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Literature on the History of South America
Guyana French Guiana
First posted on March 26th 2002, last revised on November 27th 2013







History of Suriname : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
For the country's earlier history, see History of the Viceroyalty of Peru, History of the Viceroyalty of la Plata
1499-1667 . 1667-1795 . 1795-1815 . 1815-1870 . 1870-1918 . 1918-1945 . 1945-1975 . 1975-1992


1499-1667 . The first European on record to visit the coast of Suriname was Alonso de Ojeda in 1499; the uninviting shore - mudbanks, dense tropical forest, extensive swamps, a land almost uninhabited, located in tropical climate, was uninviting. Only in 1593 did Domingo de Vera claim Guyana, the coastal region (including Suriname's neighbours to the west and east) in the name of King Philip II. of Spain.
At the time when the first Dutchmen arrived in 1580, the waters off Guyana were traversed by Spaniards, Dutchmen, Englishmen and Frenchmen who coexisted peacefully, trading with the native Indians. The Dutch Revolt interrupted these good relations for a number of years. The Dutch factory at Parmurbo (Paramaribo) is first documented for 1613. There were also English (1630) and French (1639) attempts to establish settlements in what is modern Suriname, as much as the factory at Paramaribo, without lasting success.
In 1650 Lord Francis Willoughby, Governor of (English) Barbados, sent 40 settlers; the settlement, provided from Barbados, flourished and in 1662 Willoughby was given the land as a grant by King Charles II. ("Willoughbyland"). The English encouraged the immigration and settlement of Jews, whose knowledge of sugar production and refinery was highly appreciated. In 1665 the colony concentrated along the banks of the lower Suriname River had c.5000 inhabitants, and c.50 sugar refineries. Soon the administrative center was fixed at Paramaribo.


1667-1795 . Between 1665 and 1667 the Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought; a considerable part of the action took place in the Americas. While an English fleet, sailing in the name of the Duke of York, took Nieuw Amsterdam (a possession of the Dutch W.I.C.) and renamed it New York, a Dutch fleet under Admiral Abraham Crijnssen appeared off the coast of Suriname; Fort Willoughby surrendered February 26th 1667. In the following negotiations, England offered to return New York for Suriname; the Dutch side politely rejected. The Treaty of Breda thus left New York in the hands of the English, Suriname in the hands of the Dutch - that is to say, of the province of Zeeland, which had financed the fleet Admiral Crijnssen had commanded.
Governor Willoughby of Barbados rejected the Treaty of Breda and, after peace had been concluded, dispatched a force which succeeded in expelling the Dutch; when he was told to hand the colony over to the Dutch (1668), he had many installations dismantled and many of the settlers and slaves had left.
With the economy of Suriname in shambles, the Estates of Zeeland in 1682 sold the colony to the W.I.C., who found the administration too costly; in 1683 the Geoctroyeerde Societeit van Suriname was founded, owned to a third each by the W.I.C., the city of Amsterdam and the family van Sommelsdijck. As first governor, Cornelis van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck was appointed; he found a resident population of 1200 freemen and 2000 slaves. He concluded peace treaties with neighbouring native American tribes (Caribs, Arawaks); the number of sugar plantations quickly grew from 50 to 200. He encouraged immigration; among the immigrants were French Huguenots. The governor was assassinated in 1688. Fort Willoughby was renamed Fort Zeelandia. In 1685, two forts were constructed, Fort Houttuyn and Fort Sommelsdijck, used until 1740 resp. 1748.
While allied England and the Dutch Republic were at war with France 1688-1697 (War of the Grand Alliance), French Admirals de Casse (1689) and de Gennis (1696) in vain attempted to conquer the colony.
New plantation products (tobacco, indigo) were introduced.
During the War of Spanish Succession (1701-1713), England and the Dutch Republic, still allied, again faced the French menace. In 1712 French Captain Cassard ravaged the colony, ending with this act only after he was paid 750,000 guilders. The peace treaties of Rijswijk (1697) and of Utrecht (1713) left Suriname in Dutch possession. In 1734-1747 Fort Nieuw Amsterdam was constructed at the junction of the Suriname and Commewijne Rivers.
After the disaster of 1712 colonial Suriname faced another problem - runaway slaves, numbered 16,000. The plantation economy depended on slave labour, imported from Africa; the runaway slaves formed Maroon communities in the hinterland, hostile to the colonists.
From 1713 onward, Suriname lived through decades of outside peace. New plantation products, such as coffee (1724), cocoa (1733) and cotton (1735), added to the profits; the colony continued to depend on an ever-growing slave population. In 1775, Suriname was visited by 73 ships, which sailed off carrying 16,200,000 pound of sugar, 13,300,000 pound of coffee, 144,430 pound of cotton, 733,000 pound of cocoa. Because of lack of hard currency, until 1761 a "Sugar Currency" was used, i.e. payments were made in bags of sugar. An attempt to introduce a copper currency, the parrot pennies, failed (1678-1679). In 1761 a paper currency, the so-called Playing Card Currency, was introduced (valid until 1828, when a regular currency was introduced).
