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Literature on the History of South America
Colombia Guyana
First posted on March 26th 2002, last revised on December 2nd 2013







History of Venezuela : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
For the country's earlier history, see History of the Viceroyalty of Peru, History of the Viceroyalty of New Granada
1498-1527 . 1528-1556 . 1556-1810 . 1810-1819 . 1819-1830 . 1830-1870 . 1870-1918 . 1918-1945 . 1945-1958 . 1958-1973 . 1973-1998 . Since 1998


Discovery and first Spanish Settlement, 1498-1527
The Venezuelan coast was discovered in 1498 by Christopher Columbus; it was systematically explored by Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda. The first Spanish settlements were established at Cumana in 1520 and at Coro 1527, placed under the Audiencia de Santo Domingo.

The Welser Pawn, 1528-1556
Heavily indebted, the Spanish crown in 1528 transferred the territory of Venezuela to a consortium of German bankers lead by the Welser family from Augsburg. Venezuela now saw a series of German governors and conquistadores, among them Ambrosius Alfinger, Georg von Speyer and Nikolaus Federmann. The main goal of the Welsers was to find mythical gold-rich El Dorado, a hope which never materialized. The Germans did not promote ant attempt to introduce settlers.

Spanish Colonial Administration, 1556-1810
In 1556 the Spanish crown again took over the administration of Venezuela. The city of Valencia was founded in 1555, Caracas in 1567, the latter by Diego de Losada. The area, called Captaincy of Venezuela, was now placed under the Audiencia of Santa Fe de Bogota, which again was subject to the Viceroyalty of Peru.
A diocesis was established with seat in Caro in 1531; in 1637 it was transferred to Caracas. It was placed under the authority of the archbishop of Santa Fe de Bogota.
Venezuela's economy was based on agriculture. From the 1620es onward, the export of the Cocoa Bean, from which chocolate is made, was the most profitable export product. Both Spanish immigration and the import of slaves picked up, into a region hitherto rather neglected by the Spanish administration. In 1728, the exclusive rights to trade with Venezuela were given to the Caracas Company (full name : Real Compana Guizpocoana de Caracas), a monopoly harming the economic development of the colony. The monopoly placed Venezuelan cacao plantation owners at a disadvantage; they revolted in 1749. Spain's administration regarded Venezuela (as the other colonies) as a supplementary economy, supplementary to that of the motherland. In 1777, the seat of the Captaincy of Venezuela was moved to Caracas, in 1786 the captaincy was elevated to Audiencia of Caracas. In 1803, the diocesis of Caracas was elevated into an archdiocesis.

Struggle for Independence, 1810-1819
Forced to deal only with the Caracas Company, the cocoa growers had become dissatisfied with the political situation and with the treatment the colony was given by Spain. When Spain lived through a popular war against a French-imposed king and government, Caracas and all of Venezuela emerged as a center of the independence movement. Independence was declared in 1810, and when a Spanish expedition arrived in 1814, much of the fighting took place here. In Simon Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre, Venezuela produced two of the leading figures of South America's independence movement. Independence, as part of Great Colombia (capital Bogota) was achieved in 1819.


Venezuela within Gran Colombia, 1819-1830
Under Spanish rule, the Captaincy of Venezuela had been loosely subjected first to the
Viceroyalty of Peru, since 1718 to the Viceroyalty of New Granada. When independence was discussed all over New Granada, Venezuela declared its independence from Spain in 1811; open rebellion had begun in 1810 under Francisco de Miranda. In 1815, Spain sent an expedition to reestablish Spanish control, which initially was successful. In 1816 Simon Bolivar turned the tide. Venezuela now, in 1819, became a part of the Republic of Gran Colombia, capital Bogota. Meanwhile, the war with the Spanish was still going on; the last Spanish garrison, at Puerto Cabello, surrendered in 1823.
The new Republic soon experienced anarchy, as its proclaimed president Simon Bolivar was fighting the Spanish in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, many factions fighting each other. In 1827 Bolivar returned to Bogota, assuming dictatorial powers and alienating many. In 1830, Jose Antonio Paez declared Venezuela independent from Gran Colombia.

The Republic of Venezuela, 1830-1870
Paez, who served as a president from 1831 to 1835 and again from 1839-1843, was succeeded by Jose T. Monagas.
The next years were characterized by intrigues and open fights in which Puiz attempted to unseat Monagas and vice versa. After two failed attempts to unseat Monagas by force in 1848 and 1849, Paez spent the years 1850-58 in exile. Between 1861 and 1863 he ruled the country as dictator. In 1854, slavery was abolished.

