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Literature on the History of South America
Ecuador Bolivia
First posted on March 26th 2002, last revised on December 2nd 2013

History of Peru : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

For the country's earlier history, see History of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
1821-1870 . 1870-1918 . 1918-1945 . 1945-1979 . 1980-1992 . Since 1992

1821 to 1870 . When Jose de la Serna proclaimed Peruvian independence in 1821, Spanish forces were still in the country. The country's first president was Argentinian general Jose de San Martin, soon to be succeeded by another foreigner, Simon Bolivar. The Spanish were defeated in the Battle of Ayacucho 1824; Spain's last outpost, the port of Callao, surrendered in 1826. The Viceroyalty of Peru ceased to exist. Bolivar's realm - the republics he presided (Peru and Grand Colombia) began to crumble in 1828, and soon disintegrated. In 1836 Andres de Santa Cruz y Calahumana took control of Peru and established a confederation with Bolivia. The Chileans invaded and in 1839 forced the dissolution of the federation.
The 1840es and 1850es brought political stability, under two time president Castilla, as well as economic prosperity, due to the export of Guano - the excrements of seabirds who have been feeding on anchovis (fish); it is excellent fertilizer. Other major export products were nitrates and wool. With it's neighbour Ecuador constantly in turmoil, Peru established control of the province of Oriente, located on the upper Amazon, also claimed by Ecuador.
In 1864, Spain occupied the Chincha Islands off the Peruvian coast, which are rich in guano, and blockaded Peru's major port of Callao. A war over the islands broke out in 1865, in which the Spaniards were defeated at the hand of the Peruvians in 1866. Not until 1879 did Spain officially recognize Peru.

1870-1918 . In the 1870es Peru's railway network was greatly expanded, mainly under the direction of American Henry Meiggs.
In the 1870es, Peru's economic prosperity came to a sudden end. The guano price fell sharply with other fertilizers competing on the market. When a dispute between Bolivia and Chile arose over the rich nitrate deposits in Bolivia's coastal province (the deposits were largely exploited by Chilean workers), Peru offered to mediate. Chile, intending to go to war over the issue, demanded that Peru declare it's neutrality. Peru refused, and Chile attacked both Bolivia and Peru. The war turned out disastrous for Peru : it had to cede it's nitrate-rich coastal provinces Tarapaco, Tacna and Arica. The war had ruined the state finances.
In the 1880es and 1890es, Peru's economy recovered, based on exports of mining products, sugar and cotton. The country's political development, compared to other Latin American countries, can be described as relatively stable. This changed in 1914, when president Billinghurst was toppled in a coup d'etat by the armed forces. When, in 1899, the Amazon region of Acre declared itself a free state, it did this partially on Peruvian territory (the other part being Bolivian). In 1903, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil signed the Treaty of Petropolis, partitioning Acre Free State. Peru received only a small part of what used to be it's territory, the bulk going to Brazil. Late in World War I Peru formally joined the Entente, without dispatching combat units.
In 1911, the ruins of the ancient Incan mountaintop town of Machu Picchu were discovered, overgrown by the rain forest. The same year, British diplomat Roger Casement visited Peru, investigating alleged atrocities committed against men collecting rubber in the Amazon rainforest.

1918-1945 . The Peruvian economy profitted from the opening of the Panama canal in 1914, which contributed to a general increase in Peruvian exports, and from a growing demand for rubber Peru produced in its Amazon province. Under president-dictator Leguia (1919-1930) the country went through a phase of political stability. Leguia strove to develop the country's economy. While he began as a political reformer, elected by the votes of the working class, his policy later favoured the upper class. Under him, Peru took up a number of international loans (mostly from US banks) and invested in armament (orders primarily going to US firms). In the 1920es US business had invested in the Peruvian economy, US companies having controlling shares in Peru's mining industry, petrol industry, telecommunication, guano exports. The railroads were in British hands.
President-dictator Augusto de Leguia was overthrown in 1930 by Cerro. During the worst years of the Great Depression (1930-1933), the country saw a succession of short-lived governments.
Peru, a founding member of the League of Nations, withdrew from it in 1939. It was engaged in a border conflict with Colombia in 1922, over rubber producing area in the Amazon region. The conflict was settled in 1927. In an agreement with Chile, the latter returned the two provinces of Tacna and Tarata, which it had held since 1883, to Peru.
During most of World War II, Peru stayed neutral, engaged in a serious border conflict with Ecuador in 1941-1942 (unrelated to the war in Europe). The disputed territory was allocated to Peru by the Rio Conference (1942). In 1945, Peru joined the Allies in declaring war on Germany and Japan; Peru did not dispatch combat forces.

1945-1979 . Administration . Peru was ruled by military dictators/juntas 1948-1956 (dictator Manuel Odria), by democratically elected politicians who stood in favour with the military (1956-1963), by a brief democratically elected administration opposed to the political influence of the military 1963-1968 (President Belaunde Terry) and by another military junta 1968-1979 (junta headed by Juan Velasco Alvarado until 1975, by Francisco Morales Bermudez 1975-1980).
Domestic Policy . In 1962 the Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR, Revolutionary Left Movement) was established as an organization, inspired by the revolution in Cuba 1959, aimed for the violent overthrow of the Peruvian government and the establishment of a Communist political system. The MIR launched a guerilla war in 1965, but suffered military defeat that year and broke in three, one of them being the Tupac Amaru, another the Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path).
The military attempted 'guided democracy' 1956-1963, lost control of it in 1963 and retook control in 1968. During the phases of uncamouflaged military government (1948-1956, 1969-1979) constitutional rights, the freedom of the press were disregarded. The junta administration of General Velasco Alvarado (1969-1975) was critical of the Belaunde Terry administration and implemented a policy of nationalizing a number of industries, followed by a land reform in 1974. President Bermudez (1975-1980) discontinued the socialist policies of his predecessor and presided over a gradual transition to democracy.