When the Maroon communities were regarded a threat to the colony's economy, in 1770 Governor Nepveu established a Korps Vrije Negers (Corps Free Negroes), recruited from runaway slaves willing to fight for the colony in return for amnesty, freedom for themselves and their families, and a modest salary. Another Corps, the Zwarte Jagers (Black Hunters) was recruited in 1772 from negro slaves purchased for that purpose by the government. In 1770-1778 and, on a lower scale, later, campaigns against the Cottica Negroes were undertaken, the latter lead by Bonni, Baron and Joli Coeur. Bonni and his men established themselves on the French side of the border Marowijne River; French diplomatic pressure caused the colonial administration to pass some reforms, among which was to permit the activity of Catholic priests in the colony (1786), for the first time in a century.

1795-1815 . In 1795 the Dutch Republic was conquered by French revolutionary troops; the Batavian Republic, widely regarded a French satellite (the longest lasting of the 'satellite republics', until 1806) was founded. The Geoctroyeerde Compagnie was disbanded, the administration of Suriname placed under a Committee for the Colonies. France was at war with Britain, and the Batavian Republic was a French ally, thus an English enemy. On the other hand, Prince William of Orange had fled to Britain, continuing to claim the allegiance of the Surinamese administration (Gov. Friderici).
While the Governor supported the Prince of Orange-Nassau, the Raad van Politie (Political Council) leaned toward the Republic. However, the discussion of the liberation of the slaves in France and events in the French Caribbean colonies caused a certain scepticism among the Surinamese plantation owners and administrators toward revolutionary reforms. When a British fleet appeared in 1799, Governor Friderici did not defend the colony, but instead placed it under British Protection.
In 1802 the Peace of Amiensa was signed and Suriname was returned to a Dutch (Batavian) administration. Now Friderici was fired for not having offered any defense against the English.
Peace was of short duration, and in April 1804 an English fleet conquered Suriname (until 1814/15). Under British administration, a number of changes occurred. Slave trade was formally abolished in 1808; the Saramacca Canal opened in 1809, the stretch between Saramacca and Coppename Rivers settled (many Englishmen, Scots etc. among the settlers). On the other hand, some of the British governors used the opportunity to enrich themselves at the expense of the colony.

1815-1870 . Suriname now stretched from the lower Corantijn to the lower Marowijne river; it's inland borders, until today, being ill-defined. The colony received relatively little attention from the Dutch Ministry of Colonial Affairs, which was occupied which the much more populous and profitable Dutch East Indies.
Paramaribo became the seat of the administration of the colony, which included other coastal settlements such as Nieuw Nickerie, Waterloo, Nieuw Amsterdam, Albina. In 1866 the colony was given a parliament of its own.
The country continued to depend on sugar exports; coffee gained in importance. The plantation system continued to depend on slavery, which was not abolished until 1863. According to the law of July 1st 1863, in Suriname 33,000 slaves were set free. Their former owners were compensated with 300 hfl. per freed slave.
While slave trade formally had been abolished in 1808, slaves were smuggled into the country; the slave trade was only suppressed in 1826. With the plantation economy dependent on slave labour, legislation was passed which outlawed freeing a slave. In 1848 Paramaribo was declared a free port.
Runaway slaves had fled into the rainforest, where they had established villages of Bosnegers (forest negroes). Spending much of their time in canoes, they developed arms stronger than legs. Dissatisfied slaves continued to cause trouble, such as the great fire of Paramaribo 1832.
Even in the main colony, Dutch settlers were outnumbered by African slaves, their descendants and coloureds. This colonial society had developed a creole language, Sranan.

1870-1918 . The liberation of the slaves in 1863 forced Suriname's plantation owners to reorganize. After working another 10 years on the plantations (enforced, but paid) the ex-slaves left the plantations in 1873. To replace them, contract labourers were brought into the country, first Indians from Calcutta (1873-1916), since 1890 Javanese from the Dutch East Indies. Chinese immigration (from Java) had already begun in 1853. In return for the passage they had to work for a number of years on the plantations. Many of them later established shops, restaurants etc., soon playing a vital role in the colony's economy.
Between 1853 and 1939, 74,000 contract labourers were brought into the country, 47 % from British India, 44 from the Dutch East Indies, 4 % from the West Indies, 3 % from China, 1 % from Madeira, source Nationaalarchief Suriname.
A decline in sugar prices - the consequence of the production of beet sugar - and the difficulty to keep workers on the plantation - resulted in more and more sugar plantations going out of business, often converted into petty farming villages.
Now, the adjacent rain forest was examined for it's wealth in natural products (timber) and minerals. In Dec. 1916, the Suriname Bauxite Company was founded, exploiting the colony's bauxite deposits.
The Netherlands stayed neutral during World War I. Yet, as the countries surrounding the Netherlands were fighting each other for four years, the Netherlands and its colonies suffered. Communications between the motherland and Suriname became both more difficult and costly.

1918-1945 . In 1922, Suriname was declared an integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, a decision which had far-reaching consequences : the Surinamers were granted Dutch citizenship. When the country gained independence in 1975, a considerable part of the population moved to the Netherlands.
The economy continued to go through a period of transition, as the sugar industry continued to decline. From Dutch perspective, Suriname turned from an asset into a liability. During the Great Depression, Hunger Riots broke out in Paramaribo (1931).
When German troops occupied the the Netherlands in May 1940, both the royal couple and the Dutch government fled, establishing a government-in-exile. Suriname stayed loyal to queen and government-in-exile, refusing to recognize the Dutch administration installed by the Germans.