The Republic of Venezuela, 1870-1918
In 1870, Antonio Guzman Blanco became president, strengthening the central authority and restoring order. Due to an increasing demand for Coffee on the world market, Venezuela's economy prospered. The revenue was invested in infrastructure projects such as railroads and the modernization of the capital Caracas.
The years after Guzman are characterized by the return of political chaos, a succession of short lived dictators, the most notorious being Joaquin Crespo and Cipriano Castro. The state finances had been mismanaged, and the state had declared it's unwillingness to honour international credits, causing the British, German, Italian and Dutch navy to militarily intervene (Venezuela Claims). Venezuela retaliated by causing a border conflict with British Guyana, which was settled by treaty in 1897.
In 1908, General Juan Vicente Gomez assumed the presidency, another dictator. His rule was to last until 1935 and bring ruthless suppression of political opposition as well as a period of stability and economic recovery.
In World War I, Venezuela stayed neutral, resisting diplomatic attempts by the Entente to lure the country into entering the war.

The Republic of Venezuela, 1918-1945
Dictator Juan Vicente Gomez (since 1908) stayed in power until 1935. His reign marked a period of political suppression and economic recovery, largely due to the emergence of an Oil Industry. Venezuela again became internationally respectable; Venezuela's oil flew through a pipeline to the Dutch island of Aruba (Netherlands' Antilles), where it was refined. After Gomez's death in 1935, democracy was reintroduced. Venezuela stayed neutral through most of World War II, joining the Allies only in 1945.

The Republic of Venezuela, 1945-1958
Administration . The presidency was held by Romulo Betancourt (AD, 1945-1948), Romulo Gallegos (AD, 1948), Carlos Delgado Chalbaud (military, 1948-1950), German Suarez Flamerich (1950-1952), Marcos Perez Jimenez (1952-1958).
Political History . An election agreement between President General Isaias Medina Angarita and exile politician and head of Accion Democratica, Romulo Betancourt, in 1945 fell apart; the military declared itself in rebellion, Betancourt called for a civilian uprising. President Medina gave in; a new military junta was formed, Romulo Betancourt assumed the presidency. A land reform was implemented, the multinational oil companies coerced to accept a 50-50 profit sharing agreement, the illiteracy rate tackled.
In 1947 Romulo Gallegos was elected president; after a few months in office he as ousted by a military coup, headed by Carlos Delgado Chalbaud, who assumed the presidency. In 1950 he was abducted and shot. The junta chose German Suarez Flamerich to succeed Delgado Chalbaud; in 1952 Flamerich was replaced by Marco Perez Jimenez. An election campaign for 1952 was aborted. The Perez Jimenez administration encouraged immigration.
Foreign Policy . Venezuela joined the UN in November 1945, was a founder-member of the OAS. Venezuela did not respond to the call of the UN to come to the aid of South Korea when the latter was invaded by North Korea (Korean War, 1950-1953).
The Economy . In 1947, Venezuela produzed 300,000 metric tons of maize, in 1958 358,000 metric tons (IHS p.186); rice production was 10,000 metric tons in 1947, 98,000 metric tons in 1954, 19,000 metric tons in 1958 (IHS p.186), potato production 15,000 metric tons in 1947, 70,000 metric tons in 1958 (IHS p.186).
In 1945 Venezuela produced 47 million metric tons of crude oil, in 1958 135 million metric tons (IHS p.319).
Venezuela over the years had gradually increased the taxes foreign oil companies had to pay, and during the Betancourt administration coerced the oil companies to accept a 50:50 profit sharing agreement, of which Juan Pablo Perez Alfonso was the mastermind.
The Caracas Stock Exchange was established in 1947.
Social History . In 1945, Venezuela had 4.2 million inhabitants, in 1958 6.8 million (Lahmeyer).
Cultural History . Venezuelan athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of London 1948, Helsinki 1952 and Melbourne 1956. Television broadcasting began in 1952.