The Economy . The drastic increase in the oil price in 1973 had an immediate effect on Peru's fishing industry, the catch declined drastically. The military administration under General Velasco Alvarado nationalized the mining, energy, telecommunication industry and in 1974 launched a land reform. The inflation rate was moderate until 1978 when it began to accelerate (IHS pp.713-714).
Social History . Peru's population rose from 7.68 million in 1948 to 10.0 million in 1960 and 16.8 million in 1979 (Lahmeyer). "In Peru, outside Cuzco, we met men working their landlord's fields for 45 cents a day, a good wage in an area where others must work 3 days with no pay beyond the right to cultivate a small mountainside plot for themselves. They had never heard of President Kennedy or President Johnson; they had never heard of the United States; they did not know the name of the President of Peru, and they spoke no Spanish, only the Quechua tongue of their Indian ancestors ... The basic problem is that we here in the United States must realize that there is a revolution now going on down there and we must identify ourselves with that revolution ... We have preached to them the dignity of the individual, the fact that we want to help them lead their own lives ... However that does not mean very much to a father who must work on a farm for 12 hours a day 6 days a week for only $ 1.50, or a man who sees half his children die before they reach the age of one."
Robert Kennedy in a speech held in New York 1966 after having visited Peru; quoted after Gunther (1964) 1967 p.358
Cultural History . Television broadcasting began in 1958. In 1970, Simon and Garfunkel made the song 'El Condor Pasa', composed by Peruvian Danial A. Robles in 1913, known to a worldwide audience.

1980-1992 . Administration . Dictator-President Francisco Morales Bermudez (1975-1979) oversaw the transition from military dictatorship to parliamentary democracy. In 1979 a new constitution was promulgated, parliamentary and presidential elections held in 1980, the latter being won by Fernando Belaunde Terry (1980-1985). Since, the military stayed out of politics. Belaunde Terry was succeeded by Alan Garcia (1985-1990) and Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000).
Foreign Policy . Relations with the U.S. and the World Bank had cooled down during the administration of President Velasco (1969-1975) who implemented a policy of nationalizing industries (to a considerable extent foreign-owned); the Bermudez administration (1975-1980) strove to improve relations with both. Peru, however, did not join in the boycott of the Summer Olympic Games in Moscow 1980, and in 1982 openly supported Argentina in the Falklands War.
Domestic Policy . During the Belaunde Terry administration, inflation quickly accelerated into hyperinflation. The Maoist Shining Path guerilla gained notoriety due to their abductions of foreigners in the remote countryside. The democratization of society failed to result in an improvement of living conditions for the average Peruvian. Hyperinflation continued in the Garcia presidency (1985-1990), causing the country to introduce a currency reform; the activities of the Shining Path also continued. Only during the Fujimori presidency (1990-2000) have the hyperinflation been successfully addressed (another currency reform in 1991) and the threat by the Shining Path been removed (capture of Shining Path leader Abimael Guzman in 1992).
The Economy . Peru's agriculture, mining and fishery industry could not keep up with the country's population growth. The nationalization of a number of industries in the mid 1970es had alienated foreign investors and financial institutions; the Peruvian government's willingness to partially undo the land reform of 1974 was insufficient to win back their favour. While the oil price dropped significantly in 1981, Reagonomics drastically raised the interest rates; Peru had the greatest of difficulties to service the national debt. The ongoing guerilla warfare in the countryside, and El Nino in 1982-1983 did not help remedy the situation. Inflation went out of control, forcing currency reforms in 1987 and 1991.
Social History . Peru's population rose from 17.2 million in 1980 to 22.4 million in 1992 (Lahmeyer). The Spanish-speaking population fared traditionally better than the Quechua or Aymara-speaking population in the countryside, the latter primarily living of agriculture, and in part exposed to the actions of the Shining Path. The country's middle class and political elite largely drew from the Spanish-speaking population element.

Since 1992 . Foreign Policy . Peru did not participate in the liberation of Kuwait 1991, the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and of Iraq in 2003. The presidency of Alberto Fujimori, holder of Peruvian and Japanese nationality, meant special relations with Japan, not affected by the occupation of the Japanese embassy in Lima by MRTA rebels in 1996. These special relations ended with the ousting of president Fujimori in 2000; Peru's demand to extradite the fugitive Fujimori was rejected by Japan. In response to Fujimori's 1992 coup, a number of countries, including the U.S., Germany and Spain, suspended financial aid to Peru. In 1995 Peru and Ecuador fought a brief war, the Cenepa War, over disputed border territory.
Domestic Policy . The Fujimori administration defeated the guerilla (arrest of Shining Path leader Abimael Guzman in 1992) and ended the hyperinflation (currency reform of 1991); Fujimori administrated the country in authoritarian style. In 1992 he dissolved the Peruvian Congress. Fujimori was reelected president in 1995; in the late 1990es, the opposition, critical of his authoritarian style, involving violations of the constitution, became vociferous, and in 2000 he was ousted and fled the country. Elections in 2001 brought Alejandro Toledo into office, the first politician of Indio descent to hold the Peruvian presidency.
The Economy . Hyperinflation was rampant in 1987-1990. Following the currency reform of 1991, consumer prices rose four-fold in 1991, doubled in 1992, by c.50 % in 1993, were down to about 10 % or less since 1994 (IHS p.714).
Social History . Peru's population rose from 22.4 million in 1992 (Lahmeyer) to 28.6 million in 2007. The Spanish-speaking population fared traditionally better than the Quechua or Aymara-speaking population in the countryside, the latter primarily living of agriculture, and in part exposed to the actions of the Shining Path. The country's middle class and political elite largely drew from the Spanish-speaking population element.

Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)
Students' Papers : Song, Jeeun : History of Metallurgy and Mining in the Andean Region (2009)
Students' Papers : Lee, Won Jae : History of the Quechua-Speaking People, until Today (2008)
Students' Papers : Lee, Si-eun : History of Indian and Chinese Coolies and their Descendants (2008)

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Peru
Article : Peru, from Wikipedia
Jose Carlos Mariategui, Ensayos de Interpretacion de la Realidad Peruana, in Spanish, 1996
Historical La Confederation argentine a l'Exposition universelle de 1867 a Paris, GB
A.J. Duffield, Peru in the guano age (1877), IA
International Bureau of the American Republics, Peru : a Handbook (1892), IA
Th.Cl. Dawson, The South American republics (1903) vol.2 (has Peru section pp.3-134), IA
P.F. Martin, Peru of the twentieth century (1911), IA
H. Bell, The golden age of Peru (1921), IA
Links General from LANIC
Category : Peru, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Peru, from Wikipedia
Organizations Organization of American Historians
Instituto de Estudios Peruanos
Congreso Profesional de Arquelogos del Peru (COARPE)
Peruvian Institute for Genealogical Studies; Society for Irish Latin American Studies
Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion
The Cusichaca Trust
Historical Dictionaries M. de Mendiburu, Diccionario historico-biografico del Peru (1887) in Spanish, IA; from Biblioteca Cervantes Virtual
R. Hilton, Who S Who In Latin American Part IV Bolivia Chile And Peru (1947), posted on Internet Archive
Arqueologia del Peru, La enciclopedia en linea de la arqueologia prehispanica del Peru
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Commanding Heights : Peru Timelines
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia
History of Peru, from Virtual Peru
Peru, from Casa Historia, in English
Historical H.S. Beebe, The History of Peru (1858), posted on Internet Archive
Cl.R. Markham, A History of Peru (1892), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Articles : Peru-Bolivian Confederation, Guano Era, from Wikipedia
Exordio : La Segunda Guerra Mundial (1939-1945) : La Republica del Peru, in Spanish
Historiography M. Baud, Towards a New Social and Political History in Peru. A Review Essay, Revista de Indias, 2008, vol.LXVIII, no.242, pp.283-300
P. Drinot, Historiography, Historiographic Identity and Historical Consciousness in Peru Inicio 15 2004-2005
M. Vega, La utopia andina y la historiografia peruana, Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia. no.9 (II Semestre, 1996) pp.93-109.
Politics Politics of Peru, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Peru; Governments on the WWW : Peru
Article : Elections in Peru, from Wikipedia
Peru : The Party System 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, from K. Janda, Political Parties : a Cross-National Survey, NY : Free Press 1980 pp.544-545; C. Orsini, Peru : the Party System 1963-2000
List of Political Parties in Peru, from Wikipedia; Articles : Shining Path, Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, from Wikipedia
O. Starn, Maoism in the Andes. The Communist Party of Peru - Shining Path and the Refusal of History, J. Lat. Amer. Studies 27 1995 pp.399-421
S. Hirsch, Anarcho-syndicalism in Peru, 1905-1930 2011
Congress of the Republic of Peru, Historical Outline
J.E. Caceres Booth, The Persistence of the Fujimori Legacy in Peru, thesis Univ. of British Columbia 2013
P. Drinot, Creole Anti-Communism: Labor, the Peruvian Communist Party and APRA, 1930-1934, Forthcoming in Hispanic American Historical Review (as of Nov. 26 2013)
Article : Congress of the Republic of Peru, Wikipedia
J. Prieto Hemmingsen, La evolucion y la caida del sistema de partidos politicos en el Peru (1980-1992), tesina 2004, FLACSO Ecuador
Military Wars, General Wars of Peru, 1800-1999, from Armed Conflict Events Data
External Wars
19th Century
Cl..R. Markham, The war between Peru and Chile, 1879-1882 (1920), IA
L. Uribe y Orrego, Las operaciones navales durante la guerra entre Chile I la Confederacion Peru-boliviana, 1836-37-38 (1891) in Spanish, IA
Th. B. Myers Mason, The War on the Pacific Coast of South America Between Chile and the Allied Republics of Peru and .. (1885), IA
Th. Cochrane Earl of Dundonald, Narrative of Services in the Liberation of Chili, Peru and Brazil,: from Spanish and Portuguese Domination, vol.1 (1854), vol.2, IA
Articles : Peruvian War of Independence (1809-1824), Gran Colombia-Peru War (1828-1829), War of the Confederation (1836-1839), Chincha Islands War (Guano War, 1865-1866), War of the Pacific (1879-1884), from Wikipedia
Jim Lee, Guano Wars, ICE Case Studies 1997
External Wars
20th Century
Category : Ecuadorian-Peruvian War, from Wikipedia
Articles : Colombia-Peru War (1932-1933), Ecuadorian-Peruvian War, 1941, from Wikipedia
Insurgency Berkeley : Committee to support of the Revolution in Peru, Revolution in Peru (1985), The Revolution in Peru is Profoundly Liberating (1992), IA
H. Ocasio, Why the People's War in Peru is Justified and Why it is the Road to Liberation (1995), IA
Article : Internal Conflict in Peru, from Wikipedia
K. Gregory, Shining Path, Tupac Amaru (Peru, leftists), 2009, Council on Foreign Relations
E. Malone, The Shining Path of Peru, Defeated or Alive ?, thesis Georgetown 2010
R. Switzer, Sendero Luminoso and Peruvian Counterinsurgency, thesis Louisiana State 2007
K.M. Zucha, Incomplete Developmental Counterinsurgency: The Case of the Shining Path in Peru, thesis Texas State 2007
B. Huson, Persistent Revolutions in Colombia and Peru: A Comparative Analysis, thesis Indiana State 2011
A. Smits, The discrepancy between utopian ideology and dystopian reality: a critical analysis of Peru's Sendero Luminoso, thesis Leiden 2013
Other Memoirs of General Miller, in the service of the Republic of Peru (1829), IA
The Peruvian Navy, the XIX Century Maritime Campaigns, by Juan del Campo
The Peruvian Army during the first years of the republic, by Juan del Campo, subfiles mostly concerning the Pacific War
M. Reano, The Origin of Peruvian Professional Militarism, thesis Louisiana State 2002
