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First posted in 2002, last revised on December 8th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1340 . 1340-1520 . Reformation, 1520-1550 . 1550-1660 . 1660-1755 . 1755-1790 .1790-1815 . 1815-1848
1848-1864 . 1864-1914 . 1914-1918 . 1918-1920 . 1920-1939 . 1939-1945 . 1945-1949 . 1949-1969 . 1969-1990 . since 1990
see also History of Norway, History of Sweden

until 1340
The Kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century, the product of the merger of the historical regions of Jylland ("Jutland", including Schleswig/Slesvig, Fyn and the western isles), Sjælland and Skåne (Scania, with Bornholm). Denmark, Christian since the 10th century, pursued a policy of expansion; North Frisia, Fehmarn came under Danish rule.
In 1232 the Duchy of Schleswig was created. In 1326 the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein entered a dynastic union hostile to Denmark; in effect, Schleswig, though a Danish fief, had been separated from the Kingdom of Denmark.

In 1340, Denmark ceded Scania as a pawn to Sweden's King Magnus; in 1346, Denmark ceded Estonia as a pawn to the Livonian Order. The country , after extended civil war, was in desparate need of cash. King Valdemar IV. Atterdag regained Scania by paying back the Swedish king. In disputes with the Hanseatic League, Valdemar Atterdag succeeded in establishing the Sound Levy, which was to remain Denmark's most important source of income until it's abolition in 1863. At Valdemar Atterdag's death in 1375, Denmark had solid finances and a stable constitution.
In Denmark, political power was shared by the king, the king's council (Rigsrad) and the diet (Rigsdag), the nobility being the most important group represented in Rigsdag and Rigsrad. These institutions represented Denmark proper - Scania, Sjælland, Jylland.
With Valdemar's successor, Olaf I., Denmark and Norway were united in Dynastic Union, a union which was, under Queen Margarethe, joined by Sweden in 1397. While all 3 kingdoms were ruled by one king, they would continue to have separate administrations, constitutions and laws. The union is called Union of Kalmar after the castle where the contract establishing it was signed.
The union kings felt to be kings of Denmark first; they resided in Copenhagen, Denmark's capital. Sweden's nobility resisted from the 1430es onward, but Norway for the most part stayed loyal.
The island of Gotland, before 1398, had been largely autonomous if not independent. However, it's administation had been shattered by a Danish raid under Valdemar Atterdag in 1361, and by 1397 it had deteriorated into a pirate's nest. In 1398 the Teutonic Order invaded the island to end piracy. Now the estates of Denmark and Sweden demanded the island's "return" to Denmark, and in 1409 the order handed over the island to Union King Erik of Pomerania in return for it's expenses for the expedition.
Erik of Pommerania, late in his rule, came into conflict with Denmark's and Sweden's nobility, and in 1437 withdrew to Gotland, still a region of its own, where he resided until 1449, claiming the title of King. In the meantime, the estates of Denmark (Rigsdag) had elected a new king, Christoph of Bavaria, who took up residence in Copenhagen. While two kings claimed the crown of Denmark, Sweden's Riksdag elected one of their own, Karl Knutsson, king; he was also elected by the Norwegians.
In 1449, new Danish King Christian I. succeeded in regaining Gotland and in 1457 Norway. Norway from now on was a hereditary kingdom, and, like Gotland and Norway's outposts in the Atlantic, Greenland, Iceland, the Faroes, Shetlands and Orkneys, became Danish outer possessions. In 1468, the Orkneys and Shetlands were ceded to Scotland as dowry.
The Danish kings, again and again, attempted to reestablish their authority over Sweden, and succeeded at times, only to see the Swedes rebel again. Denmark, throughout the 14th century, was the dominant political power in Scandinavia.

Reformation, 1520-1550
The Political Situation in Denmark in the 1520es . In 1523, Duke Frederick of Holstein was recognized as King of Denmark by the nobility of Jylland (Jutland). He quickly established control over Fyn, Sjælland and Skåme (Scania), the cities of København (Copenhagen) and MalmÖ, the last strongholds loyal to Christian II. in Denmark proper, surrendered in January 1524. Frederick was strongly supported by Denmarks nobility and clergy, who had been furious about Christian's pro-peasant legislation; the nobles of Jylland had burnt Christian II.'s laws at the Landsting of Viborg. There were cases of peasants unrest, such as the Bondestormen (peasants' unrest) in Jylland in 1527.
On the other hand, Christian II. enjoyed strong support among the peasants. In 1525, Søren Norby, the captain of Gotland and the last man still loyal to Christian, landed in Skåne and quickly assembled an army of peasants around him, taking control of Skåne except the walled cities of Malmö and Hälsingborg. However, when King Frederik vrought in a professional army, Norby's peasants wrre quickly defeated.
Christian II. in 1523 had left Denmark for the continent, where he tried to get political and financial support to retake his kingdom(s). He upheld his claim; even as these attempts lead to no tangible result, King Frederick and his administration had to feel uneasy.
King Christian, until his deposition, had been Union King - of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. While the Norwegian Council had recognized Frederick as their king, the Swedes had elected their own and reestablished their independence. Border problems arose. More important, however, were relations with the Hanseatic cities - Frederick had financed his campaign of 1523 with a loan from Lübeck; in order to oust Søren Norby from Gotland in 1525, he again needed Lübeck's help. In return, he had to grant the island of Bornholm as a pawn for 50 years to the leading Hanseatic city.
Frederick's legislation, however, was in contrast to the interests of the Hanseatic city.
The Emergence of Lutheranism in Denmark . The Danish church administration, in the early 1520es, saw the archbishopric contested between candidates the cathedral chapter would like to see on the seat, royal candidates and papal candidates; the royal candidate, Jørgen Skodborg (1520) was duly elected, but failed to obtain papal affirmation (as Skodborg was not yet ordained a priest) and soon saw royal support withdrawn and himself deposed, because as acting archbishop he refused to answer the financial demands King Christian made on the Danish church. Skodborg's successor Didrik Slagheck was executed after a few months. The next archbishop, Johann Wese, fled with King Christian to Gemany in 1523. The next archbishop, Åge Sparre, again failed to obtain papal affirmation - which finally was obtained by Jørgen Skodborg in 1525, who now was supported by King Frederik and the other Danish bishops.
Due to this chain of events, the Danish bishops had lost authority. In 1520 King Christian II. invited the first Lutheran, Martin Reinhard, to preach in Denmark; he soon left, because he could not make himself understood. In 1523, several German cities on the coast of the Baltic Sea had introduced the Lutheran reformation. In 1524, King Christian II. (out of the country) had converted to Lutheranism; the Danish diet of 1524 then had established a formal alliance between King Frederick and the Danish nobility against Lutheranism.
The reformation held inroads in the Duchies of Slesvig (Schleswig) and Holstein in 1525, in 1526 in Jylland, where Hans Tausen preached at Viborg; Tausen had studied unter Luther in Wittenberg. Tausen was opposed by many in the Danish church hierarchy; in Oktober 1526 he was appointed royal chaplain. King Frederick did not openly speak out in favour of Lutheranism, but protected Tausen. The Lutheran priests were warned not to spread the new teaching; at the same time breach of celibacy and flight from monasteries were tolerated. The diets since 1526 were dominated by the religious question, but no decision was made.
In the late 1520es King Frederick I. had entered into close ties with Count Philipp of Hessen, which in 1531 had resulted in Denmark becoming a member of the Schmalkaldic League; in foreign policy, Denmark thus had sided with the Lutheran princes. An invasion by King Christian II. in Norway was of only temporary success.
From 1533 to 1536 . King Frederick I. died in 1533. Lübeck's burgomaster Jürgen Wullenwever schemed to place Count Christoph of Oldenburg on the Danish throne; Christoph's army in 1534 invaded Holstein, an event which brought Count Christian off Holstein into the game. Soon, the diets of Sjælland and Skåne elected Christoph, those of Jylland and Fyn Christian King of Denmark. While campaigns and rebellions went on in Denmark, the decision fell in Lübeck, where burgomaster Wullenwever was toppled; Christoph lost his main support. Denmark (Christian) and Lübeck concluded peace, Christoph's last stronghold, København surrendered. (July 1536); Christian was undisputed King of Denmark.
Implementation of the Reformation . King Christian in 1537 charged a commission including Hans Tausen with composing a Church Ordinnance for Denmark, which after having been approved by Johannes Bugenhagen, was proclaimed and printed in Dec. 1537. The church was to be lead by superintendents - Hans Tausen became superintendent of Ribe, his district identical with the previous diocesis. The Lutheran church was declared State Church and still is.
After two civil wars in a little over a decade, the Danish crown was in desperate need of revenue, which was provided by the large scale confiscation of church property, for which the Lutheran reformation provided welcome legitimation. In the 1550es, the Danish crown experienced a significant budget surplus. Some of the church revenue was used to support the reestablished University of København (Copenhagen, 1537). A Danish bible translation was published in 1550.

The Reformation introduced in 1536 brought a major political change. The state established its influence over the church, and first steps were taken in cutting down on old territorial privileges and institutions. Norway's Rigsrad was dissolved, Danish introduced as the language of administration in Norway.
The Danish Rigsrad, however, continued to function and was an influential political body, which jointly with the King ruled the country. It's members were powerful noblemen, owning large estates, and keen on preserving their privileges.
In 1618 the 30 Years War had begun, and King Christian IV of Denmark entered the scene in 1625, as the leader of the protestant side. Soon, however, he was defeated by Wallenstein, whose forces even occupied Jutland (1627). In 1629, Denmark had to sign a humiliating peace. In 1630 Sweden entered that war and was successful; in 1643 the Swedes turned on Denmark, which, after being defeated, had to cede Oesel, Gotland, Halland, Jämtland, Härjedalen. In 1655 another war broke out, and in 1658 Denmark had to cede Bornholm, Blekinge, Scania, Bohuslän, Stift Drontheim.
The wars of the 17th century had brought disaster over Denmark-Norway; in 1655-58 the country was close to collapse, having lost two central, key provinces : Scania, with Lund, the seat of Denmark's archbishopric, and Stift Drontheim, with Drontheim (Trondhjem), Norway's ancient capital and seat of the country's archbishopric. Also, a share in the crucial Sound Levy had been ceded to archenemy Sweden.
Economically, Denmark-Norway was a dominantly agrarian society. The city of Copenhagen, by far the biggest within the realm, had about 30.000 inhabitants in 1650. Denmark proper produced mainly corn and cattle, the surplus of which was sold in the Netherlands. Norway exported dried or salted fish and some iron, as well as wood. The most important source of revenue to the Danish state, however, was the Sound Levy, charged from every ship passing from the North Sea into the Baltic Sea and vice versa.
In 1618, the Danish East India Company acquired it's first colony, Frederiksnagar in Bengal, to which in 1620 Tranquebar, in southeast India, was added.

The Danish corporate constitution had limited the king's powers, because the estates, always keen to protect their privileges, were hesitating when it came to agree to new taxes. King Frederik III. blamed the chain of defeats on the old constitution which had proven outdated. Having won the confidence of the estates (the Rigsrad) he concluded an alliance with the Dutch Republic. In the following war against Sweden, the Dutch fleet proved decisive. Sweden gave in and ceded Bornholm, the Stift Drontheim and the Sound levies back to Denmark (1660). King Frederik thus had proven, that the king's rule undisputed by privilege holders and conflicting assemblies was more effective, was able to turn things around. In 1665, the Rigsrad enacted the Act of Royalty, empowering the king to raise additional taxes without necessity for the Rigsrad's approval. In effect this ment the Rigsrad gave up its main tool of poltical influence. Until 1665, the kingdom of Denmark proper included only Jutland, the Danish isles (foremost Fyn and Sjælland) and (until 1658) Scania, Blekinge, Halland. The other areas - the kingdom of Norway, the former Norwegian dependencies (Iceland, Greenland, the Faroes, Gotland, Ösel) were separate entities. Under absolute rule, the administration was centralised. The realm's resources were concentrated in the capital, were invested in the nation's defense and in construction projects (there was always another palace to build). For the outlying areas, absolute reign resulted in a loss of autonomy, as the decisions were made in Kopenhagen. During absolutism, few Danish kings visited Norway, some did not even show up for the ritual crowning procedure. Remote island possessions were reduced to suppliers of certain raw materials and as controlled markets (a policy which was started already before absolutism was introduced). Only one government-licensed, Denmark-based company was allowed to trade with Iceland. For the areas concerned, this resulted in dictated prices and economic stagnation. Following the French model, a mercantilist policy was pursued, monopolies handed out to raise revenue.
Absolutism meant the disempowerment of the wealthy noble landowners, of the Rigsrad. The absolutist kings, in their administration, therefore avoided to call Danish noblemen into political office, called non-nobles, often foreigners instead (mostly Germans, who often were ennobled by the Danish Kings). This new nobilty was a Service Nobility, dependent on the king who appointed them, free from a desire to protect inherited privileges and estates, free to pursue a policy aiming at the improvement of state and society. Absolutism also meant that the country was without representation, for the king claimed to have been given his authority from god, and the Rigsdag ceased to meet.
In regard to religious policy, in edicts of toleration were published, for Catholics in 1671, for Jews in 1684 and for Calvinists in 1685. Denmark introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1700.
In Denmark-Norway, the period of Absolutism was not interrupted by an age of liberty. The kings ruled without asking the rigsdag for approval. They appointed those who served in the administration. When the king was to appoint somebody to fill a position in the administration, he usually disregarded members of the old nobility, and appointed either ethnic Germans or recently ennobled persons. Absolute rule in Denmark-Norway was less harsh than in France under Louis XIV. and his successors. Danish kings enjoyed their peoples respect and loyalty. In Denmark the old nobility was powerless, in Norway a nobility worthy to mention did not exist. The kings understood their role as guardians and benefactors of their realm. Frederik IV. (1699-1730) was modest and industrious; he succeeded in reducing the national debt (from the disastrous Great Nordic War) by half. His successor Christian VI. (1730-46) also promoted Pietism. The Danish kings pursued a policy promoting mercantilism, often by the means of granting monopolies. Denmark acquired colonies in the Caribbean, St. Thomas in 1666, St. Croix in 1733, adding to their existing colonies of Tranquebar (since 1620) and Frederiksnagar (since 1616) in India and their possession on the Gold Coast. The Caribbean island colonies were supposed to make Denmark independent from sugar imports. Regular contacts with Greenland were reopened in 1750.