A German ship, the Goslar, anchoring off Paramaribo at the time of the occupation of the Netherlands by German troops, was sunk on the order of its captain to avoid it falling into Dutch hands, the wreck being a lasting reminder of World War II in Suriname. US troops landed in Suriname to protect the colony's bauxite industry, partially US owned (1940) and of strategic importance.

1945-1975 . In 1949, the Netherlands granted independence to Indonesia. Of it's once vast colonial empire, only Netherlands' New Guinea (until 1963), the Netherlands' Antilles and Suriname remained. In 1954 a Statute was passed, redefining the status of the former colonies, now overseas parts of the empire.
The administration of Suriname shifted from treating the area as a dependent economy supplementary to that of the motherland to an administration serving the interests of the population. Universal suffrage had been introduced in 1948. Political parties emerged in 1950, reflecting the ethnic friction of the population. Suriname had self-government. In 1968 the University of Suriname was opened.
In 1973, negotiations regarding the full independence of Suriname were started. Independence was granted on Nov. 25th 1975. With Suriname gaining independence, about a third of the Surinamese population emigrated to the Netherlands (130,000).
At the time of its independence (after the emigration wave to the Netherlands), Suriname had 360.000 inhabitants, 40 % of whom of Creoles (of mixed descent), 30 % Hindustanis, 12 % of Javanese descent, 9 % Maroons (of African descent), 2 % native Americans, 1.5 % Chinese, a few thousand Europeans. The capital Paramaribo had 18.000 inhabitants.
Religiously the population was divided into ca. 25 % Hindu, ca. 20 % of Catholics, Protestants and Muslims each.

1975-1992 . Administration . The presidency was held by J.H.E. Ferrier 1975-1980, by H.R. Chin A Sen (NRP) 1980-1982, by L.F.R. Misier 1982-1988, by R. Shankar (VHP) 1988-1990, by J.S.P. Kraag (NPS) 1990-1991, by R.R. Venetiaan (NPS) 1991-1996. The Prime Ministership was held by H.A.E. Arron (NPS) 1973-1980, by H.R. Chin A Sen (NRP) 1980-1982, by L.A.E. Alibux (PALU) 1983-1984, W.A. Udenhout 1984-1986, P.S.R. Radhakishun (BVD) 1986-1987, J.A. Wijdenbosch (NDP) 1987-1988; then the post of PM was abolished.
The civilian government was toppled twice by military coups lead by Desi Bouterse in 1980. Elections were held in 1987, which resulted in the win of the opposition parties; the government formed by them was toppled by a 1990 coup by Bouterse; elections again were held in 1991.
Foreign Policy . Suriname joined the UN in 1975. Suriname is involved in border disputes with Guyana and with French Guiana. The killing of 15 opponents of the Bouterse dictatorship in 1982 resulted in the Netherlands and the U.S. cutting aid to the country; Dutch aid resumed in 1988 after a democratic government had been installed.
Domestic Policy . Upon independence a significant portion of the population left for the Netherlands. The country lacked a democratic tradition; the population traditionally was broken up in strata, upon ethnic lines; a national identity was lacking. Many political parties competed for power.
The coup of 1980 was justified by the resolution to end the (alleged) corruption of the previous regime, and to raise the standard of living. The new regime soon banned opposition parties, ruled dictatorially, in 1982 alienated the nation's aid donors. Economic difficulty forced the government to move toward reintroduction of democracy in 1985; a Maroon rebellion erupted in 1986. Elections in 1987 were won by the opposition, the new government ousted by a coup in 1990, a new election again won by the opposition in 1991, an end to the Maroon Rebellion negotiated in 1992.
The Economy . Suriname depended heavily on the aluminum industry. The Bouterse dictatorship caused the interruption of the payment of foreign aid 1982-1988 by the Netherlands and the U.S., but tried to compensate for the loss by leaning on Cuba and Libya, and developed a new source of income by drug trafficking, for which Boutserse later was tried (1999).
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the estimated population of Suriname for 1974 as 381,400, for 1975 as 364,500, for 1976 (low) as 354,400, for 1980 (census) as 354,900, for 1985 as 383,500, for 1992 as 403,300.

Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)
Students' Papers : Lee, Si-eun : History of Indian and Chinese Coolies and their Descendants (2008)






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi
from Nations Encyclopedia, Wikipedia
Historical W.H. Lans, Bijdrage tot de kennis der kolonie Suriname (1842) in Dutch, IA, GB
W.G. Palgrave, Dutch Guiana (1876), IA
E. Beyer, Beyträge zur Kenntniss des gegenwartigen Zustandes der Kolonie Suriname, 1823, in German, GB
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J.D. Kunitz, Surinam und seine Bewohner, 1805, in German, GB
Ph. Fermin, Histoire naturelle de la Hollande equinoxiale (Suriname), 1765, in French, GB
Links General from Lanic at UTexas
Category : Suriname, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Suriname, from Wikipedia
Organizations Stichting Gebouwd Erfgoed Suriname
Association of Caribbean Historians
Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen
Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV, Leiden)
Centraal Bureau voor Generalogie
Historical Dictionaries West Indian Encyclopedia
Herman Daniel Benjamins, Joh. F. Snelleman, Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch West-Indië (1914-1917), in Dutch, posted on DBNL
Woordenlijst : Vrij van Slavernij, from Nationaal Archief, in Dutch
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Suriname Timeline, by Peter Troon
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia, by Peter Troon, by Erik Tjong Kim Sang, Geschiedenis van Suriname, from Bert's Geschiedenis Site, in Dutch
Historical Essai historique sur la colonie de Surinam, 1788, in French, GB
H.W.P. Ellis, Chronologie der Geschiedenis van Suriname (1853) in Dutch, IA, GB
Ph. Fermin, Description generale, historique, geographique et physique de la colonie de Surinam, 1769, in French, GB
Ph. Fermin, Ausführliche historisch-physikalische Beschreibung der Kolonie Surinam, vol.1, 1775, vol.2, 1775, in German, GB
Specific Periods Articles : Dutch Guiana, from Wikipedia
Article : Nederlands Guiana, in Wikipedia Dutch edition
The Archaeology of the Guianas : A focus on Life and culture of the pre-Columbian Indians of the Guianas, by A.H. Versteeg
S.S. Jhagroe, Redemption, ambivalence and self-deceit. A Discourse Analysis of Surinamese Independence (1973-1977), thesis Rotterdam 2012
D. Tuijnman, Politie en leger in Suriname. De interne ordehandhaving van 1895 tot 1940, thesis Utrecht 2008
J.R. Hyles, Guiana and the shadows of empire : colonial and cultural negotiations at the edge of the world, thesis Baylor 2010
Historiography A.H. Versteeg, The history of prehistoric archaeological research in Suriname in: T.E. Wong et al. (ed): The history of earth sciences in Suriname - Kon. Ned. Academie Wetenschappen & Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO, 1998, pp.203-234.
L. White, Stedman's Narrative: its Origins & Transformations thesis Univ. Aberta 2001
Politics Politics of Suriname, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Suriname; For the Record 2000 : Suriname, from UN Human Rights System; Governments on the WWW : Suriname
Article : Society of Suriname, from Wikipedia
Article : Societeit van Suriname, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Military Wars of Suriname, 1800-1999, from ACED
Regiments of the British West Indies and Bermuda, by Frank Goodwill
J.G. Stedman, Narrative of a five years' expedition, against the revolted negroes of Surinam, in Guiana, on the wild coast of South America; from the year 1772, to 1777: elucidating the history of that country, and describing its productions ... with an account of the Indians of Guiana, & negroes of Guinea (1806), posted on IA
Forten en Verdedigingswerken (Forts and Defense Installations), from suriname.nu, in Dutch
Suriname, pp.108-153 in J. Deutz, Proeve over de middelen die tot bescherming van de zeevaart en koophandel en tot verdediging der binnenlandsche en buitenlandsche bezittingen der Republicq in de Oost-Indien en op 't vaste land van America zullen kunnen aangewend worden, 1783, in Dutch, GB
Economy & Finances General Article Economy of Suriname, Category Economy of Suriname, from Wikipedia
Currency and Finances Global History of Currencies : Suriname
The History of Money in Suriname, from Centrale Bank van Suriname
Mining Alcoa in Suriname, from Alcoa
M. Heemskerk, Driving Forces of Small-Scale Gold Mining among the Ndjuka Maroons : A Cross-Scale Socioeconomic Analysis of Participation in Gold Mining in Suriname, thesis Univ. of Florida 2000
M. Heemskerk, Maroon Gold Miners and Mining Risks in the Suriname Amazon, in: Cultural Survival Quarterly 25(1). Special Issue: "Mining Indigenous Lands: Can Impacts and Benefits be Reconciled?", S.H. Ali et al. (ed.), pp.25-29
W. Hout, "Confidence in our own Abilities": Suriname's State Oil Company as a Pocket of Effectiveness, Chapter for: Michael Roll (ed.), State Performance and Reform in Developing Countries: Pockets of Effectiveness (2014)
Agriculture M.D. Teenstra, De landbouw in de kolonie Suriname, vol.1, 1835, vol.2, 1835, in Dutch, GB
Surinam Cotton, p.322 in J. Montgomery, The theory and practice of cotton spinning, 1833, GB
A. Cruysheer, Vreeland in den Verre (1). Plantage Vreeland in Suriname, Vechtkroniek no.34 2010 pp.30-31
Foreign Aid M. Dooijes, Foreign Aid, a nation's blessing or a curse: how Multilateral Institutions have hindered Suriname's integration into the world economy, n.d.