The Republic of Venezuela, 1958-1973
Administration . The presidency was held by Romulo Betancourt (AD, 1959-1964), Raul Leoni (AD, 1964-1969), Rafael Caldera (COPEI, 1969-1974).
Political History . Riots in 1958 caused dictator Perez Jimenez to flee the country in 1958. Two presidents, in short terms, presided over transition to democracy. Accion Democratica won the elections of 1959 and 1964. Venezuela took a greater degree of control of the oil industry (minister of energy Juan Pablo Perez Alfonzo).
When President Betancourt ordered a military revolt to be crushed in 1962, FALN, a leftist guerilla organization, was formed. Betancourt ordered Communist MPs to be arrested. A split in the AD made possible the electoral victory of COPEI leader Rafael Caldera in 1968. He granted amnesty to guerillas on the condition that they gave up their subversive activities, and thus pacified the country.
Foreign Policy . Venezuela was a founder-member of OPEC in 1960. An assassination attempt on Betancourt in 1960 was financed by the (rightist) dictator of the Dominican Republic. It became apparent that Cuba had armed the Venezuelan rebels in 1962; relations with Cuba deteriorated. President Betancourt established the Betancourt Doctrine, denying diplomatic recognition to any country the government of which had been created in the course of a military coup. Relations with the U.S., which had been poor due to Venezuela's policy of taking control of the oil industry, improved as both governments were concerned because of Cuba (Cuban Missile Crisis 1962); Cuba continued to support the FALN guerilla (Machurucuto Incident 1967).
The Economy . In 1958, Venezuela produced 358,000 metric tons of maize, in 1973 454,000 metric tons (IHS p.186); rice production was 19,000 metric tons in 1958, 302,000 metric tons in 1973 (IHS p.186), potato production 70,000 metric tons in 1958, 124,000 metric tons in 1973 (IHS p.186).
In 1960 Venezuela (minister of energy Juan Pablo Perez Alfonzo) created the Venezuelan Petroleum Corporation as an organization to oversee the country's oil industry, and was a founder-member of OPEC.
In 1958 Venezuela produced 135 million metric tons of crude petrol, in 1973 175 milion (IHS p.320).
Social History . In 1958, Venezuela had 6.8 million inhabitants, in 1973 11.2 million (Lahmeyer).

Venezuela, 1973-1998
Administration . The presidency was held by Rafael Caldera (COPEI, 1969-1974), Carlos Andres Perez (AD, 1974-1979), Luis Herrera Campins (COPEI, 1979-1984), Jaime Lusinchi (AD, 1984-1989) and Carlos Andres Perez (AD, 1989-1993), Roman Jose Velasquez (non-party, 1993-1994), Rafael Caldera (COPEI, 1994-1999).
Political History . Venezuela increased the oil price in 1973 and nationalized the oil industry in 1975-1976. During the first Andres Perez presidency, Venezuela entered on a policy of state-planned industrialization and the establishment of a welfare state, as well as environmental protection. The end of the First Oil Crisis in 1981 drastically reduced Venezuela's oil revenue and thus affected the policies of the Herrera Campins administration. When Andres Perez assumed the presidency, Venezuela was in a dire economic crisis, and in order to obtain foreign credit, had to severely cut welfare expenses, which caused street protests and riots. In 1992 two coup attempts failed.
Foreign Policy . Venezuela, a founder-member of OPEC in 1960, played an active role in bringing about the First Oil Crisis in 1973. The Andres Perez administration supported the democratic parties in Spain, most notably PSOE, during the country's transition from dictatorship to democracy. In 1985 and in 1996 Pope John Paul II. visited Venezuela.
The Economy . In 1973, Venezuela produced 454,000 metric tons of maize, in 1998 983,000 metric tons (IHS p.186); rice production was 302,000 metric tons in 1973, 771,000 metric tons in 1973 (IHS p.186), potato production 124,000 metric tons in 1973, 322,000 metric tons in 1973 (IHS p.186). In 1973 Venezuela produced 175 million metric tons of crude petrol, in 1997 157 milion (IHS p.320).
Social History . In 1973, Venezuela had 11.2 million inhabitants, in 1998 23.2 million (Lahmeyer).

Venezuela, since 1998
Administration . The presidency is currently held by Hugo Chavez (since 1999).
Political History . Chavez in 1992 had led a failed coup attempt; he won the 1998 election on a program promising to address the problems of the country's poor and underprivileged. A vocal critic of the U.S., he advocates state control over the economy and the necessity of a welfare state. He polarized Venezuelan society. While western media tended to show the protest of incensed opponents of Chavez' policies, mainly from the urban middle class, Chavez won reelection in 2000 and 2006, because he enjoys the support of the poor. He curtailed freedom of the press.
Foreign Policy . Hugo Chavez established friendly relations with Cuba, used increased oil revenues (since 2003) to support governments in Latin America and beyond emphasizing domestic interests (protectionism, welfare state) over a free trade policy, for example in Bolivia. Hugo Chavez was a vocal critic of the U.S., of president Bush and of neo-liberalism.
The Economy . The drastic rise in the oil price since 2003 has greatly altered Venezuela's economic situation; the country, from the verge of bankrupcy, now can afford welfare programs and an active foreign policy (handouts of cheap oil).
Social History . In 1973, Venezuela had 23.2 million inhabitants (Lahmeyer), 26.0 million in 2007.

