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Literature on the History of South America
Argentina Brazil
First posted on June 17th 2002, last revised on November 29th 2013







History of Uruguay : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
For the country's earlier history, see also History of the Viceroyalty of la Plata.
1624-1814 . 1814-1830 . 1830-1870 . 1870-1918 . 1918-1945 . 1945-1967 . 1967-1984 . Since 1984


1624-1814 . The shores of Uruguay were known since the time of Amerigo Vespucci (1502) and Ferdinand Magellan (1519). Allocated to Spain by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), the first Spanish settlement, Soriano, was established in 1624, the settlers meeting the fierce resistance of the Charro Indios. However, the Portuguese challenged Spain's claim over parts of Uruguay, establishing settlements at Colonia (1680) and Montevideo (1717). They were expelled by the Spanish in 1724, who fortified the city of Montevideo and resettled it in 1726. Big herds of cattle, introduced by the Spanish and released, roamed the countryside.
Uruguay was a neglected corner of Spain's overseas Empire, important enough to expel foreign intruders, but attracting little immigration or investment. When the Viceroyalty of La Plata was formed in 1776, Uruguay became part of it. Portugal recognized Spain's claim over Uruguay in the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1777. Immigration and further settlement picked up late in the 18th century, the cities of San Carlos founded 1767, Rosario 1775.
In 1807 the British occupied Montevideo shortly, but withdrew when they were defeated off Buenos Aires. When the Spanish administration in Buenos Aires was ousted (1811), the Spanish held on to Montevideo. In 1814, the Spanish fleet was defeated by Almirante Brown; Spanish rule was finally terminated.
Ecclesiastically, Uruguay was part of the Diocesis of Asuncion until 1620, of the Diocesis of Buenos Aires until 1878.


1814-1830 . Almirante Brown's defeat of the Spanish fleet in 1814 caused the surrender of the Spanish garrison of Montevideo. Resisting Argentinian occupation, Uruguayan patriot Jose Artigas went into exile to Paraguay rather than to surrender.
Uruguay - in those years referred to as Banda Oriental - now was to form part of the United Provinces of la Plata. However, the new federal republic found itself paralyzed by numerous regions and their strongmen unwilling to surrender political authority to the central administration.
The Portuguese took advantage and invaded in 1816, without success. In 1821 Brazil declared independence and annexed Uruguay, or, as the Brazilians called it, the Provincia Cisplatina. In 1825, Uruguayan patriots revolted against Brazilian rule in Florida (Uru.). Juan Antonio Lavalleja declared the country's independence (1825), under the name of Republica Oriental del Uruguay (= Republic to the East of the Uruguay River). With the aid of La Platan troops, the Brazilians were defeated in the Battle of Ituzaingo 1827. Technically a part of the United Provinces of La Plata, which continued to be in disarray,
Independence declared and the enemy defeated, Uruguay yet lacked political organization.

1830-1870 . In 1830 a constitution was passed, and General Fructuoso Rivera elected first president of Uruguay. The years 1835-1851 were Marked by political instability, coups, coup attempts, a civil war between the Blancos (whites, the conservatives) and Colorados (coloureds, the liberals), in which political maverick Guiseppe Garibaldi played a role (1842-1846). In 1864, Brazil invaded to press for the payment of damages inflicted on Brazilian citizens; Uruguayan General Venancio Flores (Col.) toppled President Atanazio Cruz Aguirre (Blanco). When Paraguay, under Dictator Francisco Solano Lopez, intervened on the side of the Blancos, the Tripartite War between Paraguay on one side and Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay on the other broke out (1865-1870).
Early in the 19th century the remaining Indio population was decimated and the interior opened for cattle ranching, Uruguay being Gaucho country. Slavery was abolished in 1830/1843. In 1847 Montevideo became seat of two auxiliary bishops, preparing the country for ecclesiastical separation from Buenos Aires. In 1849, the University of Montevideo was founded. Swiss immigrants established a Swiss colony in 1869, which was to have a lasting impact, as Uruguay was to be nicknamed Little Switzerland. In 1867 the Bolsa de Valores (Montevideo Stock Exchange) was established. Montevideo got her first horse-drawn tramway in 1867.
In 1855, 1858 and again in 1868 US troops (in 1855 also European troops) landed to protect American (European) interests in times of political instability.

1870-1918 . In 1903 Jose Batlle y Ordonez (Colorado Party) won the presidential election. The opposing Blanco Party rebelled; the rebels were defeated in the Battle of Masoller (Sept. 1st 1904), which terminated the War of 1904. President Battle y Ordonnez introduced many social reforms and overlooked his country's transition from a colonial society to a modern democracy. In 1915 Uruguay introduced the 8-Hour-Workday. Uruguay enjoyed the rule of law and order and an era of economic prosperity, based on the export of agricultural products, mainly beef, mutton, leather, wool. During the years between 1875 and 1895 the nation's railway network was greatly expanded, and a network of state-financed schools established, to the credit of Damaso Larranaga. Regarding literacy, Uruguay was envied by it's Latin American neighbours. In Uruguay, writers such as J. Zorilla de San Martin, Florencio Sanchez, Francisco Acuna de Figueroa were highly revered.