J.C. Luitweiler, Peru's Burden of Military Expenditures, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 95, 1921, IA
C. Mendez, Las paradojas del autoritarismo: ejercito, campesinado y etnicidad en el Peru, siglos XIX al XX, Iconos: revista de ciencias sociales, FLACSO Ecuador, (no.26, Sept. 2006) pp.17-34
Economy & Finances General Article Economy of Peru, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of Peru, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Peru 2007
Category : Enterprise Peru, from Economy Point
A. Salomon y Osorio, Peru, potentialities of economic development (1920), IA
H. de Wolfe Carvell, Insecurity of British Property in Peru (1863), IA
Guida ufficiale per industriali ed emigranti italiani nel Peru (1903) in Italian, IA
Economic History J.C. Mariategui, Ensayos de Interpretacion de la Realidad Peruana : Esquema de la Evolucion Economica, 1996, in Spanish
Institutions History, from Bolsa de Valores de Lima (Lima Stock Exchange)
El Banco de Reserva, from Museo Banco Central de Reserva del Peru
Currency & Finances C. Vizcarra, Guano, Credible Commitments, and Sovereign Debt Repayment in Nineteenth-Century Peru, Journal of Economic History vol.69 no.2 pp.358-387 2009
M. Isabel, La hiperinflacion del Peru (1987 - 1990), in Spanish
Historical Exchange Rate Regime of Asian Countries [!] : Peru, from International Economics
R. Sicotte et al., The ?scal impact of the War of the Paci?c, Cliometrica (2009) 3 pp.97-121
Agriculture W.G. Mortimer, Peru. History of coca, "the divine plant" of the Incas; with an introductory account of the Incas, and of the Andean Indians of to-day (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Fishery M. Ballon et al., 'Peru, South-east Pacific', in D.J. Starkey et al. (comp.) HMAP Data Pages (www.hull.ac.uk/hmap)
Mining Company History : Southern Peru Copper Corporation, from Funding Universe
Guano Cases, from TED Mandala Projects, Guano history, from an environmentalist site
A. Raimondi, Informes y polemicas sobre el guano y el salitre - (Peru 1854-1877), thesis 2003, in Spanish
J.A. Bravo, The Peruvian expropriation of the Tarapaca nitrate industry, 1875-1879 v.2. Statistics, thesis McGill 1990
S. Gonzalez Miranda, Las Politicas Salitreras Peruana y Chilena. Del Monopolio Estatal a la Libertad Economica ? (1873-1884), Cuadernos de Historia no.38 Santiago jun. 2013
Social History General
Class P. Whipple, La gente decente de Lima y su resistencia al orden republicano. Jerarquías sociales, prensa y sistema judicial durante el siglo XIX, 2013
P. Whipple, Una relacion contradictoria: elites y control social en Lima durante los inicios de la Republica, Revista Andina 2004
S. Aldana Rivera, Los comerciantes piuranos (1700-1830): el soporte humanos de una region economica, thesis Lima 1992, FLACSO Ecuador
Labour M.J. Gonzales, Capitalist Agriculture and Labour Contracting in Northern Peru, 1880-1905, Latin American Studies 12, 2, pp.291-315
Crime and Punishment Peru, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Women V. Vargas, The Women's Movement in Peru: Rebellion into Action 1990
Health J. Baten et al., The anthropometric history of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and early 20th century, Economics and Human Biology 7 (2009) pp.319-333
Peru, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
R. Dahlby, 500 Years of Coca Erradication [!] Policy in Peru, thesis Ohio State 2009
La Coca del Peru, English language site
A. Borja, Medical Pluralism in Peru-Traditional Medicine in Peruvian Society, thesis Brandeis 2010
Nutrition S.M. Martinez-Zuniga, Cultural Factors Affecting Food Preference: The Case of Tarwi in Three Quechua Speaking Areas of Peru, thesis Vanderbilt 2007
Pastoralism C. Ivey, Household economy and livelihood strategies in a pastoral community in the central Peruvian highlands: a regional perspective, thesis Durham 1985
Land S. Striffler, Migrating Multinationals, Persisting Peasants, and a Slippery State : The Origins of Contract Farming in Ecuador's Banana Industry, Plantation Society in the Americas 1999
L.H. Landa Vasquez, La familia campesina en el periodo de la violencia. El ejemplo de Paca y Coracora en Ayacucho, thesis Quito 1995, FLACSO Ecuador; violencia = 1980s and early 1990es
U. Durand-Ochoa, Coca, contention and identity: the political empowerment of the Cocaleros of Bolivia and Peru , thesis LSE 2012
Urban Centers S.A. McElroy, Urban primacy and deconcentrated development in Peru, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1994
Shantytowns G.H. Kim, Shantytown Formation as an Anti-Systemic Historical Process: A World-System Study on Peruvian Social Transformation, thesis Concordia Univ., Montreal, 2009
S.M. Williams, 'Young Town' Growing Up. Four decades later: self-help housing and upgrading lessons from a squatter neighborhood in Lima, thesis Univ. of Kansas 2000; on squatter town of Independencia
Unterbahn, ch.7 : Grassroots Mapping in Lima, Peru, part of a 2010 thesis by Jeffrey Warren, title : "Grassroots Mapping: tools for participatory and activist cartography"
Racial Discrimination M. de la Cadena, The Racial Politics of Culture and Silent Racism in Peru 2001
Refugees Peru, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
Language P. Haggerty, History and Language in the Andes, 2011
Education J. Granda Ore, "Una aproximación a la historia de la educación peruana", Procesos: revista ecuatoriana de historia. 13 (II Semestre, 1998-I Semestre, 1999) pp.89-107
G.A. Espinosa, Estado, comunidades locales y escuelas primarias en el departamento de Lima, Peru (1821-1905), Cuadernos de Historia no.34 Santiago jun. 2011 pp.83-108
Ethnography General Languages of Peru (108), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Peru, from Wikipedia
Peru : Blacks, Highland Indigenous People, Lowland Indigenous People, from Minorities at Risk
Category : Ethnic Groups in Peru, Wikipedia
Indigenous World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Peru
W.C. Farabee, Indian tribes of eastern Peru (1922), vol.1, vol.10, IA
S.E. Huerta, From sworn loyalty to negotiated obedience. Political transformations in Peru during the War of Independence. The Huacho: a case study (1820-1822), n.d.