Students' Paper : Yoon, Sung Ah, History of Nutrition in South America (2009)
Students' Papers : Song, Jeeun : History of Metallurgy and Mining in the Andean Region (2009)






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Venezuela
Article : Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Historical A. Walker, Colombia: being a geographical, statistical, agricultural, commercial and political account of that country, vol.1, 1822, vol.2, 1822, GB (covers Venezuela as part of Colombia)
Bureau of the American Republics : Venezuela, a Handbook 1899, IA
A.S. Pearce, Feudal Times in Venezuela, Scientific Monthly July 1 1919, IA
Links General from LANIC
Category : Venezuela, from Wikipedia
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Organizations Academia Nacional de la Historia
Historical Dictionaries La Venciclopedia, in Spanish
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Accounts of History Modern from Wikipedia; from Wikipedia Spanish edition; fromVenezuela Tuya
Historical E. Blanco, Venezuela Heroica: Cuadros historicos (1881) in Spanish, IA
J.M. de Rojas, Bosquejo historico de Venezuela (1888) in Spanish, IA
J.M. Spence, The land of Bolivar; or, War, peace and adventure in the republic of Venezuela, vol.1, vol.2 (1878), IA
J.F. Heredia, E. Pineyro, Memorias sobre las revoluciones de Venezuela (1895) in Spanish, IA
R.M. Baralt, R. Diaz, Resumen de la historia de Venezuela (1841) in Spanish, IA
J. de Oviedo y Banos, Historia de la conquista y poblacion de la provincia de Venezuela (1885) in Spanish, IA
Th.Cl. Dawson, The South American republics (1903) vol.2 (has Venezuela section pp.347-402), IA
Specific Periods M.L. Rosales, Gobiernos de Venezuela desde 1830 hasta 1897 (1897) in Spanish, IA
S.K. Stoan, Pablo Morillo and Venezuela, 1815-1820 (1907), IA
W.L. Scruggs, British Aggressions in Venezuela: Or, The Monroe Doctrine on Trial (1895), IA
J.A. Sentano, Violencia ejercida por el Poder Ejecutivo de la Republica de Venezuela en 1848: Contra la Camara (1878) in Spanish, IA
Articles : First Republic of Venezuela, Second Republic of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Article : Independencia de Venezuela, Revolucion de las Reformas 1835-1836, Historia de Venezuela desde 1958, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Venezuela
Governments on the WWW : Venezuela
General Politics of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Parties, Movements A Brief Recent History of Venezuela's Labor Movement, by Jonah Gindin
Venezuela : The Party System 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, from Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : a Cross-National Survey, 1980 pp.582-583; Kathryn B. Sanderson, Venezuela : the Party System from 1963 to 2000
Foreign Policy IISS, The Farc Files: Venezuela, Ecuador and the Secret Archive of 'Raul Reyes' 2011, summaric introduction
Military Wars of Venezuela 1800-1999, from ACED
CASCON Case GYV : Guyana - Venezuela 1970, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
CASCON Case VEN : Venezuela 1960-1963, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
R.L. Vowell, Campaigns and cruises, in Venezuela and Ned Grenada, and in the Pacific Ocean from 1817 to 1830, 1831, GB
S. Bolivar, Recollections of a service of three years during the war-ofextermination in the Republics of Venezuela and Colombia, vol.1 1828, vol.2, 1828, GB
Article : Venezuelan War of Independence, from Wikipedia
Articles : Guerra Federal 1859-1863, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Economy & Finances Entry Venezuela, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
Article Economy of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Catregory : Economy of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Article Caracas Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
Oil Industry History, from Venezuela Analysis
The History of Venezuela and its Oil, from Alexander's Gas and Oil Connections
The Regions of Venezuela and their Economic History, by Thayer Watkins
Company History : Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Empresas Polar SA, from Funding Universe
Article Siderurgica del Orinoco, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Global Integrity : Venezuela 2004
Venezuela, an Economic Report (1921), IA
O. Bürger, Venezuela; ein Führer durch das Land und seine Wirtschaft (1922) in German, IA
International Bureau of the American Republics, Venezuela. General descriptive data prepared in June 1909, IA
Purl Lord Bell, Venezuela: A Commercial and Industrial Handbook with a Chapter on the Dutch .. (1922) IA
Category : Enterprise Venezuela, from Economy Point
Social History Venezuela, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World
Ethnography Languages of Venezuela (46), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Venezuela : Blacks, Indigenous Peoples, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Venezuela
Venezuela, pp.852-856 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Venezuela, pp.5247-5262 in vol.7B of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses, Venezuela, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Venezuela - The expelled Jews of Coro, from Jewish Virtual Library
Category : Religion in Venezuela, from Wikipedia
A Chronology of the Beginnings of Protestantism : Venezuela, from Prolades
Country Report : Venezuela, from ARDA
History of Regions Article States of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Category : States of Venezuela, from Wikipedia
States of Venezuela, from www.statoids.com
Municipalities of Venezuela, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Estados Unidos de Venezuela 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Venezuela, from Wikipedia
History of Caracas, from Wikipedia
History of Maracaibo, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Broadcasting in Venezuela, from The Broadcast Archive
Venezuela, from Airline History
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Venezuela
Culture Venezuela, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Article Venezuela at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Venezuelans, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Disaster History by Country : Venezuela, from Relief Web
Neotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
IRIS, International Digital Earthquake Archives : 1967 Caracas (Venezuela) Earthquake Archive
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Venezuela