In 1906 Montevideo got her first electrically powered tramway. In 1913 the Uruguayan air force was established. In 1912 the state assumed a monopoly for energy supply. In 1916 the state assumed the administration of the port of Montevideo. In 1878, the Diocesis of Montevideo was created; in 1897 it was elevated into an Archdiocesis (the population is predominantly Catholic).
Until late in World War I, Uruguay remained neutral. Then it joined the Entente without dispatching troops.


1918-1945 . In 1919 a new constitution was passed; political stability was to continue for over a decade. Continuing the policy of two-time president Jose Batlle (-1915), Uruguay succeeded in reducing foreign debt, Uruguayan banks being able to extend most credits within the country. As a consequence, the international crises of 1923 was felt to a smaller extent in Uruguay than elsewhere. Uruguay established a welfare system; the country has been referred to as 'Latin America's only Welfare State'. The economic policy included nationalization of some sectors and protectionism, by raising import tariffs.
Uruguay gained world attention by winning the soccer contest in the Olympic Games of 1924, 1928 and the first soccer world cup in 1930.
The Great Depression of 1929ff had an impact on Uruguay, as the nation's exports dropped. In 1933, Gabriel Terra staged a coup d'etat. Under his dictatorial rule, labour legislation, the welfare system were extended, the policy of nationalization of industrial sectors continued.
Uruguay, a founding member of the League of Nations in 1920, joined World War II in 1945 by declaring war on Germany. As in World War I, Uruguay did not dispatch combat troops.

1945-1967 . In 1951, Uruguay adopted a new constitution based on the Swiss model, abolishing the office of president - the presidency had been violently fought over too often. The country had nine presidents - six from the ruling party, three from the opposition, the position of head of state rotating among the six government presidents (term 1 year), many decisions being taken by the collegium. The new system of a plural executive did not work as planned, as rival factions continued to intrigue; the system intended to balance power worked at times paralizing political power..
In 1967 the country reverted to a presidential democracy.
The Uruguayan Welfare State in the 1960es was characterized by "a 44-hour-week, mandatory severance pay, twenty days paid vacation, family allowances, a minimum wage, workmen's compensation, unemployment insurance, free compulsory education, low-cost housing, disability and old-age pensions of excessive generosity" (Gunther 1966 p.232).
The economy, in the early years after the war profiting from Europe's demand for agricultural products, soon found itself in a crisis, inflation picked up, amounting to 9,000 % over the period 1955-1970, unemployment became a serious problem. In the 1920es Latin America's model economy, Uruguay in the late 1950es and 1960es performed badly economically - the agricultural exports it depended upon (beef, wool) declined as western Europe's agriculture recovered from wartime damage.
The Tupamaros, a radical Marxist group of urban guerilleros, became a serious threat to public security.
In 1950, Uruguay won her second soccer world cup by defeating Brazil in Rio de Janeiro's Maracana stadium in the final, 2-1. Television broadcasts began in 1956.

1967-1984
Administration and Domestic Policy . In 1967 Uruguay terminated the experiment of a collective presidency and reverted to a presidential democracy. In the early 1960es the Tupamaros, an urban guerilla movement, had begun a campaign aiming at destabilizing the government. From 1965 onward the US Office of Public Safety, intent on aiding the Uruguayan authorities in supressing the terrorists (Uruguay's Dirty War), trained the Uruguayan police in the use of torture. In 1968 martial law was declared. Tupamaro activity reached a climax in 1970-1971; the authorities arrested a large number of suspects. Many opponents of the government went into exile. The Tupamaros were defeated by 1972. In 1973 the military took over government in a coup. In 1980 the military authorities, in order to legitimize their status, presented a constitution to be approved by a referendum; it was rejected by 57.2 % of the voters. The military held on to political power until 1984, when massive demonstrations caused it to act. Democratic elections were held, and government transferred into civilian hands.
Foreign Policy . Uruguay pursued a policy of Anti-Communism, seeking the support of the U.S.A.
The Economy . In 1967 Uruguay suffered from the legacy of an excessive welfare state, import revenues which were drastically lower than those the country had enjoyed during and immediately after World War II, a massive trade deficit, high unemployment, rampant inflation, matters made worse by the costs of fighting the Tupamaro insurgency and by the rising oil price 1973 and following. The unemployment rate was 8.4 % in 1968, 8.9 % in 1973, 12.8 % in 1976, 7.3 % in 1980, 13.9 % in 1984 (IHS p.116). The amount of currency in circulation, since 1964, rose sharply - 3 billion Pesos in 1964, 6 billion in 1965, 10 billion in 1966, 19 billion in 1967, 31 billion in 1968, 50 billion in 1969, 121 billiob in 1972, 316 billion in 1974, 1.1 trillion in 1977, 5.1 trillion in 1980, 7.9 trillion in 1982 when a currency reform replaced 1000 old Pesos by 1 New Peso (IHS pp.641-642).