J. Drzewieniecki, Indigenous People, Law, and Politics in Peru 1995
P.A. Means, Indian Legislation in Peru, The Hispanic American Historical Review 3 1920, IA
European Descent Articles : Italian Peruvian, German Peruvian, from Wikipedia
Asian Descent Articles : Japanese Peruvian, Chinese Peruvian, from Wikipedia
A.F. Murtono, Peruvian Japanese Internment - My Family Story
Exposing Japanese-Peruvian WWII internment camps, The World 2010 02 19
World War II Internment Camps, from Texas State Historical Association
St.C. Moore, Gender and Japanese Immigrants to Peru, 1899 through World War II, 2010, posted at eScholarship
S.C. Moore, The Japanese in Multiracial Peru, 1899-1942, thesis Univ. of California San Diego 2009
W. Stewart, Chinese Bondage in Peru. A History of the Chinese Coolies in Peru, 1849-1874 1951, IA
African Descent Article : Afro-Peruvian, from Wikipedia
The Guardian, July 12 2012 : Peru tries to end discrimination against African-Peruvians
Religion Category : Religion in Peru, from Wikipedia
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Peru, from Kirken i Norge
Patron Saint Index : Peru
C.L. Holland, A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings : Peru
The Virtual Jewish History Tour : Peru, Lima
History of Islam in Peru
Country Report : Peru, from ARDA
A. Reville, The native religions of Mexico and Peru, 1884, IA
History of Regions Article Provinces of Peru, Administrative Divisions of Peru, from Wikipedia
Category : Provinces of Peru, from Wikipedia
Articles : Republic of South Peru, Republic of North Peru (both 1836-1839), Acre (claimed by Peru intil 1903), Loreto Region, from Wikipedia
Articles : Acre (Brasil), Departamento de Loreto, Tacna, Arica y Tarapaca hasta 1929, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Regions of Peru, from www.statoids.com
Provinces of Peru, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Peruvian Republic 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Peru, from Wikipedia
History of Lima, Cuzco, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Iquitos, Cajamarca, Tumbes, Callao, from Wikipedia
Cl.R. Markham, Cuzco: a journey to the ancient capital of Peru; with an account of the history, language, literature, and antiquities of the Incas. And Lima: a visit to the capital and provinces of modern Peru; with a sketch of the viceregal government, history of the republic, and a review of the literature and society of Peru (1856), IA
G. Riofrio, Urban Slums Report, The Case of Lima 1972
B.E. Rouleau, Tu envidia es mi progreso: An Ethnographic Account of the Development of Squatter Settlements in San Juan de Miraflores, Lima, Peru., thesis Univ. of Western Ontario 2013
R. Chuhue, Historia de Lima 2011
Institutions Broadcasting & Communication History of Broadcasting in Peru, from The Broadcast Archive; Article : Radio Nacional del Peru, Television del Peru, Telefonica del Peru, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Research & Higher Education Article : National University of San Marcos, from Wikipedia
Article : Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales del Peru , from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Transportation The Magic of the Andes, from Mike's Railway History; Brief Historical Summary of the Railways in Peru, by Elio Galessio
Peru, from Airline History
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Peru
Culture Peru, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Article Peru at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
A.A. Reinel, Si te atreves! Composing Music and Black Identity in Peru, 1958-1974, thesis Michigan 2008
L. Gomez, Musica Criolla. Cultural Practices and National Issues in Modern Peru. The case of Lima (1920-1960), thesis Stony Brook 2010
Biographies List of Peruvians, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Julissa Castellanos, Tupac Amarau Uprising and the Environment, ICE Case Studies 1997
K.B. Jones, Mollusk-Shell Radiocarbon as Paleoupwelling Proxy in Peru, thesis Univ. of Arizona 2009
G. Stetson, Hydrocarbon Conflict in the Peruvian Amazon : Indigenous Peoples' Decolonization of Development and Sustainability, thesis Colorado State 2010
M. Fernandez-Canque, Arica 1868: Un tsunami y un terremoto, 2007
IRIS, International Digital Earthquake Archives : 1968 San Martin (Peru) Earthquake Archive, 1970 Peru Earthquake Archive, 1970 Peru-Ecuador Earthquake Archive
Others Disaster History by Country : Peru, from Relief Web
Jeffrey Franco, Peru-Ecuador Border Dispute, ICE Case Studies 1997
Article : Historia territorial del Peru, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
G.F. Sheffield, Peru and the Peace Corps, 1962-1968, thesis Univ. of Connecticut 1991
H. Willer, "Journalism and Media within Globalization", Local Public Spheres and Social Conflicts. A case study from Peru, thesis Hamburg 2010

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Peru, from NNDB; Embajadores de Mexico : Peru, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico; Heads of Post, from MOFA Canada
List of Diplomats from the United Kingdom to Peru, from Wikipedia, Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Lima (Peru), from Wikipedia German edition
Chinese Ambassadors to Peru, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Peru, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops Category : Roman Catholic Dioceses in Peru, Articles : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lima, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cuzco, Huancayo, Piura, Trujillo, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Informatica, Peru
Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
Estimates of Death Toll in Shining Path Insurrection (1980-1999), posted by Matthew White, scroll down for Peru
World Life Expectancy : Peru
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Election Results from Peru (since 1998); from IFES Election Guide
Article : Elections in Peru, from Wikipedia