Other C.V. Nahar, Remittances from the Netherlands: A case of local economic development in the Tammenga District in Suriname, thesis Rotterdam 2011
B. Hoonhout, Subprime plantation mortgages in Suriname, Essequibo and Demerara, 1750-1800. On manias, Ponzi processes and illegal trade in the Dutch negotiatie system, thesis Leiden 2012
A.J.A. Quintus Bosz, Drie eeuwen grondpolitiek in Suriname; een historische studie van de achtergrond en de ontwikkeling van de Surinaamsche rechten op de grond, thesis Groningen 1954
J.H. Adhin, Development planning in Surinam in historical perspective : (with special reference to the ten year plan), summary of thesis Groningen 1961
Social History General Y. Slagter, The Sugar-Coated Path to Economic Inequality. A Comparative Study of Guyana and Suriname, ca. 1600-present, thesis Utrecht 2011
Crime and Punishment Suriname, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Slavery J. Wolbers, De slavernij in Suriname (1853) in Dutch, IA, GB
A. Halberstadt, Vrijmaking der slaven in Suriname: en de opheffing van het meesterschap, 1856, in Dutch, GB
M.D. Teenstra, De negerslaven in de kolonie Suriname en de uitbreiding van het Christendom, 1842, in Dutch, GB
M.A. de Beer, De wrede Surinaamse planter in de achttiende eeuw. Feit of fictie?, thesis Utrecht 2010
Labour M. Schalkwijk et al., Suriname. The Situation of Children in Mining, Agriculture and other Worst Forms of Child Labour: A Rapid Assessment, ILO 2002
Women K.S. Smith, In Search of Something Akin to Freedom: Black Women, Slavery, and Power, thesis Florida State 2007 (on Suriname)
Emigration International Migration Institute (Oxford), Working Paper 47 : H. van Amersfoort, How the Dutch Government stimulated the unwanted immigration from Suriname 2011
Language B. Migge, Substrate Influence in the Formation of the Surinamese Plantation Creole : A Consideration of Sociohistorical Data from Ndyuka and Gbe, thesis Ohio State 1998
Health B.M. Mangre, Suriname: An example of the 'Reverse Fortune Hypothesis'?, thesis Rotterdam 2009 (on disease environment)
M. Okumura, The end of slavery: Disease patterns and cultural behaviors of African-Americans in Suriname, International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 2010
Ethnography General Languages of Suriname (15), from Ethnologue
Article : Papiamento, from Wikipedia
Category : Dutch Antillean Society, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Suriname
Indigenous W.P. Reimink, Kopen in het bos: Het landrechtendiscours bij de Trio-Indianen in Suriname , thesis Utrecht 2009
of Asian Descent Geschiedenis Javaanse Immigratie, from Banyu Mili, in Dutch
De Hindoestaanse Geschiedenis in Jaartallen, from Samamihuis, in Dutch
Migratiegeschiedenis van de Surinaamse Hindoestanen, from Haagse Herinneringen, in Dutch
Article : Chinese Surinamers, from Wikipedia
De komst van de Javanen in Suriname en de achtergronden, in Dutch
M. Fokken, Dutch Interests and South Asian Lives. South Asian Men and Women in the Suriname Colonial Reports between 1873-1917, thesis 2011 (does not say at which college)
Tjon Sie Fat, Chinese new migrants in Suriname : the inevitability of ethnic performing, thesis Amsterdam 2009
of African Descent I.H. van der Pijl, Levende-doden: Afrikaans-Surinaamse percepties, praktijken en rituelen rondom dood en rouw, Bronnen voor de Studie van Suriname (BSS), issue: 27 (2007), thesis Utrecht
Maroons C. Meide, Guiana Maroon Canoes: Origins and Cultural Models , 2002
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Suriname, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Suriname, from Jewish Virtual Library
International Religious Freedom Report 2003 : Suriname, from U.S. Department of State
Category : Religion in Suriname, from Wikipedia
R.J.H. Gottheil, Contributions to the history of the Jews in Surinam (1901), IA
C.F. Ledderhose, Die Mission unter den freien Buschnegern in Surinam, 1854, in German, GB
A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings in Surinam, from Prolades
Country Report : Suriname, from ARDA
J.E.G. Kaiser, The Saramacca Project, Jewcy.com 2009
A. Heldring, Freeland League. The Saramacca Project, a plan of Jewish colonization in Surinam, synopsis of a 2010 thesis
E.M. Hendrix et al., De Javaanse moslims in Suriname: een kwalitatief onderzoek anno 2009, thesis Utrecht 2010
L. Almagor, Een vergeten alternatief : het Freeland League-plan voor joodse kolonisatie in Suriname, thesis Utrecht 2007
W.A. Vieke, Creole Jews: Negotiating Community in Colonial Suriname, thesis Rotterdam 2008
History of Regions Article Districts of Suriname, from Wikipedia
Category : Districts of Suriname, from Wikipedia
Districts of Suriname, from www.statoids.com
Ressorts of Suriname, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Kolonie van Nederlands-Guiana 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, Land Suriname 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, Republiek Suriname 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08,
Local History History of Paramaribo, from Wikipedia
Institutions Articles Johann Adolf Pengel International Airport, from Wikipedia
Dutch Guiana, Suriname, from Airline History
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Suriname
Culture Article Suriname at the Olympics from Wikipedia