Since 1984
Administration and Domestic Policy . The presidency was held by Julio Maria Sanguinetti (Colorado) 1985-1989, by Luis Alberto Lacalle (Blanco) 1990-1995, Julio Maria Sanguinetti (Colorado) 1995-2000, by Jorge Batlle (Colorado) 2000-2005, by Tabare Vasquez since 2005. Both the Colorado and Blanco administrations pursued a policy of opening up the national economy, and in 2000-2002 cooperated. A 1999 constitutional reform changed the rules for the election of the president. Uruguay, since 1984, is a functioning democracy; the military remained in the barracks.
Foreign Policy . The deescalation of the Cold War in the 1980es allowed for the transition of countries like Uruguay to democracy, as the U.S. administration spent less money and attention on fighting anti-Communism. From 1986 to 1994 negotiations were held, at first in Puntas del Este (Uruguay), which transformed GATT into WTO; they are called the Uruguay Round. Uruguay joined MERCOSUR in 1991.
Uruguay did not partake in Operation Desert Storm (Kuwait 1991) and Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan 2001), did not join the Coalition of the Willing (Iraq 2003).
The Economy . The termination of military rule and the policy of economic reforms did not immediately solve the country's economic problems. The curency in circulation continued to rise at a rate causing concern : 12.1 billion Pesos in 1984, 23.3 billion in 1985, 43.0 billion in 1986, 76.3 billion in 1987, 125 billion in 1988, 219 billion in 1989, 420 billion in 1990, 851 billion in 1991, 1.4 trillion in 1992, 2.3 trillion in 1993; a stabilization was only reached in 1998-2000 at over 7 trillion (IHS p.642). Unemployment declined from 13 % in 1985 to 8 % in 1989, but increased slightly from then.
Uruguay's economy continued to be highly dependent on the export of agricultural products such as beef and wheat. Thus Uruguay strongly supported GATT / the WTO, in the hope of entering protected markets. Progress in this area was slower than Uruguay had hoped, and in the early 2000es the country's economic recovery was negatively affected by a drop in the prices of Uruguay's major export items. The outbreak of foot-and-mouth-disease in Uruguay in 1999 already had affected exports of beef; Uruguay was able to avoid the economic meltdown neighbour Argentina went through in 1999-2002. Now the government found itself under pressure to return to a policy of welfare state and protectionist legislation. Since, Uruguay pursues a policy of cautiously supporting a free market.
Social History . The census of 1985 counted 2.955 million Uruguayans; the census of 1996 3.163 million; the estimate for 2007 is 3.460 million.

Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)





WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference, Index Mundi; Library of Congress; Nations Encyclopedia; Wikipedia
Historical S.G. Kerst, Die Länder an Uruguay, 1851, in German, GB
J.M. Reyes, Descripcion geografica del territorio de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, 1859, in Spanish, GB
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Links General from Lanic at UTexas
Category : Uruguay, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History; from Virtual Library Labour History, from Casa Historia
Category : History of Uruguay, from Wikipedia
Organizations Organization of American Historians
Society for Irish Latin American Studies
Asociacion Uruguaya de Historia Economica
Asociacion de Profesores de Historia del Uruguay
Historical Dictionaries Diccionario geographico e historico das campanhas do Uruguay e Paraguay (1884) in Spanish, IA
L.C. Bollo, Atlas Geografico y descripcion geografica y estadistica de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay (1896) in Spanish, IA
Portals
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Modern La Escuela Digital (UY), Historia; many chapters on Uruguayan history, in Spanish; under construction; as of Nov. 30 2013 : 19 chapters, until 1851
Uruguay, from Casa Historia
Brief History of Uruguay, from Contribution of the Revolutionary Communist Party of Uruguay to the book in commemoration of the 40º anniversary of the Cultural Proletarian Chinese Revolution, tendentious
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RAU : Prehistoria del Uruguay, Megafauna del Pleistoceno, El Uruguay Indigena y Espanol
Wikipedia Articles : Charrua People
Colonial History, 1624-1814
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RAU : El Uruguay Indigena y Espanol
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Contested Uruguay, 1814-1828
La Escuela Digital, Historia del Uruguay independiente en el Siglo XIX : El desembarco de los Treinta y Tres, Conquista de las Misiones por el Gral. Rivera
Wikipedia Articles : Liga Federal (1815-1820), Cisplatina (1815-1822), Thirty-Three Orientals (1825-1828), Treaty of Montevideo (1828)
Wikipedia Spanish edition Articles : Revolucion oriental, Provincia Cisplatina (1815-1822), Guerra del Brasil (1825-1828)