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, Portal Peru, Hemeroteca
Selected Newspaper Articles History of Peru, from World History Archives
Theodore Child, Impressions of Peru, from Harper's New Weekly Magazine, Jan. 1891 pp.253-277, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Peru, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Worldpress.org (links)
Online Yearbooks - Peru Entries Statesman's Yearbook (vol.1 1864 : no entry for Peru); vol.2 : 1865 pp.578-580, GB, vol.3 : 1866 pp.567-570, GB, vol.4 : 1867 pp.559-563, GB, vol.5 : 1868 pp.559-563, GB, vol.6 : 1869 pp.559-563, GB, 1870 pp.550-555, GB, 1871, pp.550-556, IA, 1872, pp.549-555, IA, 1873, pp.550-556, IA, 1874, pp.549-556, IA, 1875, pp.550-558, IA, 1876, pp.554-561, IA, 1877, pp.561-569, IA, 1878, pp.561-569, IA, 1879, pp.561-569, IA, 1880, pp.561-569, IA, 1881, pp.561-569, IA, 1883, pp.561-569, IA, 1884, pp.602-609, IA, 1885, pp.613-621, IA, 1886, pp.628-636, IA, 1887, pp.652-660, IA, 1888, pp.654-633, IA, 1889, pp.659-669, IA, 1890, pp.805-813, IA, 1891, pp.809-817, IA, 1892, pp.819-827, IA, 1894, pp.819-827, IA, 1895, pp.819-827, IA, 1896, pp.819-827, IA, 1898, pp.819-827, IA, 1899, pp.868-877, IA, 1903, pp.952-962, IA, 1913, pp.1138-1147, IA, 1919, pp.1145-1155, IA, 1921, pp.1174-1183, IA
Annuario pontificio 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Peru
Films on History/Society Article : Cine del Peru, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with Country of Origin : Peru, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Images of Guano harvesting : Peruvian Guano, from Aves de Peru; Explotacion del guano en Peru, from Artehistoria
FIHCA, Lima a Traves de sus Postales
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Singapore
Search Scripophily for Peru
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Peru, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Peru
Archival Deposits Spanish Provenience
Portada de Pares, Archivos de Espana
British Provenience
Search National Archives (UK)
National Library of Scotland, Inventory Acc.12903 Missionary archive of George Stewart McIntosh & Janet McIntosh 2008; The missionary archive of George Stewart McIntosh and Janet McIntosh, c. 1964-1993, consisting of correspondence, photographs and papers relating to their work and lives as Christian missionaries in Peru and Bolivia, South America
Other European Provenience
Nationaal Archief (NL), Consulaten Peru
Österreichisches Staatsarchiv (search), Konsulatsarchiv Lima 1869-1919, Konsulat Lima 1927-1938, Lima-Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Peru, 1884-1896, Loans : Peru et al., Demands on Austria-Hungary : Peru (2), Peru (3), Catholic Cult Peru 1930-1935
Open Society Archives (OSA), Budapest : Peru
U.S. Provenience
National Security Archive : Electronic Briefing Books EBB 37 : "Fujimori's Rasputin"; EBB 44 : Shootdown in Peru. The Secret U.S. Debate Over Intelligence Sharing with Peru and Colombia; EBB 64 : Peru in the Eye of the Storm; EBB 72 : "Montesino's Blind Ambition"; EBB 96 : The Search for Truth. The Declassified Record on Human Rights Abuses in Peru, EBB 237 : Fujimori on Trial; EBB 244 : Southern Cone Rendition Program : Peru's Participation. Operation Condor Crimes Focus of Italian Indictments
Univ. of Minnesota, Andersen Library, YMCA Archives : YMCA International Work in Peru, 1916-1990
Duke Univ., Rubenstein Library, Guide to the Peruvian Collection, 1583-1892
Cornell Univ. Library, Div. of Rare and Manuscript Coll., Directed Cultural Change in Peru : A Guide to the Vicos Collection
Israeli Provenience
Peru Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Laws Constitutions of Peru, from Political Database of the Americas
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Peru, from ILO, 69 docs. since 1919
Archivo Digital de la Legislacion en el Peru
Constitution des provinces-unies de l'Amerique du sud, 1819, in French, GB
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Ecuador-Peru, from United States Institute of Peace
Peru, pp.987-1301 in vol.10 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1972, GB
Coleccion de los tratados del Peru (1876) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce Peru : Sept. 12 1916, Dec. 27 1916, Nov. 20 1917, Feb. 15 1919, July 23 1920, IA
Consular Recommendations on South American Trade 1915, IA; U.S. consuls, Peru pp.23-24
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Peru : Sept. 12 1916, IA
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Document Collections Truth Commissions : Peru, from United States Institute of Peace
J. de la Riva-Aguero, Memorias y documentos para la historia del Peru (1858), IA
Peru, Ministerio de las Relaciones Exteriores : Correspondencia diplomatica relativa a la cuestion del Paraguay 1867, IA
Historical Maps Responsible Authority Instituto Geografico Nacional, Peru
collections Article : Peru en los mapas historicos, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for South America, Peru
Peru Maps, PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Peru, from Wikimedia Commons
Historical Peru Maps, from Library of Congress Map Collection
Mapoteca del Archivo Historico de Limites , Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Peru
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Peru, Modern Vireroyalty of Peru, 1650, from Mapoteca Virtual
Viceroyalty of Peru, 18th C., from Historia de Nuestro Peru y del Mundo
Peru, Contemporary H. Moll, Peru, no date; Maps of
Peru Mapa 1865, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary Lima 1687, Cronicas Cartograficas
Lima 1790, HistoryNYC
Encyclopedia Entries
General Peru, pp.436-438 in vol.16 of The Edinburgh encyclopaedia,, 1830, GB