A.S. Andrews, Abolition and William Blake's illustrations for Stedman's Expedition against the revolted Negroes of Surinam, thesis Univ. of British Columbia 1995
Biographies Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden
Category : Surinamese People, from Wikipedia
Categorie : Surinaams Persoon, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Lijst van bekende Surinamers, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on Caribbean
K.A. van Sijpesteijn, Mr Jan Jacob Mauricus, gouverneur-generaal von Suriname, von 1742 tot 1751, 1858, in Dutch, GB
J.G. Stedman, Narrative of Joanna, an emancipated slave of Surinam, 1838, GB
R. Maschhaupt, Desi Bouterse, Van autoritair-populistisch leider naar charismatisch-populistisch leider, thesis Leiden 2013
Environmental History Disaster History by Country : Natural Disasters, Suriname, from Relief Web
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
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Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), Rulers : Suriname, by B. Schemmel; Regnal Chronologies (Western Balkans; scroll down for Albania), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated); Alle Gouverneurs (all governors), from suriname.nu, in Dutch
Official Yearbook : Almanak voor de Nederlandsche West-Indische bezittingen, en de kust van Guinea 1859, 1858, 1860, 1859, GB
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Suriname, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Suriname, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Suriname, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops Article : Roman Catholic Diocese of Paramaribo, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname
Population Figures from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
World Life Expectancy : Suriname
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Economic Data Siddharth Chandra, 2009-07-28, "Replication data for: Wage Data for Netherlands West Indies (Suriname), 1915 -1920", http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/15298 World-Historical Dataverse
Election Results from Psephos (since 2000); from IFES Election Guide
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Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Gouvernementsbladen van de kolonie Suriname 1816-1855., 1856, in Dutch, GB
Links, Overview K'ranti! De Surinaamse pers, 1774-2007, from De Surinaamse Pers
History of French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Suriname, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Suriname Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Netherlands, Colonies : Surinam 1890, pp.778-780, IA, 1891, pp.782-784, IA, 1892, pp.792-793, IA, 1894, pp.792-793, IA, 1895, pp.792-793, IA, 1896, pp.792-793, IA, 1898, pp.791-793, IA, 1899, pp.837-839, IA, 1903, pp.924-925, IA, 1913, pp.1090-1091, IA, 1919, pp.1093-1095, IA, 1921, pp.1119-1120, IA
Staatskalender Jaarboeken van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, GB
Almanak voor de Nederlandsche West-Indische bezittingen, en de kust van Guinea, GB; 1858 and 1859 online
Newsreels Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Search School TV for Nederlandse Antillen; clips in Dutch
Films on History/Society Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with Country of Origin : Suriname, from IMDb
Radio Caribiana, from Radio Nederland
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Beeldbank, Nationaal Archief Suriname
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Beeldbank Nationaal Archief
Geheugen van Nederland
Image : Iron for Branding Slaves, Suriname, posted by Canon van Amsterdam
Revolutie in Suriname. Beelden van hoop en protest, from Kennisaanval
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Suriname
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Suriname, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Suriname
Search Scripophily for Suriname
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Peace Corps Digital Library (more of an archive)
The Atlantic World and the Dutch : Suriname; guide to archival repositories for the period of Dutch administration
Archieven Suriname in Nederland, from Anda Suriname
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL combined search engine for many archives; Archief.NL, Dutch language site providing links to individual archives
Het Nationaal Archief : Historische Database Suriname : Arbeid op Contract, Vrij in Suriname
Inventaris van de op Suriname betrekking hebbende stukken in het Stadsarchief Amsterdam
Constitutions, Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Suriname, from ILO, 28 docs. since 1976
Feestelijke viering Verdrag van 10 oktober 1760 in voorbereiding (Celebration of Treaty of Oct. 10 1760 in preparation), from De Ware Tijd
Resolutie betreffende de huwelijken van de Joodse bevolking in Suriname 1703 (Resolution concerning Marriages among the Jewish Population in Suriname, 1703), from Regelgeving in de Nederlanden (Herman de Wit), in Dutch
Wetboeken en Reglementen voor de Kolonie Suriname, 1868, in Dutch, GB
Verordeningen toepasseelijk op alle Nederlandsche bezittingen in West Indië; pp.1013-1020 in vol.5 of G. Luttenberg et al., Register der wetten en besluiten, betrekkelijk het openbaar bestuur ion de Nederlanden over het tijdperk van 1798 tot en met 1839, 1843, GB