Uruguay, 1828-1899
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Wikipedia Articles : Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851), Paraguayan War (1864-1870), Revolution of the Lances (1870-1872)
Wikipedia Spanish edition Articles : Guerra Grande (1839-1851), Reforma Vareliana (1876), Militarismo (Uruguay) (1875-1886)
1899-1973
RAU, Historia del Uruguay en el Siglo XX, in Spanish
Wikipedia Articles : Battle of Masoller (1904), Batllism (1899-1915), 1933 Coup d'Etat (1931-1938), Neo-Batllism (1947-1951), Tupamaros (1960s-1970s)
Wikipedia Spanish edition Articles : Batllismo (1899-1915), Dictadura de Gabriel Terra (1933-1938), Primer Colegiado Blanco (1959-1963), Segundo Colegiado Blanco (1963-1967), Movimiento de Liberacion Nacional - Tupamaros
Comprender la Historia, Uruguay en el 900, Uruguay in 1900, posted anonymously 2013
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Wikipedia Articles : Civic-Military Dictatorship of Uruguay (1973-1985)
Wikipedia Spanish edition Articles : Dictadura civico-militar en Uruguay (1973-1985)
Since 1985
Upside Down World : Uruguay : The Politics of Recent History, 2008
Wikipedia Spanish edition Articles : Crisis bancaria de 2002 en Uruguay,
Historiography N.M. Diaz, La Historiografia Uruguaya Contemporanea
T.S. Corbo, Historiografia y nacion en Uruguay. Resignificacion y problematizacion de los mitemas fundacionales, n.d.
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Uruguay : The Party System 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, from Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : a Cross-National Survey, NY : Free Press 1980 pp.567-578 ; Kathryn B. Sanderson, Uruguay : the Party System 1963-2000
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J.C. Knarr, Batllismo and the Yankees: The United States and Uruguay, 1903-1929, thesis Texas Christian Univ. 2009
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Orders, Decorations and Medals of Uruguay, from ODM
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Minor Military Deployments and Actions, from Simonides Warzone, on US troops Deployments 1833-1992
E. Ulery, The Uruguayan Armed Forces and the Challenge of 21st Century Peacekeeping Operations, thesis Naval Postgraduate School 2005
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Wikipedia Articles : British Invasions of Rio de la Plata (1806-1807), Thirty-Three Orientals (1825-1828), Uruguayan Civil War (1839-1851), Paraguayan War (1864-1870), Revolution of the Lances (1870-1872), Battle of Masoller (1904)
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Currency & Finances Global History of Currencies : Uruguay
Institutions Article Bolsa de Valores de Montevideo, from Wikipedia
Livestock Cattle, Beef, Leather
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Sheep, Wool
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Comprender la Historia, Revolucion lanar en el Uruguay (1860-1885), posted anonymously 2013
Agriculture Asociacion de cultivadores de arroz, Historia del Arroz en Uruguay
Forestry V.M. Olmos, The Economic Impact of the Forest Sector in Uruguay : A Cost-Benefit Analysis, thesis Univ. of Georgia 2007
Industry The Evolution of the Uruguayan Textile Industry, by Maria Magdalena Camou & Silvana Maubrigades
Trade L. Bertola, G. Porcile, Convergence, Trade and Industrial Policy : Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay in the International Economy, 1900-1980, IEHC 2006
Social History General O. Woysch, Mittheilungen uber das soziale und kirchliche Leben in der Republik Uruguay , 1864, in German, GB
Health Uruguay, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Crime Uruguay, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Squatting M.J. Alvarez-Rivadulla, Contentious Urbanization from Below. Land Squatting in Montevideo, Uruguay, thesis Pittsburgh 2009
M.S.L. Barrera, Spatial transformations in Mercedes (Uruguay): representation of industrial agriculture growth and informal settlements, thesis Iowa State 2010
Migration H.P. Brause, Culture of Migration in Uruguay, thesis Univ. of Florida 2011
Land B. Oliver, A place for family farming: Food sovereignty in Uruguay, thesis McGill 2006
Gauchos RAU, El Gaucho
Women E. Townsend-Bell, Identities Matter: Identity Politics, Coalition Possibilities, and Feminist Organizing, thesis Washington Univ., St. Louis 2007; ch.4 and 5 on the history of the women's movement in Uruguay
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Education UNESCO : Education : Uruguay; links on education in general
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P. Abadie, Funding Higher Education in Uruguay : A Policy Question, thesis Univ. of Southhampton 2009
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C.C. Elmer, Reconciliation in post-transitional Uruguay? A critical look at transitional justice and justice cascade, thesis Simon Fraser Univ. 2013
Ethnography General Languages of Uruguay (2), from Ethnologue