Enlightenment, 1755-1790
Scholarly Societies . In 1740 the Kiøbenhavske Selskab af Laerdoms og Videnskabers Elskere (Copenhagen Society of Lovers of Learning and Science) was established, in 1745 followed by the Kongelige Danske Selskab for Fædrelandets Historie (Royal Danish Society for National History), in 1754 by Det Kongelige Danske Skildre-, Billedhugger- og Bygnings-Academie i Kiøbenhavn (Royal Danish Painting, Sculpture and Architecture Academy in Copenhagen), in 1769 by the Kongelige Danske Landhuusholdnings-Selskab (Royal Danish Agricultural Society) with seat in Fredriksberg, in 1771 by the Kirurgiske Privatselskab (Private Society of Surgeons) with seat in Copenhagen. and by the Københavnske Medicinske Selskab (Copenhagen Medical Society), in 1774 by the Societas Exercitatoria Medica (Medical Training Society of Copenhagen), in 1785 by the Societas Disputatoria Medica Haunienis (Medical Debating Society of Copenhagen)
Enlightened Absolutism . In 1755, A.G. Moltke, in the name of King Frederik V., called upon the Danes to make suggestions toward the improvement of the national economy.
From 1770 to 1772 J.F. Struensee, physician of mentally ill King Christian VII, as privy counselor, was in control of government. He decreed numerous reforms, including the abolition the the Rigsrådet, of torture, of censorship, of corvee labour, he banned slave trade in the Danish colonies. Many of his reforms intended to easen the burden on peasants, and to cut into privileges and revenues of nobles. Following a coup, Struensee was arrested, tried and executed, in a case of judicial murder.
Anti-Reaction . The Struensee episode had contributed to the rise of national Danish sentiment against an administration dominated by German nationals (Struensee had been German). In 1776 the Law of Indigenous Rights was introduced, according to which only Danes could hold office in Denmark (to prevent another Struensee come to power).

Denmark had tried to stay neutral in the conflict between France and Great Britain. Napoleon tried to force all continental European states to join the blockade against British goods. Denmark (and Sweden) chose not to enforce the blockade, because both smuggling proved to be very profitable. For instance, Britain had imposed high taxes on tea which was oh so popular on the island. The Danish and Swedish East India Companies imported more tea than the (English) East India Company itself - and smuggled 90 % of it into Britain, where it still could be sold at a huge profit. Shortly afterwards, the East India Company was declared bankrupt. When Britain lowered its tariffs on tea, the Danish and Swedish East India Companies followed suit (into bankrupcy). However, in 1801 and again in 1807 the British navy attacked Copenhagen. As a consequence of the attack of 1807, Denmark lost its entire fleet, all its colonies and the island of Heligoland. The rough treatment drove Denmark into Napoleon's arms, and it remained a loyal ally to the very end. The British control of the seas disrupted the Danish connections with Norway.

In 1814, when the Napoleonic Era ended, Denmark ended up on the losing side, for it had stayed loyal to France for too long. It had to cede Norway to Sweden, but kept the old Norwegian sidelands of the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland. On the other hand, it gained the Duchy of Lauenburg.
The Kings continued to rule absolute. However, as elsewhere in Europe, the demand for a constitution and a representative assembly rose in various parts of the realm. Most delicate was the problem of Schleswig-Holstein. Historically, the Duchy of Schleswig was part of the Kingdom of Denmark, while the Duchy of Holstein was part of Germany (the Holy Roman Empire until 1806, the German Confederation since 1815). However, the two duchies had been in a dynastic union for centuries, and the duchies' estates centuries ago had merged under the motto up ewig ungedeelt (for ever undivided). A large part of Schleswig's population, especially in the southern and central part of the duchy, felt German rather than Danish. In 1831, King Frederik VI. introduced Consultative Assemblies in Holstein, Schleswig, Jutland and for the Islands, the voting right being tied to property. Local autonomy (self-administration) was introduced in 1837/40. A national cadastre was introduced in 1844.
Denmark still was a predominantly agricultural country. In 1813 the country had declared a State Bankrupcy, as a consequence of which the prices had risen considerably. Agriculture was in a crisis which lasted until late into the 1820es, after which prosperity returned. Denmark sold its colonies in India (Frederiksnagar and Tranquebar) in 1845.

In 1848, a National Constitutional Assembly was formed, which in 1849 passed the June Constitution. A bicameral parliament, consisting of Landsting and Folketing was established, with Universal Manhood Suffrage for the Folketing. The absolute monarchy was transformed into a Constitutional Monarchy, policy-making lying with the Cabinet now, headed by the Prime Minister.
The German population of Schleswig and Holstein was unhappy with separate consultative assemblies being established for Schleswig respectively Holstein in 1831. However, Danish nationalism also was on the rise; Orla Lehmann in 1842 demanded the right to speak Danish in the Schleswig assembly, as well as the full incorporation of Schleswig into the kingdom (it still had a separate administration, as well as separate laws). When the National Constitutional Assembly was elected in 1848, the German Schleswigers sent their representatives to Germany's parliament in Frankfurt instead, where Friedrich Dahlmann, professor of history from Göttingen (delegate for Holstein) was elected president of the parliament. A revolt broke out in the duchies (1848-1851), military assistance from Germany did not materialize, and the conflict was ended with the London Protocoll guaranteeing the status quo, i.e. Schleswig not being incorporated in Denmark. However, the Danification Policy continued as the Language Edict introduced Danish as the language of church and education in central Schleswig in 1851. However, in 1863 the November Constitution was passed, unifying Denmark and Schleswig. It was a clear violation of the London Protocoll; the Schleswig-Holsteiners again rose in rebellion, this time assisted by the Austrian and Prussian armies. The Danish forces were defeated at Dybbøl (Düppel); Denmark ceded Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg. The peace treaty foresaw a referendum for Northern Schleswig, with a Danish population majority.
Denmark sold it's colonies in Africa on the Gold Coast in 1850, only keeping the Danish West Indies. The Sound Toll was abolished in 1857. Railway construction began in the 1850es; gasworks provided street lighting in larger cities.

From ca. 1870, Denmarks politics were dominated by two groups, Højre (conservatives), Centrum and Venstre (the leftist liberals, organized since before 1848). Venstre usually held the majority in the Folketing, while the ministers, appointed by the king, were conservative. As Venstre opposed the Højre governments, lead by prime minister J.B.S. Estrup, the governments between 1885 and 1894 is called the Period of Provisional Laws. 1895-1901 a Højre government was tolerated by Venstre, until in 1901 the Venstrereformpartiet (est. 1895 by Venstre politicians opposed to reconciliation with Højre) formed a government.
The Danish Labour Movement had been founded in 1871, the Social Democratic Party in 1876, the first Social Democrats elected into Folketing in 1884. Parliamentary responsibility was introduced in 1901. In 1906, Radical Venstre split off Venstrereformpartiet, soon to become a leading force in Danish politics.

In 1915, Højre lost, and a splinter group formed the Conservative Party.
During World War I, Denmark stayed neutral. Economically the country depended on Britain, its main partner in ex- and import. For matters of national security, Germany was more important. In April 1917, the Danish West Indies were sold to the United States, which feared them might pose a threat to the Panama Canal if Germany got hold of them. The German U-Boat Warfare resulted in restrictions on Danish maritime trade - much of the North Sea was fighting arena (Battle of Jutland 1916); only narrow channels reserved for the merchant marine of neutral nations.
In 1915, Universal Womanhood Suffrage was introduced.

When World War I was over, the plebiscite in Northern Schleswig finally was held in early 1920; the northern part of it, around Tønder, Haderslev, Åbenra and Sønderborg, opted for Denmark. The Danish minority in the area remaining with Germany got a statute protecting its rights in the constitution of Schleswig-Holstein.

Post-war Denmark, with a Liberal government, experienced an economic crisis, unemployment soaring in 1922-23 and 1925-28. In 1924, the first Social Democratic cabinet, lead by Th. Stauning, took over, unsuccessful in trying to solve the economic crisis by State Intervention. His successor, Liberal Th. Madsen-Mygdal pursued an economic policy of Austerity.
The crisis was not that severe as in Germany or other countries of central and eastern central Europe, for Denmark had not participated in WW I, and it was industrialized to a lesser extent. During the 1920es, despite the ongoing crisis, Denmark's industry and agriculture were modernized. Ford set up a plant in Denmark.
From 1929 onward, a coalition of Social Democrats and Social Liberals (Venstrereformpartiet) governed, which during the aggravating crisis (unemployment reached a staggering 40% in 1932) agreed on a policy of state intervention and on social reforms. Social democratic policy moved away from socialist ideology, and, as Stauning's 1934 programme Denmark for the People expresses, toward serving the interests of the people.
Denmark, like it's Scandinavian neighbours, pursued a policy of neutrality, attempting to stay out of the coming conflict.

On March 31st 1939, Germany and Denmark signed a Non-Aggression Pact. On December 7th 1939 the Scandinavian Nations agreed to take a neutral stand in the ongoing Winter War in Finland.
On April 9th 1940, without declaration of war, German foirces occupied Denmark proper, en route to Norway. The Danes did not offer any resistance. The British occupied the Faroes and Iceland to prevent the Germans establishing outposts there; Greenland later was occupied by US forces. The British also attempted to seize Denmark's merchant navy. On April 10th 1940, Danish PM Thorwald Stauning formed a National Samling government (all major parties included). On April 16th 1940, the Faroe Islands, a Danish possession in the North Atlantic, were occupied by British troops. On July 4th 1940, in the Folketing (Dan. Parliament), Stauning emphasized the necessity to economically cooperate with the 'neighbour nation'. On July 8th the cabinet was reshuffled; Erik Scavenius became foreign minister.
On Jan. 18th 1941 the Lex Ørum was passed. making actions against foreign (occupation) force punishable. On June 26th 1941 Denmark severed her diplomatic ties with the USSR. On July 7th, a Free Corps Denmark was established, a volunteer force which was to participate in the German war on the USSR. On August 22nd 1941 the Anti-Communist Law was passed. On November 25th 1941, Denmark joined the Anti-Comintern Pact, with the understanding that Denmark maintained her neutrality.
PM Stauning died May 3rd 1942. In May, Christian Möller, former minister of trade, fled to Britain, where he became a leading figure of the Danish exile. In October/November 1942 the Telegram Crisis unfolded. On Nov. 4th 1942, Scavenius was appointed new pm. In August 1943, Denmark experienced strikes and unrest. On August 29th, martial law was proclaimed. On September 16th 1943, the Danish Liberty Council was established, as the body representing the Danish resistance. On Oct. 2nd 1943 the Danish Jewish community was evacuated, to neutral Sweden (2. 10. 1943); ca. 500 out of ca. 7.500 ended up in Theresienstadt. In November, the Liberty Council published "When Denmark is free again". On Jan. 4th 1944, Danish resistance activist and poet Kaj Munk killed by the GeStaPo. On September 19th 1944, the Germans arrested c. 2000 Danish policemen. During the occupation, Germany exploited Denmark by having Denmark's National Bank paying for the costs of the occupation. In other aspects, the occupation was less harsh than in the countries of the east, for the Nazi racial theory regarded the Danes as of "Aryan" stock.
Denmark's king and politicians had remained in Denmark during the occupation; there was no Danish government-in-exile. Denmark's government collaborated with the Germans until 1943; then the Germans took over the administration of Denmark. However, resistance organizations such as Holger Dansker sprang up, and mainly targetted individual collaborators. Denmark remained occupied until the German forces in Denmark surrendered on May 5th 1945; Bornholm was to be occupied by Soviet forces on May 8th 1945.

