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Denmark Norway
First posted on March 24th 2002, last revised on December 8th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

825-1525 . 1525-1815 . 1815-1890 . 1890-1918 . 1918-1939 . 1939-1945 . since 1945
see also History of Denmark, History of Norway



825-1525
Archeological findings indicate that the islands were first settled in the 4th to 6th century A.D.
Discovered by the Vikings in the late 8th century, settled ca. 825. The island group's Thing assembled at Tinganes, close to which the island group's bishopric was established at Kirkjubodur. The Faroe islands were dependent on Norway since 895. The thing decided on the acceptance of Christianity in 999. In 1035 the Faroe Islands recognized Norwegian sovereignty.

1525-1815
The Faroe Islands used to be a Norwegian sideland. Yet Norway was the junior partner in her Dynastic Union with Denmark. Foreign policy was a prerogative of the king, who resided in Copenhagen; the sidelands in the North Atlantic (the Faroes, Iceland, Greenland) came to be administrated from Copenhagen. In 1676 the island group, as a feudal estate, was granted to Frederik von Gabel (-1708); between 1709 and 1720 it was administrated by a committee of three; between 1720 and 1775 the Faroes and Greenland were treated as one province; in 1776 the Faroes were separated from Greenland and allocated to Sjaelland province.
The reformation was introduced in the Faroes per decree - against the resistance of Amund Olafson, the last Catholic bishop - the Faroese bishopric abolished; the now Lutheran community was to be headed by a provost. The Danish kings turned trade with the islands into a Monopoly which after repeatedly changing hands in 1709 was granted to the Royal Danish Monopoly (owned by the king himself). For the protection of the islands' capital, Torshavn, Fort Skansin was built.

1815-1890
In 1816, the Faroe Islands were administratively separated from Sjaelland; the administration was headed by a Prefect, a position to which usually Danes were appointed.
The 19th century is the period of national awakening on the Faroe Islands. The small islands community spoke a distinct Faroese language; its written form - grammar and orthography - were established in the mid 19th century, leaning on Icelandic, the alphabet of which was adopted (V.U. Hammershaimb).
In 1854 the Lagting, a provincial parliament, was established.
In 1856 the monopoly of the Royal Trade Monopoly (since 1709) was abolished; the Faroese, long dependent on Danish shipping, began to purchase ships (1872ff), at first for the purpose of fishery, establishing a small merchant fleet of their own. Population in 1870 9,992, in 1880 11,220 (Meyers).

1890-1918
The Faroes were given Home Rule in 1890. A national movement emerged. The first political parties were established in 1906. In 1900 the Faroese population was c. 16,000 - almost all Lutherans.

1918-1939
The Faroe Islands population increased from 19,600 in 1916 to 26,000 in 1938.
The Faroese football (soccer) federation was established in 1930.

1939-1945
In 1940, the British occupied the Faroes and Iceland to make sure the Germans would not establish footholds there. Under British occupation, the Faroese Landsting was given the right to pass legislation, giving the islands political autonomy. While formally remaining part of the Danish monarchy, the Faroes' ties to Denmark lay, for the remainder of the war, on ice.
Contacts with the motherland Denmark were severed for the remainder of the war; the Faroes had to issue their own banknotes and come up with provisorical postage stamps due to the unavailability of supplies from Copenhagen.
During WW II, British engineers built Vagar Airport in 1942-1943.

since 1945
Political Status . When the Faroese, in a 1946 referendum, voted for independence, the King of Denmark used his prerogative to declare the Faroese parliament dissolved; the islands were granted home rule in 1948. In 1973 the Faroese postal administration began the issuance of Faroese postage stamps. For 2001 another referendum on Faroese independence was scheduled. When Denmark hinted that annual subsidies by the Danish state would cease upon independence, the referendum was cancelled.
Infrastructure . In 1963, Vagar Airport (constructed in 1942-1943 as a military airport and no longer used after the war) was opened as a civilian airport.
The Economy . When Denmark joined the EEC in 1973, the Faroe Islands stayed out. In 1992 the economic recession of the fishing industry resulted in the failure of the fishermen's cooperative bank, which exacerbated the recession; emigration to Denmark increased. In 2001 the Faroe Islands had a population of almost 47,000 inhabitants. The Faroes, in 2005, expressed their interest in joining EFTA; this was not possible according to EFTA statutes; only independent states qualify as members. Oil has been found under the sea near the Faroes, and the development of a future Faroe Islands oil industry is expected (as of 2006).
Culture . In 1948 the first bible translation into Faroese was published. In 1957 the Faroese Writers Association was founded. In 1965 the University of the Faroes, at Torshavn, opened. Faroese tv broadcasting began in 1984.
Since 1988 the Faroese soccer team competed in qualifiers to European and World championships; in 1990 the Faroese defeated Austria 1-0.