Articles Peru, Lima (city), Callao, Ayacucho, Cuzco, Iquitos, Peru, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Peru, Lima, Callao, Ayacucho, Cuzco, Iquitos, Cajamarca, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Peru, Archdiocese of Lima, Diocese of Cuzco, Diocese of Ayacucho, San Leon del Amazonas, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic Present State of Agriculture in South America. Peru, p.198 in vol.1 of J.Cl. Loudon, An encyclop©¡dia of agriculture, 1825, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Lima, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : Peru und Bolivien, vol.4 1844 pp.104-109, posted by DTBSWS
Lima or Callao, pp.57-58, Iquique p.225 in J. Daniel, Shipowner's and shipmaster's directory to the foreign port charges, 1844, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Peru pp.191-197
Geographical Peru, pp.326-352 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, IA
Peru and Bolivia, pp.266-279 in vol.3 of H. Murray et al., The Encyclopaedia of Geography, 1839, GB
Peru, pp.455-460 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
The Republic of Peru, pp.540-553 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
Peru, pp.353-361 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Peru, pp.661-663 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Peru, pp.207-211 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Peru, pp.462-465 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnological Peru pp.341-344, in A. Hamilton, Marriage rites, customs, and ceremonies, of all nations of the universe, 1822, GB
Republique du Perou, pp.448-452 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
The Andean South pp.210-252, in vol.11 of L.H. Gray, The Mythology of all Races, 1920, GB
The Peruvians and Aymaras pp.281-288 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Peru p.80 in R.D. Owen, The wrong of slavery, the right of emancipation, and the future of the African race in the United States, 1864, GB
Peru, pp.866-877 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Historical Peru, pp.426-427 in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world, 1856, GB
The Backward States : Peru, pp.184-186 in W.W. Sweet, A History of Latin America, 1929, GB
Other Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1857 (vol.9) : Arica and Tacna (Peru), p.360, GB
Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1864 (vol.16) : Arica and Tacna, p.384, GB
Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1867 (vol.19) : Arica and Tacna, p.416, Peruvian, p.423, GB
Article : Peru, in : Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, 1912, in German, posted by Zeno
Parliamentary Debates Congress of the Republic of Peru, Actas del Pleno 2011-
Tour Guides, Travelogues Pacific line guide to South America; containing information to travellers & shippers to ports on the east & west coasts of South America 1895, IA; on Peru (including Bolivia) pp.93-117
A. de Clairmont, Guide to Modern Peru, 1907, IA
A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Peru pp.110-117
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Peru pp.256-292
A.S. Peck, The South American Tour - A Descriptive Guide 1916, IA; on Peru pp.43-133
Residence Memoirs A. Smith, Peru as it is: a residence in Lima, and other parts of the Peruvian Republic, vol.1, 1839, vol.2, 1839, GB
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives Lists of Archives National Archives : Latin America, from UNESCO Archives Portal
Archivos del Peru, from Fundacion MAPFRE
Peru, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Archive Websites Archivos del Peru; Archivo General de la Nacion, Peru nf; Archivo General del Congreso de la Republica; Archivo Central, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Peru
Genealogia Peruana, Archivo Genealogico, from Biblioteca Nacional del Peru
Congress of the Republic of Peru, General Archive
Musea Museo Nacional de Arqueologia, Antropologia e Historia del Peru
Museo Numismatico, Banco Central de la Reserva del Peru
Museums of Peru, from Enjoy Peru
Monuments UNESCO World Heritage Convention : Peru
Category : Monuments and memorials in Peru, from Wikipedia
Categoria : Monumentos del Peru, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Showcaves : Peru
Libraries Biblioteca Nacional del Peru
Libraries in Peru, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Peruvian banknotes, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Peru Coins, from World Coin Gallery, from Numista, from ColNect, from OmniCoin
Search Coin Archives for Peru
Monedas del Mundo : Peru
Peru, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Peruvian Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Catalogue Peruvian Stamps 1857-1919, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Peru survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database Biblioteca Nacional del Peru, Centro Bibliografico Nacional ; no searchable database offered
Biblioteca Nacional del Peru, Catalogo General
general bibliographies Aprodeh, Bibliografia sobre Memoria en el Peru
pp.133-157 in M. Alisky, Historical Dictionary of Peru, Metuchen NJ 1979, [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Bibliografia : La Concepcion del Tiempo y Espacio en el Mundo Andino, Peru, Volvere May 2004
Bibliografia : Movimentos Indigenos en America Latina : Peru, Volvere July 2004
Bibliografia sobre los siglos XVI y XVII en el Peru
Biblioteca especializada del arqueologia del Peru : Bibliografias
Migration Bibliography Peru, from Discover Nikkei (Jap. Emigration)
Bibliography : Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and Peru, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia
Bibliography on Prehispanic Hydraulic Systems on the Peruvian Coastal Valleys, from Tiwanaku Archeo
An Expanding Bibliography of Huachuma and San Pedro Mesa Shamanism, by O. Blanco
G.A. Dorsey, A bibliography of the anthropology of Peru (1898), posted on Internet Archive
Inca Bibliography, from archaeology.about.com
J. Jacobsen, ICPP Project, Bibliography on Party Politics in Peru, 1950-1962
H.F. Dobyns et al., Cornell Peru Project, Bibliography 1964
serial publications