Foreign Policy : The allies treated Denmark as a victim of German expansion rather than as a German ally, evaluating the effort of Danish resistance over the administration's collaboration. Yet, Iceland, which had declared independence, was lost; the Faroes, during the war under British occupation, were granted political autonomy; US military presence on Greenland a political fact. The Russians ended their occupation of Bornholm on April 5th 1946; the British ended their occupation of the Faroes.
Discussions between the governments of Norway, Sweden and Denmark on a common defense policy failed because Norway wanted an alliance with Britain; Sweden insisted on neutrality. In 1949 Denmark joined both NATO and the Council of Europe; Denmark was a founding member of the UN. Inter-Scandinavian negotiations were to result in the foundation of the Nordic Council in 1952.
The Danish government was concerned about the resettlement of German refugees in Schleswig-Holstein, were it could affect the Danish minority concentrated in and near Flensburg. Schleswig-Holstein granted a special status to the Danish minority, thus addressing Danish concerns.
The Economy : In 1940 Denmark had been occupied without resistance; by the time of Germany's surrender, core Denmark except for Bornholm were still held by German forces. Thus the country experienced comparatively litle damage during the war. By the end of the war, c. 200,000 German refugees were on Danish soil; they proved a heavy burden on the Danish state and were mostly repatriated in 1947-1948. Seamines laid during the war by the Germans continued to pose a problem for shipping.
Denmark's food production quickly returned to normal; the country's butter production was exported (for hard currency), a few food articles in Denmark remained rationed. A number of import items were hard to find. In 1948-1949, Denmark benefitted from the Marshall Plan.
Domestic Policy : With the termination of the German occupation, ordinary collaborators were publicly exposed and humiliated, war profiteers fined. King Christian X. (he had stayed in Denmark during the occupation) died in 1947, age 77; he was succeeded by Frederik IX.

Denmark's economy profited from the Marshall Plan (1948ff). The country in 1949 became founding member of NATO. In 1960, Denmark together with the United Kingdom, Ireland, Austria, Sweden and Finland founded EFTA, a free trade organisation without a political programme.
In 1953 the constitution was changed, the Landsting abolished, a unicameral system introduced. A National Pension Scheme was passed in 1956, a Sickness Compensation Scheme in 1960, Disablement Insurance introduced in 1965, unemployment benefits raised in 1970. Denmark became a Welfare State.
In the 1950es and 1960es, Denmark's economy boomed, factories like LEGO gaining a reputation worldwide, as did Danish dairy products and furniture.
When the UN Security Council called the member nations to support invaded South Korea, Denmark dispatched hospital ship Jutlandia, which served in Korean waters.
Denmark liberalized its censorship regulations; pornographic magazines (in the early 1960es still prohibited in the nations of central Europe) became a much-smuggled article.

In 1979 Greenland was granted political autonomy. When the Soviet Union showed signs of breaking up, the Danish government was the first to recognize the independence of Lithuania (in 1991).
In 1973 Denmark left EFTA and joined the EEC (now EU). The Danish economy was hit by the Oil Crisis. Unlike other European nations, Denmark decided not to use nuclear energy; instead they promoted small wind energy generators. Denmark's governments was later to ask Sweden to shut down its nuclear power stations on the Sound. Denmark would also promote battery-powered cars.
In Denmark, hippie generation students, similar to those of Amsterdam, occupied empty, decaying houses, many of which in Christianshavn, a suburb of Copenhagen, which they declared a "free state". Denmark was reluctant to use its police.
The 1970es saw the apperance of new political parties, such as the Progess Party, lead by maverick Mogens Glistrup, who openly advocated the abolition of income taxation, and the Greens.

since 1990
In 1985 Denmark signed the Schengen Agreement, which resulted in the abolition of border controls with Germany and Norway, and since 2001 with Sweden. Denmark did not join the Euro Zone in 2002. A combined bridge and tunnel since 2000 connects Copenhagen with Sweden. In 2003, Denmark joined the Coalition of the Willing and contributed to the forces occupying Iraq.
A cartoon published in a Danish newspaper ridiculing Prophet Muhammad resulted in Danish embassies, consulates and businesses being exposed to demonstrations, boycott etc.
In 2004, Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark married Australian Mary Elizabeth Donaldson.

Documents, Denmark Page , on partner-site psm-data
Historical Atlas, Denmark Page
Biographies, Denmark, by period
Demographic History of Denmark