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Venezuela, from Wikipedia; U.S. Ambassadors to Venezuela, from NNDB; Heads of Post : Venezuela, from MOFA Canada, Mexican Ambassadors in Venezuela, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Chinese Ambassadors to Venezuela, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls The Political Graveyard : Venezuela, has incomplete list of U.S. Consuls
Lists of Bishops Article : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Coro, Caracas, Barquisimento, Calabozo, Ciudad Bolivar, Cumana, Maracaibo, Merida, Valencia en Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Instituto Nacional Estadistica, Venezuela
Population Figures from Population Statistics, by Jan Lahmeyer
World Life Expectancy : Venezuela
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1953
Economic Indicators Economic Indicators, from Trading Economics, since 1995
Election Results from Venezuela (since 2000); from IFES Election Guide
Documents Historical Newspapers Hemerotheques Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, Portal Venezuela, Hemeroteca
Selected Newspaper Articles
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Venezuela, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers, from Worldpress.org (links)
Online Yearbooks - Venezuela Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Venezuela 1870 pp.598-600, GB, 1871, pp.598-601, IA, 1872, pp.598-601, IA, 1873, pp.600-603, IA, 1874, pp.600-603, IA, 1875, pp.600-603, IA, 1876, pp.606-609, IA, 1877, pp.615-619, IA, 1878, pp.615-619, IA, 1879, pp.615-619, IA, 1880, pp.615-619, IA, 1881, pp.615-619, IA, 1883, pp.615-619, IA, 1884, pp.656-661, IA, 1885, pp.669-677, IA, 1886, pp.685-693, IA, 1887, pp.709-717, IA, 1888, pp.712-720, IA, 1889, pp.719-726, IA, 1890, pp.1084-1091, IA, 1891, pp.1088-1095, IA, 1892, pp.1107-1113, IA, 1894, pp.1107-1113, IA, 1895, pp.1109-1114, IA, 1896, pp.1111-1117, IA, 1898, pp.1113-1119, IA, 1899, pp.1134-1141, IA, 1903, pp.1292-1299, IA, 1913, pp.1355-1361, IA, 1919, pp.1331-1341, IA
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Staatskalender
Newsreels
Films on History/Society Article : Cine de Venezuela, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Most Popular Titles, History Titles, Documentaries with Country of Origin : Venezuela, from IMDb
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
FIHCA : Estampas del Viejo Maracaibo
Minube, Fotos Historicos en Venezuela
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Singapore
Search Scripophily for Venezuela
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Venezuela
Archival Deposits Portada de Pares, Archivos de Espana
Search National Archives (UK), Österreichisches Staatsarchiv
Open Society Archives (OSA), Budapest : Venezuela
Constitutions, Laws Constitucion Federal de 1811, from Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
Constitucion del estado de Venezuela, 1830, in Spanish, GB
Constitutions of Venezuela, from Political Database of the Americas
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Venezuela, from ILO, 53 docs. since 1919
Actos legislativos sancionados por el Congreso constitucional de Venezuela, 1837, in Spanish, GB
Decretos expedidos por el poder ejecutivo de Venezuela desde 1830 hasta 1838, 1839, in Spanish, GB
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections Venezuela, pp.1038-1222 in vol.12 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1974, GB
C. Calvo, Coleccion completa de los tratados, convenciones, capitulaciones, armisticios y otros actos diplomaticos: de todos los estados de la America Latina, vol.1 1862, vol.2 1862, vol.3 1862, vol.4 1862, vol.5 1862, vol.6 1862, vol.7 1865, vol.8 1866, vol.9 1866, vol.10 1866, vol.11 1869, GB
Consular Reports Consular Recommendations on South American Trade 1915, IA; U.S. consuls, Venezuela pp.26-27
Supplement to Commerce reports : daily consular and trade reports issued by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce : Venezuela, July 2 1915, Dec. 27 1915, Apr. 17 1916, Dec. 29 1916, Dec. 31 1917, Maracaibo, Feb. 16 1918, Mar. 20 1919, IA
Chamber of Commerce Reports
Historiography