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Verdragenbank, MinBuZa NederLand
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NL) Treaty Database
List of Treaties between the Suriname government and various tribes, 1749-1809, posted by ndyukaliba
Treaty of Oct. 10 1760, paraphrased in Dutch, posted by ndyukaliba
Consular Reports Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Dutch Guiana, Oct. 4 1920, IA
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Historiography
Document Collections Proclamation Liberation of the Slaves, Oct. 3rd 1862, posted by Roel van Veen, in Dutch
Singi-Boekoe vo da Evangelische broedergemeente na Suriname-Kondre, 1853, GB
Nederlandsch constitioneel archief van alle koninklijke aanspraken 1-4, 1846, GB
Verzameling van stukken aangaande de Surinaamsche aangelegenheden, vol.1, 1845, vol.2, 1846, in Dutch, GB
Historical Maps Responsible Authority
collections Atlas of Suriname, from Wikimedia Commons
Search Koninklijk Instituutvoor de Tropen, Nederlandse Koloniaale Kaarten
Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Old Suriname Maps, posted by suriname.nu, comment in Dutch; click "Oude Kaarten"
Historical Suriname Maps, from Library of Congress Map Collection
Suriname Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Suriname, from Wikimedia Commons
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Suriname, Modern
Suriname, Contemporary
detail, hindsight/modern Paramaribo, from Mapsget
detail, contemporary Suriname in Kaart gebracht, from Geheugen van Nederland
Paramaribo 1916-1917, from PCL, UTexas
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Guiana, from EB 1911, scroll down for Dutch Guiana; Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article (Niederländisch-)Guayana, Paramaribo, Surinam, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1889, in German
Religious Surinam, p.367 in B.B. Edwards, The missionary gazetteer, 1832, GB
Article Guiana, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1910 edition; from EB 1911
Economic Surinam, p.309 in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Handbuch der Kaufleute, 1784, in German, GB
Surinam, pp.295-297 in vol.4 pt.1 of J.M. Demeunier, Economie politique et diplomatique, 1788, in French, GB
Suriname, p.114 in Tablettes Pour les Negocians et les Banquiers, 1794, in French, GB
Surinam, p.201 in J.Cl. Loudon, An encyclop©Ądia of agriculture, 1831, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Surinam, posted by DTBSWS
Surinam, Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, pp.311-312 in G.Th. Flügel, The merchant's assistant, or, Merchantile instructer, 1834, GB
West Indies : Dutch West Indies : Surinam, Berbice, Demerara, Essequebo, p.365, in P. Kelly, The Universal Cambist and Commercial Instructor, 1835, GB
Geographical Dutch America, containing Surinam on the Continent of South America, pp.723-724 in W. Guthrie et al., A new geographical, historical, and commercial grammar, 1780, GB
Surinam, in The American gazetteer, 1810, GB
Surinam, p.262 in S.A. Mitchell, A general view of the world, 1846, GB
Surinam, pp.253-260 in vol.3 of L.L. Finke, Versuch einer allgemeinen medicinisch-practischen Geographie, 1795, in German, GB
Dutch Guayana, p.608 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
Surinam, p.386 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Das Niederländische Guyana, p.682 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Dutch Guiana, pp.227-228 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Dutch Guiana, pp.56-61 in E. Reclus, South America, 1905
The Guiana Colonies, p.478 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnographic Dutch Guiana, p.851 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Historical Surinam, or Dutch Guiana, pp.216-221 in vol.4 of W. Winterbotham, An historical, geographical, commercial and philosophical view of the American United States and the European Settlements in America and the West Indies, 1795, GB
Parliamentary Debates Batavian Republic 1795-1806 : Dagverhaal der handelingen van het Vertegenwoordigend lichaam des Bataafschen Volks, vol.1, 1798, vol.4, 1799, vol.5, 1799, vol.8, 1800, vol.9, 1800, vol.10, 1800, vol.11, 1801, vol.12, 1801, vol.13, 1801, in Dutch, GB
Kingdom of the Netherlands 1813- : Staten Generaal Digitaal, in Dutch
Tour Guides, Travelogues J.G. Stedman, Reize in de binnenlanden van Suriname, 1799, in Dutch, GB
Suriname pp.17-424 in vol.3 of G.B. Bosch, Reizen in West-Indië: en door een gedeelte van Zuid- en Noord-Amerika, 1843, in Dutch, GB
G.Ph.Ch. van Breughel, Dagverhaal van eene reis naar Paramaribo en verdere omstreken in de kolonie, 1842, in Dutch, GB
A. Sack, A narrative of a voyage to Surinam: of a residence there during 1805, 1806 and 1807, 1810, GB
Residence Memoirs A. Kappler, Sechs Jahre in Surinam, oder Bilder aus dem Militärischen Leben dieser Kolonie, 1854, in German, GB
Institutions Archives, Musea, Libraries Nationaal Archief Suriname, in Dutch
Suriname, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Museums
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Geldzaken (Monetary History), from suriname.nu, in Dutch
Suriname banknotes, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Suriname Coins, from Omnicoin; from Numista, from ColNect, from OmniCoin