Indigenous World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Uruguay
Portuguese-Brazilian M.T. Judd, The Fronteiriço Dialect of Uruguay: Origins, Investigations, and Opportunities, Revista Espaço Academico no.73 June 2007
European Descent P. Lantaret, Les Vaudois dans l'Uruguay, 1870, in French, GB
Basque Exiles in Uruguay, Erreportajea 2004; review of an Euskadi-language thesis, Univ. of Navarre
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A. Borucki, From Shipmates to Soldiers: Emerging Black Identities in Montevideo, 1770-1850, thesis Emory 2011
V. Sztainbok, Imagining the Afro-Uruguayan Conventillo: Belonging and the Fetish of Place and Blackness, thesis Toronto 2009
African Diaspora Studies Website, Afro-Uruguayans
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses - Uruguay, from Kirken i Norge
International Religious Freedom Report 2003 : Uruguay, from U.S. Department of State
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Uruguay, from Jewish Virtual History Tour
A Chronology of Protestant Beginnings : Uruguay, from Prolades
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J.P. Otero, La Orden franciscana en el Uruguay : cronica historica del convento de San Bernardino de Montevideo (1908) in Spanish, IA
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Region J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Republica Oriental del Uruguay 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08,
Do the Falklands really belong to Uruguay? Authors claim Spain signed them away to South American country 172 years ago, Mail Online (UK) Jan 31 2013
Local History Article : Montevideo, from Wikipedia
Category : Cities in Uruguay, from Wikipedia
La Escuela Digital, La fundación de Montevideo
Institutions History of Broadcasting in Uruguay, from The Broadcast Archive
History of Montevideo Tramways, by Marcelo Benoit
Article University of the Republic, Uruguay, from Wikipedia
Uruguay, from Airline History
Structurae : Uruguay
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Uruguay
E. Light, Media Citoyens : Une etude de cas de la radio communautaire a Montevideo (Uruguay) et a Montreal (Quebec), thesis Univ. of Quebec at Montreal 2007; title in French, thesis in English
Culture Gr. Vera, Una Historia Uruguaya : El Carnaval de Montevideo
Article Uruguay at the Olympics, Sport in Uruguay, Football in Uruguay, from Wikipedia
C.T. Sutton, The Candombe Drumming of Uruguay : Contextualization of Uruguayan Identity through Afro-Uruguayan Rhythm, thesis Miami 2013
G.A. Malosetti, Campos magneticos de la modernidad latinoamericana: una historia intelectual de Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay (1900-1935), thesis Washington Univ. of St. Louis 2010
Biographies List of Uruguayans, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Disaster History by Country : Natural Disasters, Uruguay, from Relief Web
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
A. Normey, Native Forest Conservation within the Framework of Forest Promotion Policy in Uruguay, thesis Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences 2012
V.M. Olmos, The Economic Impact of the Forest Sector in Uruguay : A Cost-Benefit Analysis, thesis Univ. of Georgia 2007
L.J. Six, Consequences of agroforestry management on understory vegetation in Uruguay, thesis Univ. of Washington 2012
World Bank, Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture : Uruguay
J. Iriarte et al., Subtropical Wetland Adaptations in Uruguay during the Mid-Holocene: An Archaeobotanical Perspective, 2001
C.P. Arrarte, Uruguay's Destructive Plantation Model 2000
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Uruguay
Gran Logia de la Masoneria del Uruguay, in Spanish
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Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Uruguay, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassadors to Uruguay, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Uruguay, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Montevideo (Uruguay), from Wikipedia German edition
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Uruguay, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Ordinaries, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Montevideo, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Uruguay
Population Figures from Population Statistics, (Jan Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Uruguay
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Uruguay Historical Data, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Election Results from Uruguay (since 1999); from IFES Election Guide
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Registro Nacional de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, GB
Selected Historical Newspaper Articles History of Paraguay and Uruguay, from World History Archives
Theodore Child, The Republic of Uruguay, from Harper's New Monthly Magazine, May 1891, pp.906-927, from Cornell Digital Library Collection