Der Sund

The Sound

Dacia, Dania


Boringia, Bornholmia


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Denmark Profile, from Index Mundi
historical A.F. Bergsøe, Den danske stats statistik vol.1 1844, vol.2 1847, vol.3 1848, vol.4 1853, in Danish, GB
J.P. Trap, Statistisk-topographisk beskrivelse af kongeriget Danmark, vol.1, 1860, vol.2, 1859, in Danish, GB
W.F.B. Laurie, Northern Europe: (Denmark, Sweden, Russia,) Local, Social, and Political, in 1861 (1862), IA
W.J. Harvey, Denmark and the Danes; a survey of Danish life, institutions and culture (1915), IA
M. Pearson Thomson, Denmark (Peeps at Many Lands, 1921), Gutenberg Library Online
W.L. Shirer, The Challenge of Scandinavia Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland in our Time (1955), IA
Frederic Augustin Ogg, The Governments of Europe (1913), posted by Gutenberg Library Online, Pt.8 pp.553-570 on Denmark
M. Pearson Thomson, Denmark (Peeps at Many Lands, 1921), posted online by Gutenberg Library Online
Links General List of Denmark-related Topics, from Wikipedia
Category : Denmark, from Wikipedia
Kategori : Danmark, from Wikipedia Danish Edition
on History from Virtual Library History; from Univ. Greifswald, in German; from Virtual Library Labour History; from Virtual Library Women's History; from Virtual Library Economic and Business History
Resources on European History : Scandinavia, from Carnegie Mellon Univ., numerous links
Kategori : Danmarks Historie, from Wikipedia Danish Edition
Category : History of Denmark, from Wikipedia
Danmarkshistorien, in Danish
European History Primary Sources : Denmark, from Virtual Library History
Organizations Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab
Association of Danish Museums
The Society for Danish Genealogy and Biography; Societas Heraldica Scandinavica
Chakoten - The Danish Military Historical Society
Dansk Center for Byhistorie, Dansk Komite for Byhistorie
Danish History Teachers' Association, from Euroclio
Organisationen Danske Arkiver
Dansk Historisk Fællesråd
Center for Historie og Handværk
Historical Dictionaries Den Store Danske
Wikipedia Danish edition
Leksikon før det 21. århundrede, in Danish, many articles on Danish topics
Skåne's Historisk Lexikon, from Fotevikens Museum, in Swedish; organized by historical periods, not by keywords and names; under construction
Salmonsens Konversations Leksikon 2nd edition 1915-1930
H. Haar et al. (ed.), Kirke-leksikon for Norden 1900, in Danish, posted on Internet Archive
RibeWiki, in Danish
Minilexikon Danish Resistance, from historien.dk, in Danish
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News; Timeline 1500-2003, from The Danish Peace Academy, strong on Denmark, in Danish
Category : Years in Denmark, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General, Modern Overview of Danish History, from Denmark Portal, rather detailed, based on Gyldendal Leksikon; from Wikipedia
History of Denmark, from the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Danmarks Historie, by Søren Kretzschmer, in Danish
General, Historical L. von Holberg Dänische und Norwegische Staatsgeschichte, 1750, trsl. from Danish into German, GB
L. Holberg, Dannemarks riges historie, vol.1, 1756, vol.2, 1756, vol.3, 1756, in Danish, GB ; P.H. Mallet, Geschichte von Dänemark, trsl. from French into German by G. Schütze, vol.1, 1765, vol.2, 1766, vol.3, 1779, GB
L.A. Gebhardi, Geschichte der Königreiche Dännemark und Norwegen, vol.1, 1770, vol.2, 1770, in German, GB
Book II : Denmark, pp.145-428 in vol.1 of John Williams, The rise, progress, and present state of the northern governments, 1777, GB
P.F. Suhm, Historie af Danmark, vol.1 : until 803, 1782, vol.2 : 804-941, 1784, vol.3 : 942-1035, 1787, vol.4 : 1035-1095, 1787, vol.5 : 1095-1147, 1792, vol.6 : 1147-1152, 1793, vol.7 : 1157-1182, 1800, vol.8 : 1182-1202, 1806, vol.9 : 1202-1241, 1808, vol.11 : 1286-1319, 1812, vol.12 : 1320-1340, 1824, vol.13 : 1340-1375, 1826, vol.14 : 1375-1400, 1828, in Danish, GB
K.D. Hüllmann, Geschichte von Dänemark, 1796, in German, GB
G.L. Baden, Geschichte des dänischen Reichs bis auf die neueste Zeit, 1799, trsl. from Danish into German by L.H. Tobiesen, GB
H.J. Jacobson, H. Schlüter, H.T. Petersen, Geschichte des Köigreichs Däemark und der Herzogth. Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg zum Gebrauche in Volksschulen und für den Bürger und Landmann, 1832, in German, GB
S.A. Dunham, History of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, vol.2, 1839, vol.3, 1840, GB
C.F. Allen, Geschichte von Dänemark : von der ältesten bis auf die neueste Zeit, 1849, in German, GB
R.N. Bain, Scandinavia: A Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden from 1513 to 1900 (1905), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Middle Ages Article : Danmarks historie (1047-1397), from Wikipedia Danish edition
Chapter : Højmiddelalderen 1050-1340, from Danmarkshistorien, in Danish
C. Paludan-Müller, Studier til Danmarks historie i det 13de aarhundrede, 1869, in Danish, GB
R.A. Usinger, Deutsch-dänische Geschichte, 1189-1227, 1863, in German, GB
Kalmar Union Article : Danmarks historie 1397-1536, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Chapter : Senmiddelalderen, 1340-1536, from Danmarkshistorien, in Danish
C.F. Allen, De tre nordiske rigers historie under Hans, Christiern den Anden, Frederik den Første, Gustav Vasa, Grevefejden 1497-1536, vol.1, 1864 vol.2, 1865, vol.3 pt.1, 1867, vol.3 pt.2, 1867, in Danish, GB
1520-1660 Article : Danmarks historie 1536-1660, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Chapter : Adelsvælden 1536-1660, from Danmarkshistorien, in Danish
N. Slange, Geschichte Christian des Vierten Königs in Dännemark, vol.1 1588-1598, 1757, vol.3, 1613-1629, 1771, trsl. from Danish into German, GB
1660-1848 Articles : Danmarks historie 1660-1814, Danmarks historie 1814-1848 from Wikipedia Danish edition
Chapters : Den ældre enevælde 1660-1784, Den yngre enevælde 1784-1848, from Danmarkshistorien, in Danish
L.Th. von Spittler, Geschichte der dänischen Revolution im Jahre 1660, 1796, in German, GB
J.Chr. Adelung, Kurzgefasste Geschichte der Streitigkeiten der Herzöge von Holsteingottorp mit der Krone Dänemark, 1762, in German, GB
Article : Johann Friedrich Struensee, from Wikipedia
J.C. Laursen, Spinoza in Denmark and the Fall of Struensee, 1770-1772, Journal of the History of Ideas vol.61, no.2, April 2000 pp.189-202
J. Mackintosh, Sketch of the Administration and Fall of Struensee, 1871
Article : Pplysningstiden i Danmark-Norge, from Wikipedia Danish edition
since 1848 Articles : Danmarks historie 1848-1901, Danmarks historie 1901-1945, Besættelsen (German occupation 1940-1945), Danmarks historie 1945-1990, Danmarks historie 1990-, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Chapters : Det unge demokrati, 1848-1901, Fra systemskifte til besættelse, 1901-1940, Besættelsetiden 1940-1945, Kold krig og velfærdsstat 1945-1973, EF og krisetider, 1973-1989, Efter den kolde krig, 1989-2008, from Danmarkshistorien, in Danish
J.A. Hansen, Vor Forfatnings-Historie: fra 1848 til 1866, vol.1, 1868, vol.2, 1868, (vol.3, vol.4), in Danish, GB
J. Baltzersen, Denmark and Southern Jutland during the First World War 2005, Den Digitale Byport
Project Mellankrigstiden (Project Interbellum, in Danish)
Danmark under Besættelsen og Befrielsen Denmark during Occupation and Liberation), in Danish
V. Sorensen, Denmark's Social Democratic Government and the Marshall Plan: 1947-1950, 2001
Colonial History Article : Danske besiddelser, from Wikipedia Danish edition
W. Westergaard, The Danish West Indies Under Company Rule 1671-1754 (1917), posted on Internet Archive
E.W. Grinfield, Sketches of the Danish mission on the coast of Coromandel (1831), posted on Internet Archive
J. Parton, The Danish islands: are we bound in honor to pay for them ? (1869), posted on Internet Archive
G. Nørregård, The English purchase of the Danish possessions in the East Indies and Africa, 1845 and 1850, n.d., posted on Internet Archive
J.F. Fenger, History of the Tranquebar mission worked out from the original papers by J. Ferd. Fenger ... Published in Danish and tr. into English from the German of Emil Francke ... (1863), posted on Internet Archive
J. Robertson, Narrative of a secret mission to the Danish islands in 1808. Ed. by A.C. Fraser (1863), posted on Internet Archive
Historiography EMU, Danmarks Undervisningsportal, Gymnasiale Uddannelser : Historie, in Danish
C.C. Thomson, Danmarkshistorier: National Imagination and Novel in Late Twentieth Century Denmark, thesis Edinburgh 2003
L.G. Kramer, Besættelsesfortællingen i Danmarks Radio - En undersøgelse af tv-programmerne '24 timer vi aldrig glemmer', thesis Roskilde 2013
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Denmark; Governments on the www : Denmark; Category : Politics of Denmark, from Wikipedia; Kategori : Danmarks politik, from Wikipedia Danish edition
general Article Politics of Denmark, from Wikipedia
institutions Articles : Riksråd (1320s-1660), Rigsdagen (1848-1953), Folketing (1848-), Landsting (1848-1953), from Wikipedia
Articles : Rigsrådet i Danmark, Landsting (middelalderen), Rigsdagen, Folketinget, Landstinget, Rådgivende provinsialstænderforsamlinger (1831-1848), from Wikipedia Danish edition
Political Parties Politiske Partier i Danmark, by Peder Sandholm, in Danish
Denmark, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
Political Movements Arbejderbevægelsens Historie (History of the Danish Labour Movement), from Socialistisk Standpunkt, in Danish
Holger Terp, Danish Peace History (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), (16), (17), (18), The Danish Peace Academy
Law P. Kofod Ancher, En dansk Lov-Historie: fra Kong Harald Blaatands Tid til Kong Christian den Femtes vol.1, 1769, in Danish, GB
J.L.A. Kolderup-Rosenvinge, Grundrids af den danske Retshistorie, vol.1, 1832, vol.2, 1832, in Danish, GB
Foreign Policy S.J.M.P. Fogdall, Danish-American diplomacy, 1776-1920 (1922), posted on Internet Archive
A. de Miltitz, Manuel des Consuls, vol.2 pt.2 : Des Consulats a l'Etranger par les Principaux Etats de l'Europe et les Etats-Unis de l'Amerique du Nord, bk.3 : Etablissement des Consulats a l'Etranger, Section VII : Danemark, pp.1004-1109, 1839, in French, GB
Military General Danish Military History, site posted by Gert Laursen
Denmark entries in the Military History Encyclopedia on the Web
Bibliography of mostly Danish language books on the War of 1864, on Danish military history, from Historiecentrens Butik
Wars Wars of Denmark 1800-1999, from ACED
Danmarks Historie, from Europas Stormagter Historie og Krige by Søren Kretzschmer, in Danish
The Scanian Wars, an Untold Story, from Stiftelsen Skånsk Framtid a local patriotic site; extensive list 1276-1811
Northern Wars, 1648-1730 by D. Schorr
Historiske Slag (Historic Battles), Danish language online encyclopedia of battles, Danish and foreign
Battles in and around Denmark or with Danish participation, from British Battles; Historie, from HSGS, in Danish, on barracks in N. Schleswig
Oorlogen van Denemarken (Wars of Denmark), from oorlog.klup.nl, telegram style Dutch language data plus links; limited number of wars listed
J.Th. Røder, Danmarks Krigs- og Politiske Historie,: fra Krigens Udbrud 1807 til Freden til Jönköping den 10 December 1809, vol.1 1845, vol.2, 1847, vol.3, 1852, in Danish, GB
C.F. Primon, Authentische Geschichte des jetzigen Krieges zwischen Dänemark und England, 1801, in German, GB
F. Pflug, Der Deutsch-Dänische Krieg : Geschichte des Feldzugs in Schleswig-Holstein im Jahre 1864, 1865, in German, GB
T. Holmberg, Danish Privateering : 1807-11, Napoleon Series
Description of the Battle of Kringen, from DHM
Kriget mot Danmark 1643-1645, from Sverige som Stormakt
Taget over Belt, 1658, from Sverige som Stormakt, in Swedish
Københavns Belejring 1658-1660 (The Siege ov Copenhagen, 1658-1660), from Københavms Historie, posted by KKB, in Danish, illustrated, bibliography
The Danish Military in the Napoleonic Wars, by Henrik Schou
Denmark : the Army, from Histofig; Uniforms, from Histofig, in French
Henrik Schou, The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars in Scandanavia, from napoleonicwars.com, timetable
The Battle of Copenhagen 1801, from Langton Miniatures (a commercial site)
Copenhagen 1801, 1807, from regiments.org
Bombardementet i 1807, from Københavns Historie, posted by KKB, in Danish, illustrated, bibliography
Der Deutsch-Dänische Krieg von 1864, Reichseinigungskriege click : Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg 1864, 3 parts : Anlass (cause), Verlauf (course of events), Ergebnis (result), in German, a site which romanticises war
The German-Danish War of 1864, from ICRC
Denmark : the German-Danish War of 1864, from DHM
Krigen i 1864 - War of 1864, from Dansk Militaer Historie, bilingual, most of the text translated into English
Fortresses Category : Castles in Denmark, Forts in Denmark, from Wikimedia Commons
Skanserne på Røsnæs (defensive positions at R.), 1808, from Historien i Landskabet (in Vestsjælland), in Danish
S. Östergaard, Forts and Defense Lines in Scandinavia
Units Flådens Historie, Danish Naval History, Danish language site
Royal Danish Naval Museum; English menue
Danish Naval History
Et strejftog gennem Kongens Artilleriregiments Historie (A stroll through the History of the Royal Artillery Regiment), posted by KAR, in Danish
European Armies: 1660-1861, from ESFDB, mainly on Danish-Norwegian and Dutch armies; files on size & costs
H.G. Garde, Den dansk-norske sømagts historie 1535-1700, 1861, in Danish, GB
J.E. Gram, Slesvigske Infanteriregiment
O. Teige, Royal Danois : Et dansk-norsk regiment i fransk tjeneste 1690-98, in Norwegian
N. Wester, The Danish Army 1801
K.S. Petersen, Den danske h?s hvervning af soldater i slutningen af 1700-tallet, Fortid og Nutid september 2001, in Danish
Waffen-SS og Dansk-Norsk frivillige, from historien.dk, in Danish
