 1971 pp.574-575, 1972 p.539, 1973 pp.527-528, 1974 pp.533-534, 1975 p.544, 1976 pp.550-551, 1977 p.551, 1978 pp.577, 578, 1979 p.568, 1980 p.566, 1981 p.567, 1982 p.569, 1983 pp.562-563, 1984 pp.561-562, 1985 pp.586, 758, 1986 pp.585, 757, 1987 pp.553, 725, 1988 pp.506-507, 677, 1989 pp.508, 677, 1990 pp.523-524, 693, 1991 pp.507-508, 679, 1992 pp.481, 679, 1993 pp.489, 691, 1994 pp.488-489, 690, 1995 pp.457, 690, 1996 pp.454, 690, 1997 pp.460, 688, 2002 pp.477, 701 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Paraguay, 1878 pp.557-561, 1889 pp.653-659, 1895 pp.805-808, 1898 pp.805-809, 1901 pp.899-904, 1902 pp.917-922, 1905 pp.976-981, 1910 pp.1080-1085, 1919 pp.1128-1134, 1924 pp.1177-1183, 1925 pp.1185-1191, 1926 pp.1147-1152, 1928 pp.1180-1185, 1929 pp.1158-1164, 1932 pp.1177-1182, 1937 pp.1214-1220, 1942 pp.1167-1174, 1943 pp.1157-1163, 1961-1962 pp.1303-1310, 1970-1971 pp.1211-1217, 1973-1974 pp.1227-1233, 1975-1976 pp.1222-1227, 1976-1977 pp.1220-1226, 1978-1979 pp.967-972, 1979-1980 pp.973-979, 1980-1981 pp.974-979, 1981-1982 pp.977-983, 1982-1983 pp.978-984, 1983-1984 pp.970-975, 1984-1985 pp.970-975, 1985-1986 pp.970-975, 1986-1987 pp.971-977, 1987-1988 pp.976-981, 1988-1989 pp.978-983, 1989-1990 pp.990-995, 1990-1991 pp.992-997, 1991-1992 pp.992-997, 1992-1993 pp.1079-1084, 1993-1994 pp.1077-1082, 1994-1995 pp.1076-1080, 1995-1996 pp.1069-1073, 1996-1997 pp.1023-1027, 1997-1998 pp.1030-1034, 1998-1999 pp.1110-1114, 2000 pp.1257-1261, 2001 pp.1226-1230, 2002 pp.1275-1279, 2003 pp.1274-1278, 2004 pp.1280-1284, 2005 pp.1291-1295, 2006 pp.1298-1303 [G]
Americana Annual Paraguay, 1927 pp.656-658, 1928 pp.608-609, 1930 pp.594-595, 1931 pp.582-583, 1932 pp.549-550, 1933 pp.584-585, 1934 pp.456-457, 1935 pp.547-549, 1936 pp.561-562, 1937 pp.552-553, 1938 pp.539-540, 1939 pp.602-603, 1940 pp.615-616, 1943 pp.579-580, 1944 pp.556-557, 1945 pp.567-568, 1946 pp.584-585, 1947 pp.539-541, 1957 pp.609-610, 1958 pp.599-600, 1959 pp.576-577, 1960 pp.583-584, 1961 pp.575-576, 1962 pp.583-584, 1963 pp.517-518, 1964 pp.513-514, 1965 p.547, 1966 p.530, 1967 p.526, 1968 p.521, 1969 p.525, 1970 p.530, 1971 p.526, 1972 p.527, 1973 p.530, 1974 p.463, 1975 p.461, 1976 p.446, 1977 p.396, 1978 p.393, 1979 p.396, 1980 p.397, 1981 p.428, 1983 p.404, 1984 p.408, 1985 p.409, 1986 pp.414-415, 1987 p.420, 1988 p..417, 1989 p.420, 1990 p.419, 1992 p.421, 1993 p.419, 1994 p.420, 1995 p.408 [G]
Other Article : Paraguay, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 p.728, 1894 pp.636-637 [G]
Article : Paraguay, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.595-597, 1899 pp.622-624, 1900 pp.697-698 [G]
Article : Paraguay, in : New International Year Book 1907 p.509, 1908 pp.537-538, 1909 pp.555-556, 1910 pp.558-559, 1913 pp.534-535, 1914 pp.528-529, 1916 pp.516-517, 1917 pp.521-522, 1918 pp.477-478, 1919 pp.494-495, 1920 pp.513-515, 1921 p.536, 1922 pp.539-541, 1923 pp.560-561, 1924 pp.558-559, 1925 pp.529-530, 1926 pp.576-577, 1928 pp.567-569, 1929 pp.638-639, 1930 pp.594-595, 1931 pp.625-626, 1932 pp.627-628, 1933 pp.633-634, 1934 pp.545-546, 1935 pp.559-560, 1938 pp.569-571, 1939 pp.599-600, Events of 1940 pp.581-583, 1941 pp.499-501, 1942 pp.527-529, 1943 pp.469-471, 1944 pp.462-463, 1945 pp.444-446 [G]