Modern Newspapers links from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Worldpress.org
Online Yearbooks - Uruguay Entries Statesman's Yearbook vol.3 : 1866 pp.602-604, GB, vol.4 : 1867 pp.597-599, GB, vol.5 : 1868 pp.597-599, GB, vol.6 : 1869 pp.597-599, GB, 1870 pp.594-597, GB, 1871, pp.594-598, IA, 1872, pp.594-598, IA, 1873, pp.596-600, IA, 1874, pp.596-600, IA, 1875, pp.596-600, IA, 1876, pp.602-606, IA, 1877, pp.611-615, IA, 1878, pp.611-615, IA, 1879, pp.611-615, IA, 1880, pp.611-615, IA, 1881, pp.611-615, IA, 1883, pp.611-615, IA, 1884, pp.651-655, IA, 1885, pp.663-669, IA, 1886, pp.679-685, IA, 1887, pp.703-709, IA, 1888, pp.706-712, IA, 1889, pp.713-719, IA, 1890, pp.1077-1084, IA, 1891, pp.1081-1088, IA, 1892, pp.1100-1107, IA, 1894, pp.1100-1107, IA, 1895, pp.1102-1109, IA, 1896, pp.1104-1111, IA, 1898, pp.1106-1113, IA, 1899, pp.1126-1134, IA, 1903, pp.1284-1292, IA, 1913, pp.1348-1355, IA, 1919, pp.1323-1331, IA
Annuario pontificio 1822, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1851, 1853, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1858, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1868, 1869, in Italian, GB; search for Uruguay
Staatskalender
Newsreels
Films on History/Society Most popular titles, Documentaries with country of origin Uruguay, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Centro de Fotografia de Montevideo
Uruguay in Photos
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Minube, Monumentos Historicos en Uruguay
scraper.uy, Viejo Montevideo
Centros de Desarrollo Regional : Fotos Antiguas de Montevideo
Accidental Collections
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Items on Uruguay
Search Scripophily
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Passports of Uruguay, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Uruguay
Wolfsonian Florida Int'l Univ., Uruguay - Gaucho of 1860
Archival Deposits Uruguay Documents, at Central Archive for the History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem
Open Society Archives (OSA), Budapest : Uruguay
National Security Archive : Electronic Briefing Book No.71 : Uruguay
Garibaldi in South America, from The Anthony P. Campanella Collection of Giuseppe Garibaldi at Univ. of South Carolina
Constitutions, Laws Constitutions of Uruguay, from Political Database of the Americas
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Uruguay, from ILO, 102 docs. since 1919
Codigo de mineria de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, 1865, GB
Codigo civil para el estado oriental del Uruguay, 1868, vol.1, vol.2, GB
Codigo de comercio para el estado oriental del Uruguay, 1866, GB
E. Acevedo, Proyecto de un codigo civil para el Estado Oriental del Uruguay, 1852, GB
Coleccion de leyes, decretos y resoluciones gubernativas, tratados .. de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, vol.1, 1867, vol.2 1868, GB
Treaties General Treaty Collections C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
Bilateral Treaty Collections Uruguay, pp.979-1037 in vol.12 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1974, GB
Treaty between GB and Uruguay concerning the abolition of slave trade in U., 1843, pp.158-192 in A collection of the public general statutes, GB
Coleccion de leyes, decretos y resoluciones gubernativas, tratados .. de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, vol.1, 1867, vol.2 1868, GB
Consular Reports Consular Recommendations on South American Trade 1915, IA; U.S. consuls, Uruguay pp.24-26
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Uruguay : July 18 1917, Dec. 10 1918, IA
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Historiography
Document Surveys The citizen's appeal to the European Parliament : Petitions 1958-1979; Other Petitions Converning Latin America : Argentina, Uruguay and Bolivia in Chile pp.35-36
Document Collections Truth Commissions : Uruguay, from United States Institute of Peace
Reclamaciones de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay contra el gobierno Imperial del Brasil, 1864, GB
National Security Archive (U.S.), Electronic Briefing Books, EBB 71 : Nixon: "Brazil Helped Rig the Uruguayan Elections," 1971, EBB 324 : To Save Dan Mitrione Nixon Administration Urged Death Threats for Uruguayan Prisoners
Individual Documents
Historical Maps Responsible Authority
collections Category : Maps of Uruguay, from Wikipedia
Atlas of Uruguay, from Wikimedia Commons; from Thomas Hoeckmann
Americas Maps, from PCL, UTexas, scroll down for Uruguay
Mapas Historicos : Uruguay, from Educando
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for South America, Uruguay
Historical Uruguay Maps, from Library of Congress Map Collection
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Uruguay, modern Southern Cone 1799, 1814, 1823, 1828, 1853, 1883, 1884-1999, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Uruguay, contemporary Chile, La Plata and Montevideo (Tanner 1845), from David Rumsey Map Collection