M. Bellamy, Danish naval administration and shipbuilding in the reign of Christian IV (1596-1648), thesis Glasgow 1997
Uniforms Dansk Militærhistoriske Selskab, Uniformer
R. Knötel, Uniformenkunde : III.54. Dänemark. Dänische Truppen. 1750. IV.56. Dänemark. Bosniak. Husar. 1801. VI.24. Dänemark. Leichte Dragoner. 1801. 47. Dänemark. Reiter. 1801. N.F. I.19. Dänemark. Dragoner und Offizier vom Leibregiment Dragoner 1813.
Decorations Orders, Decorations and Medals : Denmark
P.O.W.s German P.O.W.s held in Denmark, from Kriegsgefangen.de, text in English
Economy & Finances general An Economic History of Denmark, from Economic History Encyclopedia
Article Economy of Denmark, from Wikipedia; Danmarks Økonomi, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Category : Economy of Denmark, from Wikipedia; Kategori : Danmarks Øconomi, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Institutions History of theNordic Exchange
Article Danmarks Nationalbank, from Wikipedia; Danmarks Nationalbank, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Currency & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Denmark
Ottomar Haupt, Währungs-Politik und Münz-Statistik, Berlin : Walther & Apolant 1884, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Skandinavien
SKAT : Danish taxes : Our history of taxation
Article : Danish Krone, from Wikipedia
Danmark Nationalbank (1818), from Dizionario delle Banche e delle Organizzazioni Economiche Internazionali (Dictionary of Banks and International Economic Organizations), in Italian
K. Abildgren, Quantitative Studies on the Monetary and Financial History of Denmark, thesis Copenhagen n.d.
Specific Periods Articles : Industrialiseringen i Danmark, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Dan H. Andersen and Hans-Joachim Voth, The Grapes of War : Neutrality and Mediterranean Shipping under the Danish Flag, 1750-1807 (1997)
Niels-Henrik Topp, Unemployment and Economic Policy in the 1930es IEHC 2006
Ola Honningdal Grytten, Economic Policy and Labour Markets in Nordic Countries during the Great Depression of the 1930es, IEHC 2006
Greasley / Madsen, A Tale of Two Peripheries : Real Wages in Denmark and New Zealand, 1875-1939 2008
Hermann Scherer, Der Sundzoll. Seine Geschichte, sein jetziger Bestand und seine staatsrechtlich-politische Lösung (The Sound Levy. Its History, Present Condition, and Its Diplomatic-Political Solution), Berlin : Duncker & Humblot 1845, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Fr.Cl. Howe, Denmark; a cooperative commonwealth (1921), posted on Internet Archive
T. Mikkelsen, Financial Denmark and the war (1918), posted on Internet Archive
H. Westergaard, Economic development in Denmark before and during the world war (1922), posted on Internet Archive
Report on the post-war economic and industrial situation of Denmark (1920), IA
Crafts, Guilds Skrædderlauget (1260-) Historie, in Danish
Københavms Tømrerlaug (1515-), T?rerlaugets historie, in Danish
Københavns Slagterlaug (1451-), Historie Siden, in Danish
Københavns Murerlaug (1623-), Et historisk tilbageblik over Københavns Murerlaug, in Danish
Københavns Malerlaug (1622-), I Orden - siden 1622, in Danish
Københavns Snedkerlauget (1554-), Laugets historie, in Danish
Københavns Bagerlaug (1290-), Historien om Københavns Bagerlaug, in Danish
Kjøbenhavns Guldsmedelaug (1429-), Historie, in Danish
Københavns Skipperforening (1634-), in Danish
Uhrmagerlauget i København (1755-), in Danish
Københavns Blikkenslagerlaug (1678-), in Danish
Kjøbenhavns Vognmandslaug (1478-), Kjøbenhavns Vognmandslaugs historie, in Danish
Buntmagerlauget i Danmark, Historie, in Danish
Glarmesterlauget i Danmark (1497-), in Danish
Skorstenfejer.DK : Fagets Historie (1778-), in Danish
Danmarks Vægterlaug (1294-), Historie, in Danish
Aarhus Murerlaug (1672-), in Danish
Aalborg Smedelaug (1400s-), in Danish
Urmagerne.DK, Bornholmerurets Historie (1740-), in Danish
Specific Industries E. Cohn, Dansk Håndværk og Industri ved Midten af det 19. Årh. , Nationaløkonomisk Tidsskrift, Bind 91 (1953), in Danish
The Textile Industry and the Forming of Modern Industrial Relations in Denmark, by Lars K. Christensen; Danish Fashion History, from Danish Fashion Institute
History of the Danish Dairy Industry, from Danish Dairy Board
A Brief History of the Wind Turbine Industry in Denmark and the U.S., by J. Vestergaard, L. Brandstrup, R.D. Goddard
Agriculture C. Bjørn, The Study of the Agrarian History of Denmark: a Brief Introduction to the Literature , British Agricultural History Review, vol.22 no.1 pp.50-53
Individual Companies Company History : Lego A/S, Bang & Olufsen Holding A/S, A.P. Møller - Maersk A/S, IKEA International A/S, Carlsberg A/S, from Funding Universe
Social History nobility Article : Adel, from Wikipedia Danish edition
peasantry, serfdom Article : Landboreformerne, in Wikipedia Danish edition
Article : Fæstebonde, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Article : Stavnsbåndet, from Wikipedia Danish edition
K.J. Friedmann, Bureaucracy, Land Reform and Technical Progress. Denmark 1755-1810, Food Research Studies vol.XVIII no.2 1979
K.H. O'Rourke, Late 19th Century Denmark in an Irish Mirror: Land Tenure, Homogeneity and the Roots of Danish Success 2005
V. Starcke, Centuries of Experience with Land Taxation in Denmark 1967
slavery Articles : Slaveri : Danmarks rolle i slavehandeln, Dansk slavehandel, from Wikipedia Danish edition
labour Thomas Munck, Forced Labour, Workhouse-Prisons and the Early Modern State, A case study (on Denmark 1650-1800), from Electronic Seminars in History, IHR
women Article : Heks : Heksejagt i Danmark, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Dansk Kvindehistorie, from Kvinfo, in Danish
Dansk Historisk Fællesråd, Danmarks sidste heks : Anne Palles, in Danish
Den sidste Heks (the last witch, 1692), from Siden Saxo, in Danish
Den tidlige Kvindebeægelses historie 1871-1890 (Early Womens' Suffrage Movement, 1871-1890), posted on historien.dk, in Danish
education Article : History of Education in Denmark, from Wikipedia
Article : Rytterskole, from Wikipedia Danish edition; Finn Thorshøj Frederik IV´s rytterskoler : De kongelige Skoler, in Danish
J.I. Marals, Bishop grundtvig and the people's high school in Denmark (1912), IA
M. Hegland, The Danish people's high school; including a general account of the educational system of Denmark (1916), IA
poverty E. Sellers, The Danish poor relief system; an example for England (1904), posted on Internet Archive
health care E. Ulsig, Pest og befolkningsnedgang i Danmark i det 14. århundrede, Historisk Tidsskrift, Bind 15. række, 6 (1991), in Danish
F.V.T. Bricka, Cholera-epidemien i kongeriget Danmark i aaret 1853 1855, in Danish, GB
K. Möller Pedersen, Udviklingen af et sundhedsvæsen - illustreret ved Vejle Amt, in Danish
C.L. Yoder, The Late Medieval Agrarian Crisis and Black Death plague epidemic in medieval Denmark: a paleopathological and paleodietary perspective, thesis Texas A&M 2006
nutrition A. Møller, Danish food composition data seen in a historical perspective
temperance movement
Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Denmark
Article : Afholdbevæelsen : Afholdsbevægelsens indtog i Danmark, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Danmarks Afholdsforening, Danmarks Afholdsforenings historie, in Danish
welfare state Niels Kaergård, The Foundation of the Danish Welfare State : Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Harmony (2006)
C. Bogedan, Readjusting the social democratic welfare state in Denmark 1973 - 2003
T. Bredgaard, The Welfare State as an Investment Strategy: Denmark's Flexicurity Policies 2012
N.F. Christiansen et al., The Dynamics of Social Solidarity: The Danish Welfare State, 1900-2000, Scandinavian Journal of History, 26:3 2001, pp.177-196
Ethnography Languages of Denmark, from Ethnologue
Articles Danes, Faroe Islanders, Scandinavian Peripatetics (Roma), from World Cultures Encyclopedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Denmark
Danish Immigration Museum : Romani People & Travellers
D. Kenrick, The Gypsies of Denmark, Patrin 1998
Article : Roma (folkeslag) : Roma i Skandinavien, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Den hollandske indvandring i 1521 (Dutch Immigration into Amager, Denmark, 1521), from Dragør Lokalarkiv, in Danish
Religion general Danmarks Kirkehistorie, posted by K.M. Jensen
F. Münter, Kirchengeschichte von Dänemark und Norwegen, vol.1, 1823, vol.2, 1831, vol.3, 1833, in German, GB
Catholic Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Denmark, from Kirken i Norge; Denmark, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
Patron Saints Index : Denmark
Category : Cathedrals in Denmark, from Wikipedia, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Convents in Denmark, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Monasteries in Denmark, from Wikipedia
J.G.G. Jakobsen, The Dominican priory and convent of medieval Roskilde, Denmark, 2005
J.G.G. Jakobsen, The role of Friars Preachers in medieval Danish society, English summary of thesis Univ. of Southern Denmark 2008
L.N. Helveg, Den danske kirkes historie til reformationen, vol.1, 1862, vol.2, 1864, in Danish, GB
J.P. Daugaard, Om de danske klostre i middelalderen, 1830, in Danish, GB
Franciscan Provinces with their Custodies and Convents, c.1350, from M. van der Heijden and B. Roest, click Dacia
Denmark - Index, from Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy
Lutheran Article Danish National Church, from Wikipedia
L.N. Helveg, Den danske Kirkes Historie efter Reformationen, vol.1, 1857, vol.2, 1855, in Danish, GB
L.F. Luplau, Historie om Reformationens Indførelse i Danmark , 1836, in Danish, GB
Lutheran Church of Denmark, from Overview of World Religions
Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Denmark, from Kirkeministeriet
Church History Timeline 1500-1750 - Kristendommens Historie, in Danish
M. Roos, post Struensee. A study of the works of Balthasar Münter 1772-1793. A contribution to the understanding of praxis pietatis in the German St. Petri congregation in Copenhagen, English summary of a thesis Oslo 2009
M.S. Kraft, Reformationen i Roskilde, thesis Roskilde 2013
Judaism Virtual Jewish History Tour : Denmark, from Jewish Virtual Library; Denmark, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
History of Regions History of the Faroe Islands, of Greenland at WHKMLA
Articles Bornholm : History, Jutland : History, Møn : History, from Wikipedia
Articles : Bornholm : Historie, Jylland : Historie, Skåne : Historie, Skånelandene : Historie, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Peder C. Rhode, Samlinger til de Danske ørs Laalands og Falsters Historia, vol.1, 1776, vol.2, 1794, in Danish, GB
Article : Duchy of Schleswig, from Wikipedia
Fynhistorie, in Danish
Cuius Regio : Denmark(-Schleswig-Holstein)
Local History Global Gazetteer : Denmark (Modern Placenames), from calle.com
Københavns Historie (History of Copenhagen), from Københavns Kommunes Biblioteker, in Danish, subfiles
History of Odense, from Wikipedia
History of Aarhus, from Aarhus University
History of Roskilde, from Wikipedia
Danish Centre for Urban History
J. Rostgaard, Dend Kongelige Residents= og Stabel=Stad Ki?enhavn Historiske Beskrivelse 1737, in Danish
Institutions Det Danske Fredsakademi (The Danish Peace Academy)
History of Broadcasting in Denmark, from The Broadcast Archive
Denmark, from Airline History
Dansk Jernbanehistorie (Danish Railway History), from Banedanmark
Structurae : Denmark
Search Lighthouse Explorer for Denmark
Category : Lighthouses in Denmark, from Wikimedia Commons
Article Water Supply and Sanitation in Denmark, from Wikipedia
Category : Power Stations in Denmark, from Wikipedia
Culture www.danskefilm.dk, Catalogue of Danish films
Article History of Danish, Danish Literature, from Wikipedia
Article : Oplysningstiden i Danmark-Norge, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Article : Den danske guldalder, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Die Zensur in den Niederlanden und in Skandinavien, in : J. Hilgers, Der Index der verbotenen Bücher. In seiner neuen Fassung dargelegt und rechtlich-historisch gewürdigt, 1904, in German, IA
Article : Trykkefrihedsforordningen af 1799, from Wikipedia Danish edition
J. Mchangama, Den danske censur og dens ophævelse 2010, in Danish
H. Ilsøe, Historisk Censur i Danmark indtil Holberg omkring Censuren af Christen Aarslebs Frederik IIs Historie, Fund og Forskning, Bind 20 (1973), in Danish
Article : Denmark at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies Standard Works of Reference Dansk Biografisk Leksikon (1887-1905, in Danish), posted by Project Runeberg
Web Compilations, General List of Danes, from Wikipedia
a brief list of English-language biographies at this site
Specialized Compilations Dansk Kvindebiografisk Leksikon
Einar Hoffstad, Merkantilt biografisk leksikon : hvem er hvem i naeringslivet ? (Oslo 1935, in Norwegian), posted on Project Runeberg
Niels Bransager og Palle Rosenkrantz, Den danske Regering og Rigsdag 1901, Biografier og Portrætter, Dansk Grafisk Forlag 1901-03, in Danish, GB
H. Wulff, Den danske Rigsdag. Politiske Portræter af samtlige Rigsdagens Medlemmer 1879-1881 1882, in Danish, Wikisource
F.E. Hundrup, Biographiske Efterretninger om dem, der ved Kjøbenhavns Universitet have erholdt de høieste akademiske Værdigheder 1854-1859, Project Runeberg
Environmental History
Others History of Danish Vegetarian Societies, from IVU
Dansk Frimureri, from Den Danske Frimurerorden, on Freemasonry in DK, in Danish
International Boundary Studies, posted at Florida State Univ.; scroll down to No.81 (Denmark-Germany; study, no maps)
GB Hydrographic Office, The Danish Pilot (1890), IA
B. Münter, Th. Rennell, A Narrative of the Conversion and Death of Count Struensee: Formerly Prime Minister of Denmark (1826), IA
J. Gatonbe, Danish Arctic Expeditions, 1605 to 1620: In Two Books (1897), posted on Internet Archive