Stamps Catalogue Suriname Stamps 1873-1915, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
Nederlandse Bibliografie Online (publications since 1974); Digitale Bibliografie Nederlandse Geschiedenis
on Suriname survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Suriname 1599-1975 : Bibliografie
P.H. Hiss, A selective guide to the English literature on the Netherlands West Indies, with a supplement on British Guiana (1943), IA
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Geheugen van Nederland, Suriname in kaart gebracht : bibliografie
serial publications
general bibliographies
Suriname entries
Mitchell's West Indian Bibliography
Bibliography of Caribbean Archaeology, from Florida Museum of Natural History
booksellers
on Suriname Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
P.H. Hiss, A selective guide to the English literature on the Netherlands West Indies, with a supplement on British Guiana (1943), IA
Catalogus der Surinaamsche koloniale bibliotheek, 1862, GB
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
Koninklijke Bibliotheek - Digitization; Digitale Bibliografie Nederlandse Geschiedenis, search for Suriname, Nederlands West Indie
on Suriname Nationale Database Suriname
Caribbean Digital Library
Digital Library of the Caribbean
Surinaamse Literatuur, from Digitale Bibliotheek Nederlandse Letterkunde
Academia : Documents in Suriname, Documents in Surinamese History
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals General Directory of Open Access Journals
On Suriname Nieuwe West Indische Gids 1919-2010
General Accounts Fr. Engelbert Verrijt, De Surinaamse Geschiedenis voor de hoogste klas van de Katholieke Scholen (Suriname history for the highest class of Catholic schools), Paramaribo (1952) 2nd edition 1957, 202 pp., in Dutch [G]
Specific Topics Surinam, pp.82-125 in : Mordechai Arbell, The Jewish Nation of the Caribbean, Jerusalem : Gefen 2002 [G]
Jan Lucassen, Emigration to the Dutch Colonies and the USA, pp.21-27 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Netherlands Colonial Empire, 1945 p.489 [G]
Surinam, 1944 pp.678-679, 1945 pp.676-677, 1946 pp.713-714, 1947 pp.731-732, 1948 pp.705-706, 1949 pp.609-610, 1950 pp.651-652, 1951 p.657, 1952 pp.659-660, 1953 p.669, 1954 p.672, 1955 p.669, 1956 p.721, 1957 p.723, 1958 p.659, 1959 p.662, 1960 p.663, 1961 p.663, 1962 p.656, 1963 p.772 [G]
Colonies and Dependent Territories, 1964 pp.265-268 [G]
Colonies and Other Dependencies, 1965 p.254, 1966 p.205, 1967 p.220, 1968 p.218 [G]
Dependent States : Surinam, 1969 pp.273, 275, 280, 1970 p.280, 1971 p.270, 1972 pp.238-239, 242, 1973 pp.229-230, 233, 1974 pp.246-247, 249, 1975 pp.230-231 [G]
Surinam, 1976 pp.635-636, 1977 p.637, 1978 pp.650-651, Suriname 1979 p.644, 1980 pp.643-644, 1981 pp.638-639, 1982 pp.644-645, 1983 pp.639-640, 1984 p.640, 1985 pp.587-588, 785, 1986 pp.587, 784, 1987 pp.555-556, 752, 1988, pp.508, 704, 1989, pp.510, 704, 1990, pp.525-526, 720, 1991 pp.509-510, 705, 1992 pp.482-483, 705 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Dutch West Indies : Dutch Guiana or Surinam, 1895 pp.792-796, 1898 pp.791-793, 797, 1901 pp.889-890, 1902 pp.907-908, 1905 pp.962-963, 1910 pp.1051-1053, 1918 pp.1116-1117 [G]
Surinam or Dutch Guiana, 1919 pp.1093-1095, 1924 pp.1141-1143, 1925 pp.1150-1152, 1926 pp.1115-1117, 1928 pp.1147-1149, 1929 pp.1127-1129, 1932 pp.1144-1166, 1937 pp.1182-1184, 1186-1187, 1942 pp.1136-1138, 1943 pp.1125-1127 [G]
Surinham, 1970-1971 pp.1179-1182 [G]
Surinam, 1960-1961 pp.1267-1271, 1973-1974 pp.1185-1189, 1975-1976 pp.1179-1182, 1976-1977 pp.1327-1331, 1978-1979 pp.1117-1120, 1979-1980 pp.1126-1130, 1980-1981 pp.1122-1125, Suriname 1981-1982 pp.1128-1132, 1982-1983 pp.1128-1132, 1983-1984 pp.1127-1130, 1984-1985 pp.1123-1126, 1985-1986 pp.1125-1128, 1986-1987 pp.1124-1128, 1987-1988 pp.1129-1132, 1988-1989 pp.1133-1136, 1989-1990 pp.1140-1143, 1990-1991 pp.1140-1143, 1991-1992 pp.1143-1146, 1992-1993 pp.1233-1235, 1993-1994 pp.1235-1238, 1994-1995 pp.1235-1238, 1995-1996 pp.1224-1226, 1996-1997 pp.1200-1203, 1997-1998 pp.1200-1203, 1998-1999 pp.1312-1315, 2000 pp.1473-1477, 2001 pp.1442-1446, 2002 pp.1496-1500, 2003 pp.1493-1497, 2004 pp.1512-1516, 2005 pp.1522-1526, 2006 pp.1531-1535 [G]
Americana Annual Dutch Guiana, or Surinam, 1927 pp.271-272, 1928 p.243, 1930 pp.254-255, 1931 pp.263-264, 1932 p.225, 1933 p.243, 1934 p.198, 1935 p.220, 1936 p.221, 1937 p.205, 1938 pp.214-215, 1939 p.246, 1940 p.242, 1943 p.245 [G]
Surinam, 1944 pp.662-663, 1945 pp.678-679, 1946 pp.701-702, 1947 p.684, 1957 p.759, 1958 pp.747-748, 1959 pp.739-740, 1960 pp.747-748, 1961 p.739, 1962 pp.743-744, 1963 pp.660-661, 1964 pp.642-643, 1976 p.160 [G]
Other Article : Dutch Guiana, in : International Year Book 1898 p.275, 1899 p.279, 1900 pp.307-308 [G]
Article : Dutch Guiana, in : New International Year Book 1907 p.232, 1908 p.216, 1909 p.214, 1910 p.217, 1913 p.216, 1914 p.214, 1916 p.195, 1917 p.207, 1918 p.182, 1919 p.208, 1920 p.198, 1921 pp.197-198, 1922 p.270, 1923 p.206, 1924 pp.211-212, 1925 p.206, 1926 p.231, 1928 p.223, 1929 p.251, 1930 p.231 [G]
Article : Surinam, in : New International Year Book 1931 p.767, 1932 p.773, 1933 p.775, 1934 p.677, 1935 p.692, 1938 p.712, 1939 p.744, Events of 1940 p.720, 1941 pp.630-631, 1942 p.668, 1943 p.620, 1944 p.601 [G]