Document Collections Documentos para los anales de Venezuela desde el movimiento separatista de la Union colombiana vol.1 1890, vol.2 1890, vol.4 1890, vol.6 1891, vol.7 1891, Secundo Periodo vol.1 1891, vol.2 1891, vol.3 1892, vol.4 1892, in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Documents Relating to the Question of Boundary Between Venezuela and British Guiana (1896), posted on Internet Archive
Colombia Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Correspondencia diplomatica sobre violaciones de la neutralidad por las autoridades de Venezuela (1902) in Spanish, posted on Internet Archive
Historical Maps Responsible Authority Instituto Geografico de Venezuela Simon Bolivar
collections Atlas of Venezuela, from Wikimedia Commons; from Thomas Hoeckmann
Venezuela Maps, from PCL, UTexas
Mapas de Venezuela, from Guia Iglesias y Templos
Venezuela Maps, from Zonu; from Maps of the World
Search David Rumsey Map Collection for South America, Venezuela
Category : Old Maps of Venezuela, Maps of the History of Venezuela, from Wikimedia Commons
Venezuela Maps, PCL, UTexas
Categoria : Mapas antiguos de Venezuela, from Venciclopedia, in Spanish
Maps of Caracas, from Maps of the World
Venezuela, from Library of Congress Map Collection
South America, Modern Languages of South America, from TITUS
South America 1800, 1816, 1827, 1900, 1901-2010, by J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map : America del Sur, 1799, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, administrative regions, in Spanish
South America, Contemporary South America 1826, from World Maps Online
South America 1905, from Zonu
Venezuela, hindsight/modern
Venezuela, contemporary Caracas 1775, 1814, 1818, from David Rumsey Map Collection
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary (Provincia de Apure), Canton de Caycara, Prov. de la Guyana, 1840, Isla y Provincia de Margarita. Provincia de Cumana. Provincia de Barcelona, 1840, Provincia de Maracaibo, Coro, Merida 1840, from David Rumsey Map Collection
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Venezuela, La Guaira, Valencia, Carabobo, Aragua, Lara, Carora, Maracaibo, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Venezuela, Caracas, Maracaibo, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Venezuela, Caracas, Diocese of Merida, Barquisimento, Calabozo, Diocese of Zulia, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907
Economic Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : Ecuador, Venezuela und Neugranada, vol.4 1844 pp.109-112, posted by DTBSWS
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Venezuela p.197
Geographical Venezuela, pp.452-454 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, Pictorial geography of the world, 1840, GB
The Republic of Venezuela, pp.525-534 in vol.1 of R.S. Fisher, Book of the World, 1852, GB
Venezuela, pp.341-344 in Th. Prescott, The Volume of the World, 1855, GB
Venezuela, pp.656-658 in F.H. Ungewitter, Neueste Erdbeschreibung und Staatenkunde, 1859, in German, GB
Venezuela, pp.202-204 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Venezuela, pp.454-456 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnological Paria pp.354-355, in A. Hamilton, Marriage rites, customs, and ceremonies, of all nations of the universe, 1822, GB
The Tropical Forests : the Orinoco and Guiana pp.253-280, in vol.11 of L.H. Gray, The Mythology of all Races, 1920, GB
The Tupi-Guarani, Caribs and Arawaks pp.289-290, the Botocudos pp.290-292 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Venezuela p.79 in R.D. Owen, The wrong of slavery, the right of emancipation, and the future of the African race in the United States, 1864, GB
Republique de Venezuela, pp.452-455 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical Republica de Venezuela, pp.172-173 in H. Belloc, Historia de America desde los tiempos mas remotos hasta nuestros dias, 1845, in Spanish, GB
The Backward States : Venezuela, pp.177-178 in W.W. Sweet, A History of Latin America, 1929, GB
Other Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1864 (vol.16) : Quebrada, p.389, GB
Bradshaw's railway manual, shareholders' guide and official directory for 1867 (vol.19) : Central Venezuela, p.418, Quebrada, p.424, GB