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Titles of European Hereditary Rulers : Denmark
European Royal Houses : Denmark (Oldenburg), from Chivalric Orders
List of Ministers of Defence, Minister of Education, Ministers of Finance, Foreign Ministers, Miniosters of the Interior, Ministers of Justice, of Denmark, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops Pre-Reformation : Article : Fyens Stift : Biskopper, Ribes Bisperække, Roskildes bisperække, Århus' Bisperække, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Article : Liste der Bischöfe und Erzbischöfe von Lund, Liste der Bischöfe von Schleswig, from Wikipedia German edition
Post-Reformation : Article : Aalborgs stift : bisperække, Fyens Stift : Biskopper, Haderslevs Bisperække (1923-), Helsingør Stift : Bisperække (1961-), Københavns Bisperække (1922-), Lolland-Falsters Bisperække (1803-), Ribes Bisperække, Bisperække for Sjællands stift, Århus' Bisperække, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Article : Liste der Bischöfe und Erzbischöfe von Lund, Liste der Bischöfe von Schleswig, from Wikipedia German edition
Lists of Ambassadors List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Denmark, from Wikipedia; Liste der deutschen Botschafter in Kopenhagen (Dänemark), from Wikipedia German edition; Articles : Russian Ambassadors to Denmark, from Wikipedia
Article : United States Ambassador to Denmark, from Wikipedia; List of Canadian Ambassadors to Denmark, from MOFA Canada; Embajadores de Mexico en Dinamarca, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico; Chinese Ambassadors to Denmark, from PRC MOFA
List of French representatives in Copenhagen, of Denmark in France pp.xiv-xviii in vol.38 of F. Schoell, Cours d'histoire des etats Europeens 1833, in French, GB
Lists of Consuls Political Graveyard : Denmark
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Statistics Denmark
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Denmark, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer; Website of Statistics Denmark
Historical Abortion Statistics - Denmark, from Johnston's Archive
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile : Denmark
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Federal Reserve (U.S.) : Foreign Exchange Rates, Historic
The Marteau Early 18th-Century Currency Converter
Inflation Rates Historical Inflation Rates, from Index Mundi, since 2000
Global Rates : Inflatie Denemarken, graph has data since 1969
oldmoney.dk, coinverts historic amounts in Danish currency into modern amounts; thuejk.dk, similar progra,; both sites in Danish
Financial Data ESFDB (European State Finance Database
History of Prices and Wages in Denmark, 1660-1800 (Friis/Glamann), from Price History Group, Univ. of København
Election Results from Psephos (since 1998); from IFES Election Guide (since 1998)
Denmark, from Elections and Electoral Systems
Lijphart's Elections Archive : Denmark
European Election Database : Denmark
Documents Links Kategori : Danmarkshistorie, from Wikisource Danish edition
KB, e-manuskripter
Historical Newspapers Official Gazette Flare, Union List of Official Gazettes : Denmark
retsinformation.dk : lovtidende, ministerialtidende
Hemerotheques Kongelig Bibliotek, Danske Aviser (bibliography)
ICON, International Coalition on Newspapers : Newspaper Digitization Projects, scroll down for Denmark
Entire Newspapers, Magazines Det Kongelige Bibliothek, Danske Aviser : Indekser og Fuldtekstbaser
Avisbibliotek Danmark, Project
Nye Danske Magazin, GB
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Denmark", search all issues; 892 Denmark articles, GB
Illustreret Tidende 1859-1924
Berlingske Tidende, Article Archive Index 2001-2012
Jyllandsposten, Arkiv, 1970-
Danish Underground Newspapers from WW II, from Hendrik Andersen's WW II Site
Historical Newspaper Articless The History of the Kingdom of Denmark, from World History Archives
Dansk Kvindehistorie : Tidsskrifter 1885-1920
Denmark, Austria and Prussia, in : The Living Age, 1850, pp.616-618, posted by Cornell Digital Library
Wars between the Danes and Germans, for the Possession of Schleswig, by Adolphus L. Köppen, from the American Whig Review, 1848, pp.453-470, posted by Cornell Digital Library
Claims of the United States on Denmark, in : The North American review. / Volume 22, Issue 51, April 1826, pp.456-459, from Cornell Digital Library
Neue Rheinische Zeitung July 22nd : The Armistice with Denmark, September 10th : The Danish-Prussian Armistice
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Indexes and Guides to Western European Periodicals: Language Specific-Danish, from Wess Web
Online Yearbooks International,
Denmark Entries
P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principautez du Monde; entry : De l'Estat du Roy du Dannemarc, in French, 1613, pp.773-791, GB; 1614, pp.771-789, GB; 1616, pp.771-789, GB; 1617, pp.771-789, GB; 1621, vol.2 pp.36-53, GB; 1628, pp.773-791, GB; 1630, pp.549-561, GB; 1633, pp.773-791, GB; 1659, pp.525-533, GB
Die Durchlauchten Häuser in Europa : Der König in Dennemarck 1702 pp.43-49, 1705 pp.83-92, 1708 pp.95-102, 1716 pp.118-130, 1725 pp.97-108, in German, GB
Die Durchlauchtige Welt : König in Dennemarck, 1710 pp.189-217, 1739 pp.199-229, in German, GB
Jährliches genealogisches Hand-Buch : von Dänemark 1730 pp.87-107, 1732 pp.68-83, 1737 pp.71-86, 1738 pp.70-85, 1741 pp.69-85, 1742 pp.69-85, 1745 pp.75-93, 1746 pp.79-97, 1747 pp.80-100, 1749 pp.83-105, in German, GB
Neues genealogisch-schematisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Dännemarck 1748 p.37, 1750 pp.52-55, 1752 pp.62-66, 1756 pp.76-80, 1758 pp.73-78, 1759 pp.74-79, 1760 pp.70-75, 1761 pp.66-71, 1762 pp.68-73, 1764 pp.63-68, 1765 pp.76-81, in German, GB
M. Gottlieb Schumanns genealogisches Handbuch : König von Dänemark, 1758 pp.62-77, 1760 pp.64-79, in German, GB
Europäisches genealogisches Handbuch : von Dännemark, 1756 pp.63-79, 1766 pp.72-90, 1768 pp.73-92, 1770 pp.74-93, 1772 pp.70-88, 1774 pp.69-87, 1776 pp.69-87, 1780 pp.71-91, 1782 pp.71-92, 1784 pp.72-91, 1786 pp.74-94, 1788 pp.72-90, 1790 pp.74-93, 1792 pp.67-86, 1794 pp.62-83, 1800 pp.73-94, in German, GB
J.Ch. Poncelin de la Roche Tilhac, Etat des Cours de l'Europe et des Provinces de France pour l'annee ... : Danemarck vol.1 MDCCCLXXXIV 1783 pp.186-201, vol.2 MDCCCLXXXV, 1785, pp.212-225, in French, GB
Genealogisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch : Dännemark / Dänemark 1799 pt.2 pp.5-12, 1800 pt.2, pp.5-13, 1802 pt.2, pp.291-300, 1803 pt.2, pp.9-24, in German, GB
Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch : Dänemark, vol.65 pp.34-41, 1827, vol.66 pp.47-54, 1835, vol.67 pp.47-55, 1839, in German, GB
Genealogisch-historisch-statistischer Almanach, Dänemark, vol.1 : 1824 pp.301-306, 1824, vol.2 : 1825 pp.301-306, 1824, vol.3 : 1826 pp.329-335, 1826, vol.6 : 1830, pp.407-415, vol.7 : 1831 pp.409-417, vol.8 : 1832 pp.471-481, vol.9 : 1833 pp.471-481, 1832, vol.10 : 1834 pp.479-489, 1833, vol.11 : 1834 pp.496-506, 1834, vol.12 : 1835 pp.580-591, 1835, vol.13 : 1836 pp.548-560, 1836, vol.16 : 1838/39 pp.501-513, 1839, vol.17 : 1840 pp.608-624, 1840, vol.19 : 1842 pp.626-641, 1842, vol.20 : 1843 pp.626-641, 1843, vol.23 : 1846 pp.546-562, 1846, in German, GB
Statesman's Year-Book, Entry : Denmark vol.1 1864 pp.36-49, GB, vol.2 1865 pp.40-50, GB, vol.3 1866 pp.45-56, GB, vol.4 1867 pp.48-60, GB, vol.5 1868 pp.48-60, GB, vol.6 1869 pp.48-60, GB, 1870 pp.42-55, GB, 1871, pp.42-55, IA, 1872, pp.42-55, IA, 1873, pp.42-55, IA, 1874, pp.42-55, IA, 1875, pp.42-55, IA, 1876, pp.41-55, IA, 1877, pp.41-55, IA, 1878, pp.41-55, IA, 1879, pp.41-55, IA, 1880, pp.41-55, IA, 1881, pp.41-55, IA, 1883, pp.41-55, IA, 1884, pp.46-60, IA, 1885, pp.47-61, IA, 1886, pp.49-63, IA, 1887, pp.49-63, IA, 1888, pp.49-64, IA, 1889, pp.50-65, IA, 1890, pp.437-450, IA, 1891, pp.441-454, IA, 1892, pp.448-461, IA, 1894, pp.448-461, IA, 1895, pp.448-461, IA, 1896, pp.448-461, IA, 1898, pp.446-459, IA, 1899, pp.486-500, IA, 1903, pp.538-552, IA, 1913, pp.755-769, IA, 1919, pp.785-804, IA, 1921, pp.800-820, IA
Almanach de Gotha : Danemarc, 1771 pp.xxxix-xl, 1771, Monarchie Danoise vol.86 pp.350-362, 1849, Danemark vol.87 pp.334-348, 1850, vol.89 pp.346-356, 1852, vol.90 pp.346-356, 1853, vol.94 pp.376-392, 1857, vol.95 pp.385-401, 1858, vol.97 pp.410-425, 1860, vol.102 pp.509-524, 1865, vol.106 pp.522-534, 1869, in French, GB
Staatskalender Article : Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender, from Den Store Danske, in Danish
Dänemark : Staatskalender, Digitalisate, from GenWiki
D?nem?ckischer Reichs-Calender, UB Jena; has volumes 1668, 1669, 1670, 1671, 1672, 1673, 1674, 1675-1677, 1678
Königlich Dänischer Hof- und Staatscalender 1854, 1855, 1861, 1862, 1863, posted by BSB
Propaganda Films George C. Marshall Motion Pictures
Films on History/Society Det Danske Filmmuseum; A Brief History of Danish Film Censorship
Cinema of the World : Denmark; film.fm : Genre History, Danish
Article : Cinema of Denmark, from Wikipedia
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Det Kongelige Bibliotek, Danmarksbilleder
danskebilleder.dk, historisk billedarkiv
Systematic Collections
Fynske Billeder, historic images of Fyn, Danish language site
Gamle Postkort, old postcards, Danish language site
Politiken : Historiske Foto
Socialdemokratiets arbejder- og bondestævne, 2-3 juli 1938, Odense; poster & text (by T. Stauning), from Socialdemokratiet i Odense 1. Kreds, in Danish
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons : Denmark
Universal Collections
Items on Denmark
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Denmark
Lithographs, NW Europe, from Historic Maps, several on Copenhagen, 19th century
French propaganda postcard featuring neutral Denmark : Looking for civilization in Kultur, 1915, from WW I Propaganda Postcards, scroll down; Artist Emil Dupuis
Archival Deposits in Denmark Statens Arkiver : Arkivalier Online
e-manuscripter, manuscript facsimiles from the Royal Library
Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliothek og Arkiv (Labour Movement's Library and Archive), Danish language site
outside Denmark Guide to the Hoover Institution Archives 1980, GB ; search for Denmark
Nationaalarchief (NL) : Inventaris van het archief van het Nederlands Gezantschap in Zweden, Noorwegen en Denemarken, 1863-1910; Inventaris van het archief van de Legatie in Denemarken [1605-1810], 1658-1810; Inventaris van het archief van het Gezantschap in Denemarken (Kopenhagen), 1945-1954; Inventaris van de archieven van de gezantschappen te Zweden (Stockholm) (1868) 1910-1946 (1948) (tot 1919 mede-geaccrediteerd bij de regeringen van Noorwegen en Denemarken) en te Finland (Helsinki) 1919-1940;
UN Archives, AG-018-017 Denmark Mission 1945-1947
Constitutions Verfassungen des Königreichs Dänemark (Constitutions of the Kingdom of Denmark), from verfassungen.de, in German
Danmarks Riges Grundlov af 1953, Project Runeberg
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Denmark, from ILO, 67 docs. since 1919
Internat Law Library : Denmark
Danske Love, from retsinformation.dk, in Danish
Codex Holmensis : Jyske Lov 1241, from KB, in Danish
Kong Eriks sjellandske lov: med indledning, oversættelse og anmærkninger, 1821, in Danish, IA
Danske Lov 1683, posted by B. Andersen
V.A. Secher, Forarbejderne til kong Kristian V.s danske lov 1891, IA
Treaties General Treaty Collections History of Finland: A selection of events and documents : Declaration between Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden for establishing similar Rules of Neutrality 1938
Bilateral Treaty Collections Danske Tractater 1751-1800, ed. by Udentigsministeriet (Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Copenhagen 1882, posted by Internet Archive
Danske Tractater efter 1800, vol. I : Handels- of andre Tractater 1800-1864, vol.2 : 1863-1879, Copenhagen 1874, posted on Internet Archive
Denmark, pp.1-161 in vol.7 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Dänemark, pp.38-42 in Johann Vesque von Püttlingen, Uebersicht der Verträge Oesterreichs mit den auswärtigen Staaten, 1854, in German, GB
Danemarck, pp.126-129 in vol.1 of Table des traites entre la France et les puissances etrangeres, depuis la paix de Westphalie jusqu'a nos jours, 1802, GB
Treaty between Hawaii and Denmark, 1846, from Hawaiian Independence Home Page
Cartularia Diplomatarium Danicum
Regesta diplomatica historiae danicae, 1847, another scan 1847, 1870, II.1.1-3 1880, II.1.4-6 1880, II.2.1-3 1880, II.2.4-6 1880, 1889 1895, 1907, posted on Internet Archive
Diplomatarium Arna-Magnaenum vol.1, 1786, vol.2, 1786, in Latin, GB
Diplomatarium Christierni Primi, 1856, in Latin, GB
Kjøbenhavns diplomatarium vol.1 1872, IA, vol.2 1874, IA, vol.3 1877, IA, vol.4 1879, IA, vol.5 1882, IA, vol.6 1884, IA, vol.7 1886, IA, vol.8 1887, IA
Chronicles N.P. Sibbern, Bibliotheca historica dano-norvegica, sive de Scriptoribus rerum dano-norvegicarum commentarius historico-literarius 1716, in Latin, GB
J. Langebek, Scriptores rerum danicarum Medii Aevi 1783, GB
R.A. Usinger, Die dänischen Annalen und Chroniken des Mittelalters 1861, in German, GB
Inscriptions E. Moltke et al., Danmarks runeindskrifter 1942, Project Runeberg
Historiography Saxo Grammaticus, trsl. N.S.L. Grundtvig : Danmarks Riges Krønike, Project Runeberg
Document Surveys Ch.28 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Danicae et Norvegicae, pp.716-731 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
British Library, Social Sciences Collection Guides, Danish Government Documents
Document Collections European History Primary Sources : Denmark
Documents on Danish History, from Eurodocs; Skræp, from Nomos, in Danish, numerous sources, many in excerpt
Dokumentation, from Plads til os alle, Danish language site
Documents on Danish Naval History, posted by Lars Bruzelius
Danish state finance 1230-1806 (Poulsen), Danish state finance under Christian IV (1589-1648) (Krug), European Armies: 1660-1861 (Lind); mostly on Danish-Norwegian Army; from ESFDB
Nye Samlinger til den danske Historie vol.1, 1792, vol.2, 1793, vol.3, 1794, vol.4, 1795, in Danish, GB
Selskabet for Danmarks kirkehistorie, Kirkehistoriske samlinger, vol.1, 1849-1852, vol.2, 1853-1856, Ny kirkehistoriske samlinger, vol.1, 1857-1859, vol.2, 1860-1862, vol.3, 1864-1866, vol.4, 1867-1868, in Danish, GB
C. Paludan-Müller, Aktstykker til Nordens Historie i Grevefeidens Tid, vol.1, 1852, vol.2, 1853, in Danish, GB
Dansk Kvindehistorie : Kvindekilder 1850-1985, in Danish
9 Sources on Denmark in 1848, in Swedish, from Universitet Stockholm
Historisk Samling fra Besættelsetiden 1940-1945 - Archives of Danish Occupation History 1940-1945
Denmark : Ration Books, Coupons, from Hendrik Andersen's WW II Site
Individual Documents on Denmark Proper Lettre de Mr. de Voltaire au Roi Chretien VII 4. Fevr. 1767, in French w. Danish trsl., from Wikisource Danish edition; Voltaires Epistel til Kongen af Danmark, 1771, Danish trsl., from Wikisource Danish edition
P.F. Suhm, Brev til Kongen, 1772, from Wikisource Danish edition
H.N. Clausen, J.F. Schouw, Den københavnske Trykkefrihedsadresse 20. februar 1835, from Wikisource Danish edition
A.W. Wellington, The dispatches of Field Marshall the Duke of Wellington : during his various campaigns in India, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, the Low Countries, and France, from 1799 to 1818 vol.4 1837 (on Denmark), IA
T. Twiss, On the relations of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein to the crown of Denmark and the Germanic Confederation, and on the treaty-engagements of the great European powers in reference thereto (1848), IA
S. Laing, Observations on the social and political state of Denmark, and the duchies of Sleswick and Holstein, in 1851 (1852), IA
Oprop !, German Danish language flyer dropped over Denmark in April 1940, from Wikisource Danish edition