general bibliographies
Peru entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Bibliography : Andes, from Environmental History of Latin America; Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Latin American Books
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on Peru Biblioteca Virtual, Sistema de Bibliotecas (Peru)
Libros Peruanos, Biblioteca Digital
Academia.edu, Documents in Peruvian History
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Peru
Amauta. Repositorio Digital Peruano
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Peru
Thesis Server, from Biblioteca Virtual, Sistema de Bibliotecas (Peru)
Repositorio Digital FLACSO Andes, based in Ecuador
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Directory of Open Access Journals
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
On Peru LANIC, Academic Journals : Peru
Bulletin, Institut Français d'Etudes Andines 1972-
Revista Andina 1991-2009, HAPI
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
Specific Topics Evelyn Hu-Dehart, The Chinese of Peru, Cuba and Mexico, pp.220-222 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Chapter XIV : What Peru is and what it isn't, pp.197-218, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
John Gunther : El Senor Presidente de Peru, in : John Gunther, Inside South America, NY : Harper & Row (1964) 1967, pp.321-388
Mitsuru Shimpo, Indentured Migrants from Japan, pp.48-50; Evelyn Hu-Dehart, The Chinese of Peru, Cuba and Mexico, pp.220-222 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Ch.C. Griffin, The States of Latin America, pp.516-541 in F.H. Hinsley, The New Cambridge History, vol.XI : Material Progress and World-wide Problems 1870-1898, Cambridge : UP (1962) 1978 [G]
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
Historical Dictionaries M. Alisky, Historical Dictionary of Peru, Metuchen NJ 1979, [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp.1094-1096, 1944 p.539, 1945 p.539, 1946 pp.567-568, 1947 pp.591-592, 1948 pp.578-579, 1949 p.511, 1950 pp.537-538, 1951 pp.546-547, 1952 pp.550-551, 1953 pp.554-555, 1954 p.555, 1955 pp.602-603, 1956 pp.538-539, 1957 p.604, 1958 pp.536-537, 1959 pp.535-536, 1960 p.536, 1961 p.547, 1962 pp.535-536, 1963 pp.640-641, 1964 pp.647-648, 1965 pp.622-623, 1966 p.604, 1967 pp.616-617, 1968 pp.617-618, 1969 pp.598-599, 1970 pp.607-608, 1971 pp.584-585, 1972 pp.547-548, 1973 pp.534-535, 1974 pp.542-543, 1975 pp.545-546, 1976 pp.550-551, 1977 pp.551-552, 1978 pp.578-579, 1979 pp.568-569, 1980 pp.566-567, 1981 pp.567-568, 1982 pp.569-570, 1983 pp.563-564, 1984 pp.562-563, 1985 pp.586-587, 759, 1986 pp.585-586, 758, 1987 pp.553-554, 726, 1988 pp.507, 678, 1989 pp.508-509, 678, 1990 pp.524, 694, 1991 pp.508, 680, 1992 pp.481, 680, 1993 pp.489-490, 692, 1994 pp.489-490, 691, 1995 pp.457, 691, 1996 pp.455, 691, 1997 pp.461, 689, 2002 pp.477-478, 702 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook 1878 pp.561-569, 1889 pp.659-669, 1895 pp.819-825, 1898 pp.819-827, 1901 pp.916-925, 1902 pp.935-944, 1905 pp.994-1005, 1907 pp.1314-1325, 1910 pp.1097-1106, 1918 pp.1167-1177, 1919 pp.1145-1155, 1924 pp.1193-1204, 1925 pp.1201-1211, 1926 pp.1163-1172, 1928 pp.1196-1205, 1929 pp.1174-1183, 1932 pp.1191-1201, 1937 pp.1220-1230, 1942 pp.1182-1192, 1943 pp.1172-1182, 1961-1962 pp.1317-1327, 1970-1971 pp.1224-1232, 1973-1974 pp.1233-1243, 1975-1976 pp.1228-1237, 1976-1977 pp.1226-1235, 1978-1979 pp.973-981, 1979-1980 pp.979-988, 1980-1981 pp.980-988, 1981-1982 pp.983-992, 1982-1983 pp.984-993, 1983-1984 pp.976-983, 1984-1985 pp.976-983, 1985-1986 pp.976-983, 1986-1987 pp.977-984, 1987-1988 pp.982-987, 1988-1989 pp.984-989, 1989-1990 pp.996-1001, 1990-1991 pp.998-1003, 1991-1992 pp.998-1003, 1992-1993 pp.1085-1090, 1993-1994 pp.1083-1088, 1994-1995 pp.1081-1087, 1995-1996 pp.1074-1079, 1996-1997 pp.1028-1033, 1997-1998 pp.1035-1040, 1998-1999 pp.1115-1121, 2000 pp.1262-1268, 2001 pp.1231-1237, 2002 pp.1280-1286, 2003 pp.1279-1285, 2004 pp.1285-1291, 2005 pp.1296-1302, 2006 pp.1303-1310 [G]
Americana Annual Article : Peru, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.668-671, 1928 pp.615-616, 1930 pp.602-603, 1931 pp.589-591, 1932 pp.556-558, 1933 pp.593-595, 1934 pp.461-463, 1935 pp.554-555, 1936 pp.566-568, 1937 pp.559-560, 1938 pp.545-546, 1939 pp.608-610, 1940 pp.621-622, 1943 pp.584-585, 1944 pp.560-561, 1945 pp.571-573, 1946 pp.591-593, 1947 pp.550-551, 1957 pp.614-615, 1958 pp.604-605, 1959 pp.582-583, 1960 pp.588-590, 1961 pp.581-582, 1962 pp.589-590, 1963 pp.521-522, 1964 pp.519-520, 1965 p.558, 1966 pp.535-536, 1967 pp.531-533, 1968 pp.526-527, 1969 p.530, 1970 pp.534, 1971 pp.528-530, 1972 p.529, 1973 p.533, 1974 pp.464-465, 1975 p.452, 1976 p.447, 1977 p.398, 1978 pp.394-395, 1979 p.397, 1980 p.399, 1981 pp.429-430, 1983 p.408, 1984 pp.409-410, 1985 p.411, 1986 p.416, 1987 p.422, 1988 p.419, 1989 p.422, 1990 p.421, 1992 p.423, 1993 pp.425-426, 1994 p.426, 1995 p.414, 2002 pp.344-345 [G]
Other Article : Peru, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1864 pp.652-653 [G]
Article : Peru, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.750-753, 1894 pp.650-651 [G]
Article : Peru, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.608-610, 1899 pp.636-639, 1900 pp.719-721 [G]
Article : Peru, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.612-614, 1908 pp.547-548, 1909 pp.568-570, 1910 pp.570-571, 1913 pp.534-536, 1914 pp.538-540, 1916 pp.527-529, 1917 pp.529-530, 1918 pp.484-487, 1919 pp.510-511, 1920 pp.520-522, 1921 pp.544-545, 1922 pp.549-550, 1923 pp.570-572, 1924 pp.564-566, 1925 pp.539-540, 1926 pp.585-586, 1928 pp.581-582, 1929 pp.649-651, 1930 pp.603-606, 1931 pp.635-637, 1932 pp.639-641, 1933 pp.641-643, 1934 pp.551-552, 1935 pp.566-568, 1938 pp.579-581, 1939 pp.608-610, Events of 1940 pp.585-587, 1941 pp.503-505, 1942 pp.530-532, 1943 pp.472-475, 1944 pp.464-466, 1945 pp.446-448 [G]

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