Uruguay (Britannica 9th ed.), from prints 4 u
Map : Confederation Argentine et Republique Oriental de l'Uruguay, from Univ. of South Carolina, map one time property of Garibaldi
detail, hindsight/modern Mapas del Departamento de Colonia, from Hoteles Colonia
detail, contemporary Plan de la ville de Montevideo 1773, from Maps of Antiquity, commercial site
Plano de Montevideo (1843-1851), from Wikipedia
Map Montevideo 1888 (Meyers), from Wikimedia Commons
Map Montevideo 1894, from Vintage Views, commercial site
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Uruguay, San Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Uruguay, Montevideo, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition;
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Monte-Video, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : die Laplatastaaten, vol.4 1844 pp.98-101, posted by DTBSWS
Monte Video, pp.144-145 in J. Daniel, Shipowner's and shipmaster's directory to the foreign port charges, 1844, GB
Uruguay, or Montevideo, p.38 in J.D.B. de Bow, The industrial resources, etc. of the southern and western states , vol.1, 1852 GB
Montevideo, pp.162-163 in I.S. Homans, An historical and statistical account of the foreign commerce of the United States, 1857, GB
Geographical Uruguay, pp.360-361 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1827, IA
The Cisplatine Republic, or Banda Oriental, pp.239-240 in vol.6 of J. Bell, A System of Geography, 1832, GB; see p.151, Cisplatina, in the same book
Uruguay, pp.360-361 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography Uruguay, p.472 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
The Republic of Uruguay, pp.581-583 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
The Republic of Uruguay, pp.376-377 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Uruguay, pp.671-672 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Uruguay, pp.219-220 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Uruguay, pp.329-348 in E. Reclus, South America, 1905
Uruguay, pp.480-481 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Political
Ethnological Republique d'Uruguay, pp.465-467 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Uruguay p.81 in R.D. Owen, The wrong of slavery, the right of emancipation, and the future of the African race in the United States, 1864, GB
Uruguay, pp.901-904 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Uruguay, pp.5223-5246 in vol.7B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Historical The Rise of the Progressive States : Uruguay, pp.200-201 in W.W. Sweet, A History of Latin America, 1929, GB
Other Article : Uruguay, in : Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, 1912, in German, posted by Zeno
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides, Travelogues Pacific line guide to South America; containing information to travellers & shippers to ports on the east & west coasts of South America 1895, IA; on River Plate (Monte Video, Uruguay, Argentine Republic, Paraguay) pp.49-57
A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Uruguay pp.117-123
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Uruguay pp.293-313
A.S. Peck, The South American Tour - A Descriptive Guide 1916, IA; on Uruguay pp.272-286
Residence Memoirs W.C. Tetley, Blanco y Colorado; old days among the gauchos of Uruguay (1921), IA
Institutions Archives Uruguay, from UNESCO Archives Portal : Communities, National Archives : Latin America, from UNESCO Archives Portal (1 entry for Uruguay)
Uruguay, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Musea Museums in Uruguay, from Welcome Uruguay
Monuments UNESCO World Heritage List, scroll down for Uruguay; UNESCO World Heritage, Tentative List : Uruguay
Libraries Libraries in Uruguay, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Uruguay, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Collections of Coins : Uruguay, bilingual Russian-English page
Uruguay Coins, from World Coin Gallery, from Numista, from ColNect, from OmniCoin
Uruguay, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Uruguay Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery, Uruguay Stamps 1856-1864, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Uruguay survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database National Bibliography (1990-2008), from Ministerio del education y cultura, Uruguay
general bibliographies Bibliografia Uruguaya 1929
pp.261-275 in J.L. Willis, Historical Dictionary of Uruguay, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1974 [G]
Bibliography : Uruguay, from NNDB
annual bibliographies Bibliografia Boliviana; pdfs per year 2006-2011
specialist bibliographies Bibliography : Paraguay, Uruguay, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia
serial publications
general bibliographies
Uruguay entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Latin American Books
Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies, search for Venezuela
on Uruguay
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Uruguay
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Uruguay
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Directory of Open Access Journals
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
On Uruguay LANIC, Academic Journals : Uruguay
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
Specific Topics Henry Finch, Uruguayan Migration, pp.205-207 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Ch.C. Griffin, The States of Latin America, pp.516-541 in F.H. Hinsley, The New Cambridge History, vol.XI : Material Progress and World-wide Problems 1870-1898, Cambridge : UP (1962) 1978 [G]
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
Chapter XXII : Uruguay, the Denmark of Latin America, pp.335-349, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
Uruguay on the Rocks, from : John Gunther, Inside South America, NY : Harper & Row 1966, pp.220-237
Historical Dictionaries Jean L. Willis, Historical Dictionary of Uruguay, Methuen : Scarecrow 1974 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Uruguay, 1913 pp.1099-1100, 1944 pp.730-731, 1945 p.730, 1946 p.793-794, 1947 p.798, 1948 p.771, 1949 pp.661-662, 1950 p.712, 1951 pp.716-717, 1952 pp.716-717, 1953 p.726, 1954 p.728, 1955 p.788, 1956 p.725, 1957 p.788, 1958 pp.728-729, 1959 pp.727-728, 1960 p.727, 1961 pp.728-729, 1962 pp.718-719, 1963 pp.833-834, 1964 p.852, 1965 pp.851-852, 1966 pp.794-795, 1967 p.791, 1968 p.795, 1969 pp.786-787, 1970 pp.785-786, 1971 pp.767-768, 1972 pp.721-722, 1973 pp.720-721, 1974 pp.716-718, 1975 p.723, 1976 p.722, 1977 p.723, 1978 p.721, 1979 p.723, 1980 p.721, 1981 p.718, 1982 pp.719-720, 1983 pp.719-720, 1984 p.719, 1985 pp.588, 808, 1986 pp.587-588, 808, 1987 pp.556, 776, 1988 pp.509, 728, 1989 pp.510, 728, 1990 pp.526, 744, 1991 pp.510, 729, 1992 pp.483, 729, 1993 pp.491, 745, 1994 pp.491, 745, 1995 pp.501, 745, 1996 pp.499, 745, 1997 pp.500, 743, 2002 pp.519, 760 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Uruguay, 1878 pp.611-615, 1889 pp.713-719, 1895 pp.1102-1108, 1898 pp.1106-1113, 1901 pp.1242-1250, 1902 pp.1254-1262, 1905 pp.1342-1350, 1910 pp.1309-1316, 1918 pp.1340-1347, 1919 pp.1323-1331, 1924 pp.1349-1357, 1925 pp.1357-1365, 1926 pp.1319-1326, 1928 pp.1361-1368, 1929 pp.1334-1340, 1932 pp.1350-1357, 1937 pp.1381-1387, 1942 pp.1342-1348, 1943 pp.134-1341, 1961-1962 pp.1545-1542, 1970-1971 pp.1456-1462, 1973-1974 pp.1462-1468, 1975-1976 pp.1455-1460, 1976-1977 pp.1454-1460, 1978-1979 pp.1562-1567, 1979-1980 pp.1572-1578, 1980-1981 pp.1568-1573, 1981-1982 pp.1575-1581, 1982-1983 pp.1575-1581, 1983-1984 pp.1570-1575, 1984-1985 pp.1566-1571, 1985-1986 pp.1563-1568, 1986-1987 pp.1563-1568, 1987-1988 pp.1566-1570, 1988-1989 pp.1569-1573, 1989-1990 pp.1565-1569, 1990-1991 pp.1567-1571, 1991-1992 pp.1565-1569, 1992-1993 pp.1576-1579, 1993-1994 pp.1579-1583, 1994-1995 pp.1580-1584, 1995-1996 pp.1571-1575, 1996-1997 pp.1564-1568, 1997-1998 pp.1574-1578, 1998-1999 pp.1710-1715, 2000 pp.1913-1918, 2001 pp.1875-1879, 2002 pp.1941-1946, 2003 pp.1945-1950, 2004 pp.1966-1971, 2005 pp.1979-1984, 2006 pp.1979-1985 [G]
Americana Annual Uruguay, 1927 pp.859-860, 1928 pp.790-792, 1930 pp.781-783, 1931 pp.774-776, 1932 pp.728-730, 1933 pp.772-773, 1934 pp.607-609, 1935 pp.737-738, 1936 pp.747-749, 1937 pp.716-718, 1938 pp.716-717, 1939 pp.780-781, 1940 pp.793-795, 1943 pp.757-758, 1944 pp.721-722, 1945 pp.731-732, 1946 pp.757-759, 1947 pp.743-745, 1957 pp.815-817, 1958 pp.806-807, 1959 pp.800-801, 1960 pp.807-808, 1961 pp.799-800, 1962 pp.807-808, 1963 pp.717-718, 1964 pp.701-702, 1965 pp.727-728, 1966 pp.721-722, 1967 pp.727-728, 1968 pp.722-724, 1969 pp.729-730, 1970 pp.730-731, 1971 pp.736-737, 1972 pp.395, 734-735, 1973 pp.732-733, 1974 pp.335-336, 643, 1975 p.590, 1976 p.584, 1977 p.541, 1978 p.534, 1979 p.536, 1980 p.545, 1981 p.566, 1983 p.549, 1984 p.551, 1985 p.554, 1986 p.554, 1987 p.559, 1988 p.559, 1989 p.565, 1990 p.550, 1992 p.558, 1993 p.562, 1994 p.563, 1995 p.549 [G]
Other Article : Uruguay, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1864 p.806 [G]
Article : Uruguay, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 pp.759-760 [G]
Article : Uruguay, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.873-876, 1899 pp.838-841, 1900 pp.913-914 [G]
Article : Uruguay, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.825-826, 1908 pp.747-749, 1909 pp.764-766, 1910 pp.789-790, 1913 pp.740-742, 1914 pp.739-741, 1916 pp.761-762, 1917 pp.731-733, 1918 pp.693-694, 1919 pp.718-719, 1920 pp.714-715, 1921 pp.727-728, 1922 p.749, 1923 pp.771-772, 1924 pp.768-769, 1925 pp.728-729, 1926 pp.758-759, 1928 pp.789-790, 1929 pp.824-825, 1930 pp.786-787, 1931 pp.821-822, 1932 pp.826-827, 1933 pp.825-826, 1934 pp.725-726, 1935 pp.741-742, 1938 pp.762-763, 1939 pp.788-789, Events of 1940 pp.790-791, 1941 pp.708-710, 1942 pp.732-735, 1943 pp.697-699, 1944 p.671, 1945 pp.651-652 [G]