Ludvig Holberg : For og imod Te, Kaffe og Tobak (c.1748-1754), posted by Birger Nielsen
Til det Danske Folk ! (1934; To the People of Denmark); Social Democratic Party Program, posted by ABA (Arbejderbevægelsens Bibliothek og Arkiv), in Danish
Letter to the Prime Minister of Denmark (1915), from How Did Women Peace Envoys Promote Peace by Touring European Capitals in 1915 ?, from Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1830-1930
Emily Greene : Peace Delegates in Scandinavia and Russia, from How Did Women Peace Envoys Promote Peace by Touring European Capitals in 1915 ?, from Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1830-1930 (open letter to many govts., on Copenhagen, Christiania, Stockholm)
Instrument of Surrender of All German armed forces in Holland, in northwest Germany including all islands, and in Denmark, May 4th 1945, from Mei 1940 Operation Fall Weserübung. Hitler's directive for the occupation of Denmark and Norway, March 1st 1940 (executed April 9th), from Mei 1940, a Dutch site; document text in English
Statement by President Roosevelt on the Invasions of Denmark and Norway, April 13, 1940, from V. Ferraro, Mt. Holyoke; from Public Papers of the Presidents : Franklin D. Roosevelt
on Danish Colonies R. Lansing, Cession of the Danish West Indies : letter from the Secretary of State to the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations transmitting a summary memorandum relative to certain articles of the proposed treaty with Denmark ceding to the United States the Danish West Indies (1916), IA
Purchase of Danish islands (1902), IA
Cession of Danish West Indies (1917), vol.1 vol.2, vol.3, IA
U.S. Bank of Commerce in NY : The Virgin Islands: A Description of the Commercial Value of the Danish West (1917), posted on IA
Appropriation to pay for the Danish West Indies. Message from the President of the United States inviting the attention of the Congress to the necessity for making an appropriation of $25,000,000 as payment for the purchase of the Danish West Indies vol.1, vol.2, IA
B. Ziegenbalg, Thirty four conferences between the Danish missionaries and the Malabarian Bramans (or heathen priests) in the East Indies, concerning the truth of the Christian religion : together with some letters written by the heathens to the said missionaries (1719), IA
Historical Maps Responsible Institution Miljøministeriet : Kort- og Matrikelstyrelsen (National Survey and Cadastre)
Links click here
collections Denmark Maps from the Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas
Historisk Atlas
U.S. Army Map Service, Northern Europe 1:250,000, 1951-, PCL, UTexas
David Rumsey Map Collection : Denmark
Digital Historical Maps, has Swedish and Danish local maps, mostly of the 18th and 19th centuries. Comment available in English
Denmark, hindsight Medieval Denmark administrative (Steenstrup 1900), from Wikimedia Commons
Danish Counties 1662-1793, from Wikimedia Commons
Danish counties 1793-1970, from Wikimedia Commons
Danish Counties 1970-, from Wikimedia Commons
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 900 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1000 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1100 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1200 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1300 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1400 AD, Eastern Hemisphere 1500 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Maps : Europe in the Year 900, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, from Euratlas
the Danish Empire in the Baltic Sea, 16th to 17th C., Danish Empire in the Baltic Sea, early 13th C., Empire of Canute the Great, early 11th C., (Putzger 1905), posted by maproom.org
Denmark, contemporary Denmark 1850 (Milner 1850), posted by maproom.org
Denmark 1877, 1890, 1898, 1904, 1906, 1922, 1930, 1932, 1932 (2), 1936, 1938, 1941, 1949, Probert Encyclopedia
detail, hindsight
detail, contemporary Panoramen 1600, from Historic Maps, Kopenhagen 1588, Helsingoer 1600, Helsingborg 1588
Stadtplaene 1800-1900, from Historic Maps, Copenhagen 1837, 1845
Denmark, from Discus Media
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article Denmark, Bornholm, Jutland, Zealand, Cities : Aalborg, Aarhus, Apenrade, Copenhagen, Elsinore, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Hadersleben, Kolding, Odense, Randers, Roskilde, Sonderburg, Tondern, from EB 1911
Articles Dänemark, Alsen, Anholt, Bornholm, Esbjerg, Falster, Fredericia, Frederikshavn, Fünen, Jütland, Langeland, Laaland, Seeland, Cities : Aalborg, Aarhus, Apenrade, Hadersleben, Hammershus, Helsingör, Kjöge, Kopenhagen, Korsör, Maribo, Nykjöbing, Randers, Ribe, Ringkjöbing, Roeskilde, Sonderburg, Tondern, Vordingborg, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Denmark, University of Copenhagen, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Article Denmark, Copenhagen, from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906 edition
Economic J. Chr. Nelckenbrecher, Taschenbuch eines Banquiers und Kaufmanns enthaltend eine Erklärung aller ein- und ausländischen Münzen ..., Berlin : Wever 1769, in German, entries Coppenhagen, posted by DTBSWS
Of the Trade to Denmark, pp.699-707 in W. Beawes, Lex mercatoria rediviva, 1773, GB
Copenhague, pp.77-80, Elseneur, pp.90-92, in vol.2 of S. Ricard, Traite general du commerce, 1781, in French, GB
Copenhagen (Denmark), pp.101-107 in P. Kelly, The universal cambist, and commercial instructor, 1811, GB
Copenhagen, pp.70-74, Elsinore p.88, in : W. Dickinson, Universal commerce, or, The commerce of all the mercantile cities and towns, 1818, GB
Denmark and Holstein, pp.171-207 in C.W. Rödansz, European commerce; or, Complete mercantile guide to the continent of Europe, 1818, GB
Denmark, pp.295-297 in W. Dickinson, A General Commercial Dictionary, 1819, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Aalborg, Dännemark, Kopenhagen, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Dänemark, vol.1 1830 pp.455-466, vol.4 1844 pp.323-332, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Dänemark, pp.475-476 in A. Moser, Die Capitalanlage in Werthpapieren der Staaten, Creditvereine und Actiengesellschaften des In- und Auslandes, 1862, in German, GB
Political Encyclopedias Dännemarck, pp.475-507 in F.L. Bressler, Die Heutigen Christlichen Souverainen von Europa, 1698, in German, GB
Le Ceremonial de la Cour de Dannemarck, pp.747-764 in vol.2 of J.R. de Missy, Le Ceremonial diplomatique des cours de l' Europe, 1739, in French, GB
Gouvernement de Dannemarck & Norvege, pp.671-688 in vol.2 of G. de Real de Curbon, La science du gouvernement, 1762, in French, GB
Chapter 7 : Denmark, pp.1-106 in vol.3 of The Present State of Europe, 1770, GB
Geographical Dania, pp.323-324 in vol.1 of M.A. Baudrand, Geographia, 1682, in Latin, GB
Denmark, in E. Bohun, A geographical dictionary, representing the present and ancient names of all the countries, provinces, remarkable cities, 1688, GB
Danemarck, pp.367-368 in C. Maty, Dictionnaire geographique universel, 1701, in French, GB
Danemarck pp.434-438 in A. du Bois, La Geographie moderne, naturelle historique & politique, 1736, in French, GB
Danemarck, p.176 in J. Vosgien, Dictionnaire g?graphique portatif, 1749, in French, GB
Le Dannemark, pp.60-70 in vol.1 of J. Vaissette, Geographie historique ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB
Denmark, pp.67-171 in vol.1 of A.F. Büsching, A new system of geography 1762, GB
Das Königreich Dänemark, pp.219-228 in F. von Rudtorffer, Militär-Geographie von Europa, 1839, in German, GB
Denmark pp.219-226 in W. Hughes, A manual of geography, 1861, GB
Denmark, pp.277-281 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Central or German Region, pp.245-335 in Th. Lavallee, Physical, historical and military geography, 1868, GB
Denmark, pp.129-131 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c.1910, GB
Ethnographical Denmark, p.164 in A. Hamilton, Marriage rites, customs, and ceremonies, of all nations of the universe, 1822, GB
Denmark, pp.158-160 in R. Philips, A general view of the manners, customs and curiosities of nations, vol.1, 1831, GB
Royaume du Danemarck, pp.251-257 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Denmark, pp.1575-1624 in vol.3A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Historical De Regno Daniae, pp.355-363 in J.C. Becmann, Historia Orbis Terrarum Geographica 1673, in Latin, GB
Louis Ellies Du Pin, L' Histoire Profane Depuis son commencement jusqu'la present vol.5 : 1000-1700, p.48 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord pp.97-98 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord, p.126 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord pendant le treizieme siecle, pp.168-169 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord pendant le quatorzieme siecle, pp.186- : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord jusques vers l'an 1450, pp.207-208 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord jusqu'an 1600, pp.255-259 : Histoire des Roiaumes du Nord jusqu'an 1600, 1717, in French, GB
Chapter IX : Denmark, pp.288-303 in : Samuel von Pufendorf, An introduction to the history of the principal kingdoms and states of Europe, 1719, GB
Denmark and Norway, pp.686-713 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Entry : Denmark, pp.144-172, Jutland pp.172-175, Sleswick pp.175-189, in : T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books
Dänmark pp.519-554 in vol.2 of the 1st edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1794, in German, GB
Dänmark pp.643-688 in vol.2 of the 2nd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1807, in German, GB
Dänemark, pp.261-364 in vol.4 of J.G. Eichhorn, Geschichte der letzten drey Jahrhunderte, 1817, in German
Dänmark, pp.790-849 in vol.2 of the 3rd edition of L.T. von Spittler, Entwurf der Geschichte der europäischen Staaten, 1823, in German, GB
Histoire du Danemarck, depuis 1618 jusqu'en 1720, pp.150-240 in vol.34 of Maximilian-Samson-Friedrich Schöll, Cours d'histoire des Etats Europeens, depuis le bouleversement de l'empire romain d'Occident jusqu'en 1789, 1832, in French, GB
Denmark, pp.1025-1031 in vol.1 of S.G. Goodrich, A history of all nations, from the earliest periods to the present time, 1856, GB
Denmark pp.193-198, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Specialist Encyclopedias Article : Dänische Eisenbahnen, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Parliamentary Debates DATABASES
Folketinget Webarkiv, in Danish
Folketinget, Dokumenter, 2004/2005-, in Danish
Rigsrådstidende 1862 Appendix B, 1865 Appendix A, 1865 Appendix B, 1866 index GB
Tidende for forhandlingerne ved Provindsialstaenderne for Sjaellands, Fyens of Lollands-Falsters stifter samt for Island Faerøerne 1836 pt.1, 1836 pt.2, 1844 pt.2, 1846 pt.2
Rigsdagstidende 1866, GB
Rigsdagstidende : Forhandlinger i Landstinget 1852, 1855, 1858, 1860, 1863, 1865, 1866, 1867, GB
Forhandlinger i Folketinget / Ordentlige samling 1850 vol.2 issues 199-316, 1850, 1859 vol.11 issue 138, 1859, 1860 vol.11 issue 139, 1860, in Danish, GB
Exhibition Catalogues Denmark, pp.169-175 from Official catalogue of the industrial department, London Exhibition 1862, GB
W. Hamm, Illustrirter Katalog der Pariser Industrie-Ausstellung von 1867, 1868, GB; 7 Denmark entries
Postal Routes etc. E.G. Guillot, Dictionnaire des postes: contenant le nom de toutes les villes, bourgs, paroisses, abbayes, & principaux chateaux du royaume de France & du duche de Lorraine ... les principales villes de l'Europe ..., 1754, in French, GB
F.J. Heger, Tablettes des Postes de l'Empire d'Allemagne et des Provinces Limitrophes, 1770, in French, GB
Livre des Postes d'Europe 1788, in French, GB
H.A.O. Reichard, Guide des voyageurs en Europe vol.1 1793, in French, GB
F. Gandini, Itineraire de l'Europe, 1819, in French, GB
H.A.O. Reichard, An Itinierary of France and Belgium, 1816, Germany, 1819, Denmark, Sweden, Norway & Russia, 1820, GB
Itineraire general des postes et relais: a l'usage des personnes qui voyagent sur le continent europeen : comprenant la France, les Pays-Bays, l'Allemagne, l'Autriche, le Danemarck, l'Espagne, l'Italie, le Portugal, la Prusse, la Saxe, la Suede, la Russie, la Turquie d'Europe, etc., etc. : suivi des routes principales de la Suisse 1822, in French, GB
F. Gandini, Itineraire postale et de commerce de l'Europe, 1829, in French, GB
J.M.V. Audin, Guide classique du voyageur en Europe vol.1, France, Belgique, Bords du Rhin, Italie, Espagne et Portugal, 1829, vol.2, Allemagne, Suisse, Danemark, Suede, Norvege, Russie, Pologne et Angleterre, 1829, in French, GB
K.Fr. Jahn, Post-Reise-Handbuch, 1833, in German, GB; search for Innsbruck, Bozen, Meran
F. Gandini, Nouvel itineraire postal de l'Europe, 1838, in French, GB
Richard, Guide classique du voyageur en Europe, 1854, in French, GB
Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Innsbruck etc.
Historic Tour Guides Denmark, pp.248-253 in J. Carver, The New Universal Traveller 1779, GB
Karl Baedeker, Norway, Sweden and Denmark: Handbook for Travellers, 1892, 1895, 1899, 1903, IAe
U.S. Army Information Branch, Pocket guide to the cities of Denmark (1944), IA
Athole Burnett, The vade mecum; or, A, B, C guide to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, 1880, IA
Lucy Andersen, Copenhagen and its environs; a guide for travellers 1888, IA
Algernon Bastard, The Gourmet's Guide to Europe (1903), posted by Gutenberg Library Online, chapter XIII pp.210-217 on Sweden, Norway, Denmark
Travelogues M. Consett, A tour through Sweden, Swedish-Lapland, Finland and Denmark. In a series of letters 1815, Project Runeberg
Residence Memoirs H. Marryat, A residence in Jutland, the Danish Isles, and Copenhagen, vol.1, 1860, vol.2, 1860, GB
Institutions Archives Lists of Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Denmark, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 32 entries
Historical Research in Europe, listing of archives; click Atlas Search, Denmark, 118 entries
Foreign Ministry Archives Services of the European Union Member States : Denmark, from Consilium Europa
Archive Websites Danish State Archives, search page; Arkivalier Online, from Danish State Archives; page in Danish
The Danish Emigration Archives
Musea Lists, Links DMOL - Danske Museer Online
Category : Museums in Denmark, from Wikipedia
Websites National Museum of Denmark
The Danish Maritime Museum
Tøjhusmuseet (Royal Danish Arsenal Museum, Copenhagen), site in Danish
Museum of Danish Resistance; Frøslevlejrensmuseum, on a prison camp used 1944-1949; site in Danish
Womens Museum, Århus; Danish Immigration Museum, Farum/Copenhagen
Tycho Brahe Museum on Ven; Hans Christian Andersen Museum, Odense
Monuments Tentative List : Denmark, World Heritage List, scroll down for Denmark; from UNESCO World Heritage
Denmark, from Showcaves; lists several historic mines
Windmills in Denmark, from Windmill World
Category : Watermills in Denmark, Windmills in Denmark, from Wikimedia Commons
Category : Forts, Castles, Crown Palaces, Cathedrals, Churches in Denmark, from Wikipedia
Libraries Libraries in Denmark, from LibDex, 49 entries
History of the Danish National Library, from The European Library
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Denmark, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coin Catalog of Denmark, from Numismaticon; Danish Coins, by Niels Jørgen Jensen and Mogens Skjoldager; from Coin Pictures; Search Coin Archives for Denmark
Numismata : David Ruckser, Coins of Denmark
Stamps Rare Denmark Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Catalogue; Denmark Stamps 1851-1920, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
Others H.V. Lund, De arabiske Geografers Kjendskab til Norden, Geografisk Tidsskrift 8 1885-1886, posted by tidsskrift.dk, in Danish