Article : Venezuela, in : Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens, 1912, in German, posted by Zeno
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides, Travelogues A. Hale, Practical Guide to Latin America, 1909, IA; on Venezuela pp.123-129
W.A. Hirst, A Guide to South America 1915, IA; on Venezuela pp.313-333
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives Archivo General de la Nacion, Venezuela; Academia Nacional de Venezuela, click Archivo y Biblioteca
National Archives : Latin America, from UNESCO Archives Portal
Venezuela, from Repositories of Primary Sources : Latin America (UIdaho)
Museums Category : Museums in Venezuela, from Wikipedia
Monuments
Libraries Biblioteca Nacional de Venezuela
Libraries in Venezuela, from LibDex
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Venezuela banknotes, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Venezuela Coins, from World Coin Gallery, from Numista, from ColNect, from OmniCoin
Venezuela, from Encyclopedia of Small Silver Coins
Stamps Rare Venezuelan Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Catalogue Venezuelan Stamps 1859-1910, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Venezuela survey of bibliographies Bibliografia Venezolana (description), from Biblioteca Nacional de Venezuela, in Spanish
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.124-142 in D.K. and G.A. Rudolph, Historical Dictionary of Venezuela, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1971 [G]
Bibliography Venezuela, from NNDB
Venezuela, from The Online Books Page
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Commented Bibliography from Venezuela Analysis
Numismatic Catalog of Venezuela, Blbliography
Colombia, Venezuela, from The Irish in Latin America and Iberia, a Bibliography by E. Murray
D. Irwin, Una bibliografia sobre las relaciones civiles y militares en Venezuela. Nuevo Mundo 2007
serial publications Academia Nacional de Venezuela, click Publicaciones
general bibliographies
Venezuela entries
Library of Congress HLAS Online Handbook of Latin American Studies (Bibliography)
Bibliography : Andes, from Environmental History of Latin America; Online Bibliography on Latin American Environmental History
Latin American Books
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South America
C. Ream, Africans in Lation America, Bibliography
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
Biblioteca Digital Hispanica; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
International Boundary Studies
on Venezuela Biblioteca Digital Venezolana
Biblioteca Digital Academica Venezolana
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Venezuela
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for Venezuela
Online Journals Directory, Article Library Directory of Open Access Journals
HAPI Online, Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI), The Database of Latin American Journal Articles
On Latin America Latin American Studies Journals (links, from LANIC)
Colonial Latin American Historical Review (CLAHR)
Revista Latino-Americana de Arqueologia Historica
On Venezuela LANIC, Academic Journals : Venezuela
Historiography Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - Writing on the precolonial and colonial periods from the sixteenth century to the present day, by G.L. Vasquez, pp.534-542, Article : Latin American Historiography (excluding Mexico and Brazil) - The National Period, 1820-1990, pp.542-545 in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Thomas A. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, NY : Oxford UP 5th edition 2001, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 S628m
E. Bradford Burns, Latin America, A Concise Interpretive History, Eaglewood NJ : Prentice Hall 6th edition (1972) 1994, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980 B967l
H. Michael Tarver and Julia C. Frederick, The History of Venezuela, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 987 T196t
Specific Topics John Lynch, Simon Bolivar : a Life, New Haven : Yale UP 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 980/02092 L988s