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Denmark survey of bibliographies
bibliographic databanks Dansk Historisk Bibliografi, maintained at the Royal Library, Copenhagen
Det Kongelige Bibliothek (Royal Library, Catalogue)
general bibliographies Friends of Denmark, A Brief Bibliography of Denmark and Greenland (1945), IA
pp.441-514 in A.H. Thomas, S.P. Oakley, Historical Dictionary of Denmark, Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Library R 948.9 T454h
Dansk Historisk Fællesråd, Bogfeature, Danish language titles, mostly still available
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies The Danish Resistance and Rescue of the Jews during WW II, bibliography from Jewish Libraries
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jewish Resistance Library, Bibliography - Denmark
A bibliography of the Virgin Islands of the United States. Formerly the Danish West Indies (1922), posted on Internet Archive
Library of Congress, A List of Books (with References to Periodicals) on the Danish West Indies (1901), posted on Internet Archive
serial publications Det Danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab : Historie; page lists publication series, in Danish
general bibliographies
Denmark entries
Ch.28 : De Scriptoribus Historiae Danicae et Norvegicae, pp.716-731 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Ch.31 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Daniae & Norvegiae Regnorum, pp.1556-1595 in vol.2 of B.G. Struve/C.G. Buder, Bibliotheca Historica Selecta 1740, GB
Histoire des pays septentrionaux, pp.232-242, Histoire particulaire des pays septentrionaux pp.242-247 in vol.2 of G. de Bure, Bibliographie instructive : histoire 1768, in French, GB
Historia Daniae, pp.455-464 in vol.8 of J.D. Reuss, Repertorium commentationum a societatibus litterariis editarum, 1810, GB
Historia Daniae, pp.78-79, 194-196, 113-115 [!] in vol.3 of J. Meerman, Bibliotheca Meermanniana, 1824, GB
Histoire Scandinave : Danemarc, Suede, Norvege, pp.105-108 in Bibliotheca historico-geographica 1853, GB
Histories of Scandinavia, pp.422- in the 1882 edition, pp.452- in the 1888 edition of C.K. Adams, A manual of historical literature, IA
History of Scandinavia, p.459 in W.S. Sonnenschein, A Bibliography of History and Historical Biography 1897, IA
booksellers Bogbasen, Danish antiquarian booksellers' site
Online Libraries general Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; e-corpus
on Denmark Scandinavian Digital Libraries and Projects, from Wess Web
Electronic Resources of the Royal Library (Copenhagen); Project Runeberg
Copenhagen, Det Kongelig Bibliothek : Dansk Nationallitteraturet Arkiv (archive of Danish national literature)
Eremit, En samling af litteratur om København
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories, Denmark
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Links Directory of Open Access Journals
tidsskrift.dk, online library providing free access to a number of Danish-language scholarly magazines
full text online Danske historiske forening, Historisk Tidsskrift 1840-2003, tidsskrift.dk
1840-1869, GB, in Danish, GB
Magasin for den nyere danske kirkehistorie 1792-1796, in Danish, GB
Chr. Molbech, Nordisk tidsskrift for historie, literatur og konst, 1827-1836, in Danish, GB
Aarbøger for nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, 1866-1869, in Danish, GB
Contents Online Cumulative index of Personalhistorisk Tidsskrift 1880-1990
Scandinavian Journal of History Index 1985-1995, from H-net
Scandinavian Journal of History, Contents of all volumes, from Taylor and Francis
Registre for Handels- og Søfartsmuseets årbøger
Historiography Article : Scandinavian Historiography, by B.J. Nordstrom, pp.811-813, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Knud J.V. Jespersen, A History of Denmark, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2004, KMLA Lib.Sign. 948.9 J58h
Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropædia : Denmark, Vol.17 pp.227-244; KMLA Lib. Sign. R 032 B862n v.17
Specific Topics Mogens R. Nissen, Danish Food Production in the German War Economy, pp.172-192 in : Frank Trentmann (ed.), Food and Conflict in Europe in the Age of the Two World Wars, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 940.31 T795f
Svend Gissel e.a. (ed.), Desertion and Land Colonization in the Nordic Countries c. 1300-1600, Stockholm : Almqvist & Wiksell 1981 [G]
Kaj Hørby, Mikael Venge, Danmarks Historie, Vol.2.1, København : Gyldendal 1980 [G]
Mark Greengrass, The Longman Companion to the European Reformation c.1500-1618, Harlow (Essex): Longman 1998, p.89-90, KMLA Lib.Sign. 274.06 GB 121
Michael Bregnsbro, Danish Absolutism and Queenship : Louisa, Caroline Matilda and Juliana Maria, pp.344-367 in : Clarissa Campbell Orr, Queenship in Europe, 1660-1815. The Role of Consort, Cambridge : UP 2004, KMLA Lib.Sign. 940.09 076q
Frederic Morton, The Rothschilds, NY : Kodansha 1961, pp.33-36, on 1804 Danish state loan
Llewellyn Woodward, British Foreign Policy in the Second World War, London : HMSO 1962 [G]
Chapter XXXV : The Notable Neutrals, pp.496-506 in : John Gunther, Inside Europe, 1940 war edition, NY : Harper & Bros. 1940 [G]
Chapter 20 : Scandinavia - The Outer Bastion, pp.273-286 in : John Gunther, Inside Europe Today, NY : Harper & Bros. 1961 [G]
C.L. Krause & C. Mishler, Standard Catalogue of World Coins, 1601-1700, 2nd ed. 1999, Denmark : pp.199-220, KMLA Lib. Sign. 737.4096 K91s; 1701-1800, 2nd ed. 1997, Denmark : pp.163-172, KLMA Lib. Sign. 737.4097 K91s; 1801-1900, 3rd edition 2001, Denmark : pp.284-290, KMLA Lib. Sign. 737.4098 K91s
Historical Dictionary A.H. Thomas, S.P. Oakley, Historical Dictionary of Denmark, Scarecrow 1998, KMLA Lib. Sign. R 948.9 T454h
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988, London : Palgrave 2000 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Denmark, 1913 pp.983-987, 1944 pp.231-232, 1945 pp.233-234, 1946 pp.258-259, 1947 pp.261-262, 1948 pp.247-248, 1949 pp.203-205, 1950 pp.226-227, 1950 pp.223-224, 1951 pp.226-227, 1952 pp.226-227, 1953 p.219, 1954 p.222, 1955 p.271, 1956 pp.206-207, 1957 pp.266-267, 1958 pp.206-207, 1959 p.203, 1960 pp.204-205, 1961 p.212, 1962 pp.204-205, 1963 pp.317-318, 1964 pp.308-309, 1965 pp.293-294, 1966 pp.236-237, 1967 pp.278-279, 1968 pp.280-281, 1969 pp.270-272, 1970 pp.271-272, 1971 pp.260-261, 1972 pp.236-237, 1973 pp.227-228, 1974 pp.243-244, 1975 pp.227-228, 1976 pp.245-246, 1977 pp.245-246, 1978 pp.299-300, 1979 pp.301-302, 1980 pp.298-300, 1981 pp.299-300, 1982 pp.294-295, 1983 pp.293-294, 1984 pp.289-290, 1985 pp.525-526, 666, 1986 pp.520, 662, 1987 pp.490-491, 632, 1988 pp.447, 584, 1989 pp.448-449, 584, 1990 pp.464, 599, 1991 pp.447, 584, 1992 pp.422-423, 584, 1993 pp.431-432, 595, 1994 pp.429-430, 595, 1995 pp.399-400, 595, 1996 pp.398, 595, 1997 pp.413, 593, 2002 pp.415-416, 591 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Denmark, 1878 pp.41-55, 1895 pp.448-460, 1898 pp.446-459, 1901 pp.513-527, 1905 pp.567-582, 1910 pp.722-735, 1918 pp.787-800, 1919 pp.785-797, 1924 pp.799-803, 1925 pp.801-814, 1926 pp.777-790, 1928 pp.789-802, 1929 pp.781-793, 1932 pp.789-800, 1937 pp.828-840, 1943 pp.822-833, 1970-1971 pp.852-863, 1975-1976 pp.860-871, 1976-1977 pp.870-881, 1978-1979 pp.390-402, 1979-1980 pp.390-402, 1980-1981 pp.391-403, 1981-1982 pp.396-408, 1983-1984 pp.401-411, 1984-1985 pp.399-412, 1985-1986 pp.401-411, 1986-1987 pp.405-418, 1987-1988 pp.411-422, 1988-1989 pp.413-424, 1989-1990 pp.416-427, 1990-1991 pp.415-426, 1991-1992 pp.415-425, 1992-1993 pp.482-491, 1993-1994 pp.489-499, 1994-1995 pp.475-486, 1995-1996 pp.470-481, 1996-1997 pp.411-421, 1997-1998 pp.420-430, 1998-1999 pp.463-473, 2000 pp.533-544, 2001 pp.518-528, 2002 pp.540-550, 2003 pp.539-549, 2004 pp.540-550, 2005 pp.539-550, 2006 pp.534-549 [G]
Americana Annual Denmark, 1927 pp.248-250, 1928 pp.223-225, 1930 pp.242-243, 1931 pp.250-251, 1932 pp.212-214, 1933 pp.227-228, 1934 pp.189-190, 1935 pp.206-207, 1936 pp.206-207, 1937 pp.192-193, 1938 pp.202-203, 1939 pp.232-233, 1940 pp.28-229, 1943 pp.229-230, 1944 pp.218-219, 1945 pp.229-230, 1946 pp.232-234, 1947 pp.205-206, 1957 pp.225-226, 1961 pp.214-215, 1962 pp.216-217, 1963 pp.202-203, 1964 pp.201-202, 1965 pp.223-224, 1967 pp.238-239, 1968 pp.226-227, 1969 p.242, 1970 pp.243-244, 1971 pp.249-250, 1972 pp.238-239, 1973 pp.232-233, 1974 pp.205-206, 1976 p.209, 1988 pp.206-207, 1989 p.206, 1990 pp.204-205, 1992 pp.212-213, 1993 pp.212-213, 1994 pp.205-206, 1998 p.213, 2006 p.155 [G]
Bornholm, 1946 p.107 [G]
Other Article : Denmark, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1863 pp.337-339, 1864 pp.359-360 [G]
Article : London Conference, in : The American Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1864 pp.474-475 [G]
Article : Denmark, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.283-287, 1894 pp.238-241 [G]
Article : Denmark, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.261-262, 1899 pp.264-266, 1900 pp.295-297 [G]
Article : Denmark, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.220-222, 1908 pp.202-205, 1909 pp.203-205, 1913 pp.202-204, 1914 pp.200-202, 1916 pp.182-183, 1918 pp.168-171, 1919 pp.195-198, 1920 pp.183-185, 1921 pp.188-191, 1923 pp.199-201, 1925 pp.200-201, 1928 pp.213-215, 1930 pp.222-224, 1932 pp.236-237, 1933 pp.214-216, 1934 pp.188-189, 1935 pp.189-190, 1938 pp.209-210, 1939 pp.193-195, Events of 1940 pp.182-185, 1941 pp.167-170, 1942 pp.193-195, 1943 pp.162-165, 1944 pp.168-171, 1945 pp.157-160 [G]
Article : Denmark, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1980 pp.129-134 (Eric S. Einhorn) [G]

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