Chapter XII : The High Costs of Venezuela, pp.176-186, in : John Gunther, Inside Latin America, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas. Vol.III : South America, Part 2, Cambridge : UP 1999 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Donna Keyse Rudolph and G.A. Rudolph, Historical Dictionary of Venezuela, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1971 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. The Americas 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article : Venezuela, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp.1100-1102, 1944 pp.734-735, 1945 pp.735-736, 1946 pp.799-800, 1947 p.805, 1948 p.777, 1949 pp.666-667, 1950 pp.717-718, 1951 pp.721-722, 1952 pp.721-722, 1953 pp.730-731, 1954 pp.732-733, 1955 pp.792-793, 1956 pp.728-729, 1957 pp.792-793, 1958 pp.732-733, 1959 pp.731-732, 1960 pp.731-732, 1961, pp.733-734, 1962 pp.723-724, 1963 pp.838-839, 1964 pp.853-855, 1965 pp.853-854, 1966 p.796, 1967 pp.792-793, 1968 pp.796-797, 1969 pp.788-789, 1970 pp.786-788, 1971 pp.769-770, 1972 pp.723-724, 1973 pp.721-722, 1974 pp.718-719, 1975 pp.724-725, 1976 pp.723-724, 1977 pp.724-725, 1978 pp.722-723, 1979 pp.724-725, 1980 pp.722-724, 1981 p.720, 1982 pp.721-722, 1983 pp.721-722, 1984 pp.721-722, 1985 pp.588-589, 810, 1986 pp.588, 810, 1987 pp.556-557, 778, 1988 pp.509-510, 730, 1989 pp.510-511, 730, 1990 pp.526-527, 746, 1991 pp.511, 731, 1992 pp.483-484, 1993 pp.491-492, 748, 1994 pp.491-492, 748, 1995 pp.502, 748, 1996 pp.500-501, 748, 1997 pp.500-501, 746, 2002 pp.520-521, 763
Article : Venezuela, in : Statesman's Year Book 1878 pp.615-619, 1895 pp.1109-1114, 1898 pp.1113-1118, 1901 pp.1250-1257, 1905 pp.1350-1357, 1919 pp.1331-1341, 1924 pp.1357-1365, 1925 pp.1365-1372, 1926 pp.1325-1335, 1928 pp.1368-1375, 1929 pp.1340-1349, 1932 pp.1363-1376, 1937 pp.1388-1394, 1942 pp.1348-1355, 1943 pp.1348-1363, 1961-1962 pp.1555-1563, 1970-1971 pp.1465-1472, 1973-1974 pp.1471-1479, 1975-1976 pp.1463-1470, 1976-1977 pp.1462-1469, 1978-1979 pp.1571-1578, 1979-1980 pp.1581-1589, 1980-1981 pp.1577-1583, 1981-1982 pp.1587-1595, 1982-1983 pp.1587-1595, 1983-1984 pp.1582-1588, 1984-1985 pp.1579-1585, 1985-1986 pp.1575-1581, 1986-1987 pp.1574-1581, 1987-1988 pp.1577-1583, 1988-1989 pp.1580-1586, 1989-1990 pp.1576-1582, 1990-1991 pp.1578-1584, 1991-1992 pp.1576-1582, 1992-1993 pp.1586-1591, 1993-1994 pp.1590-1595, 1994-1995 pp.1591-1595, 1995-1996 pp.1582-1587, 1996-1997 pp.1579-1584, 1997-1998 pp.1588-1592, 1998-1999 pp.1726-1731, 2000 pp.1930-1935, 2001 pp.1891-1896, 2002 pp.1958-1963, 2003 pp.1962-1967, 2004 pp.1985-1990, 2005 pp.1997-2002, 2006 pp.1997-2003 [G]
Article : Venezuela, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.882-885 [G]
Article : Venezuela, in : New International Year Book 1919 pp.720-721, 1920 p.717, 1921 pp.730-731, 1922 p.751, 1923 pp.774-775, 1924 pp.771-772, 1925 pp.731-733, 1926 pp.761-762, 1928 pp.792-793, 1929 pp.827-828, 1930 pp.789-791, 1931 pp.824-825, 1932 pp.828-829, 1933 pp.829-830, 1934 p.728, 1935 pp.743-745, 1938 pp.766-768, 1939 pp.791-792, Events of 1940 pp.792-793, 1941 pp.712-714, 1942 pp.735-738, 1943 pp.700-703, 1944 pp.673-674, 1945 pp.652-655, 1946, pp.719-721 [G]
Article : Venezuela, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 p.763 [G]
Article : Venezuela, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.863-865, 1928 pp.794-795, 1930 pp.787-790, 1931 pp.778-780, 1932 pp.732-734, 1933 pp.776-777, 1934 pp.611-612, 1935 pp.740-742, 1936 pp.752-755, 1937 pp.720-721, 1938 pp.720-722, 1939 pp.785-786, 1940 pp.797-798. 1943 pp.760-761, 1944 pp.725-726, 1945 pp.735-736, 1946 pp.761-763, 1947 pp.746-748, 1957 pp.821-823, 1958 pp.812-814, 1959 pp.806-808, 1960 pp.812-814, 1961 pp.805-807, 1962 pp.813-814, 1963 pp.722-724, 1964 pp.706-708, 1965 p.730, 1966 pp.725-726, 1967 pp.730-732, 1968 pp.727-728, 1969 pp.732-734, 1970 pp.733-734, 1971 pp.738-739, 1972 pp.736-737, 1973 pp.734-735, 1974 p.645, 1975 p.592, 1976 pp.585-586, 1977 pp.542-543, 1978 pp.535-536, 1979 pp.537-538, 1980 pp.547-548, 1981 p.568, 1983 p.553, 1984 pp.552-553, 1985 p.556, 1986 p.556, 1987 pp.561-562, 1988 p.561, 1989 p.567, 1990 pp.551-552, 992 p.560, 1993 pp.563-565, 1994 pp.564-565, 1995 pp.551, 2002 p.439 [G]