Historical Atlas, Faroes Page






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; from Wikipedia
historical
Links General from Faroe Links; from Framtak
Category : Faroe Islands, from Wikipedia
Kategori : Færøerne, from Wikipedia Danish edition
on History Category : History of the Faroe Islands, from Wikipedia
Kategori : Færøernes Historie, from Wikipedia Danish edition
Organizations
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News, from Wikipedia
Accounts of History General, Modern Faroese History, from Randburg; Article : History of the Faroe Islands, from Wikipedia, Article : Færøernes Historie, from Wikipedia Danish edition
General, Historical J. Nicoll, An historical and descriptive account of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands, 1840, IA
Specific Periods L. MacGregor, The Norse settlement of Shetland and Faroe, c.800-c.1500: a comparative study, thesis St. Andrews 1987
Historiography
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Faeroe Islands; Article Politics of the Faroe Islands, from Wikipedia
The Faroese Løgting
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Faeroe Islands
Article Whaling in the Faroe Islands, from Wikipedia
History of Faroe Ship, of Atlantic Petroleum
The Ocean Telegraphy Company, from History of the Atlantic Undersea Communications by Stephen Roberts; scroll down
History of Faroe Petroleum
O. Lindquist, Whales, dolphins and porpoises in the economy and culture of peasant fishermen in Norway, Orkney, Shetland, Faroe Islands and Iceland, ca.900 - 1900 A.D., and Norse Greenland, ca.1000 - 1500 A.D., thesis St. Andrews 1994
S.V. Arge et al., Adventures far from home: Hanseatic trade with the Faroe Islands, Across the North Sea: Later Historical Archaeology in Britain and Denmark, c. 1500-2000 AD, University of southern Denmark studies in history and social sciences vol. 444 (2012)
Social History P.L. Panum, Observations made during the epidemic of measles on the Faroe Islands in the year 1846, n.d., IA
N. Annandale, The Faroes and Iceland : studies in island life, 1905, IA
Ethnography Faroese, from Ethnologue
Linkage Disequilibrium and Demographic History of the Isolated Population of the Faroe Islands, from European Journal of Human Genetics
Svend Grundtvig: Dansk på Færøerne (1845) (Danish on the Faroes), from Skræp, in Danish
Scott.Net : First colonisers of the Faroe Islands were not the Vikings, 2013
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Faroe Islands, from Kirken i Norge; Catholic Encyclopedia, 1908 edition; Article Faroese Religion, from Wikipedia
Local History Torshavn, from Randburg
I.C. Hannah, Capitals of the northlands, tales of ten cities, 1914, IA; has chapter on Thorshavn
Institutions The Faroese Writers Association
University of the Faroe Islands; Wikipedia Article
Faroe Islands, from Airline History; Faroese Aviation History in Brief, from Atlantic Airways
Structurae : Faroe Islands
Culture
Biographies List of Faroese, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Human Impact and Landscape Degradation on the Faroe Islands, by Hannon, Wastegåard, Bradshaw and Bradshaw
R.M.W. Musson et al., Historical seismicity of the Faroe Islands , Annals of Geophysics 44 5-6 2001
Ch.7 : Historical human-environment interactions in the southern Faroe Islands , in K.A. Mairs, Islands and human impact..., thesis Edinburgh 2007
R. Fielding, Artisanal Whaling in the Atlantic: A Comparative Study of Culture, Conflict, and Conservation in St. Vincent and the Faroe Islands, thesis Louisiana State 2010
J.E. Cussans, Changes in the size and shape of domestic mammals across the North Atlantic region over time. The effects of environment and economy on bone growth of livestock from the Neolithic to the Post Medieval period with particular reference to the Scandinavian expansion westwards, thesis Bradford 2010
R. Guttesen, ' Changes of the rural landscape on the Faroe Islands in the Middle Ages ', in V. Hansen (ed.) , Permanen European Conference for the study of the rural landscape, Copenhagen 1980, pp.17-22
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel)
Statistical Data Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Faeroe Islands, from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
Historical Abortion Statistics - Faeroe Islands, from Johnston's Archive
Election Results from IFES Election Guide (since 1996)
Documents Historical Newspapers Timarit, Icelandic Server of Historical Newspapers (also for Greenland, Faroe Islands)
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers
Online Yearbooks International,
Faroes Entries
Staatskalender
Image Databanks Europeana
Wikimedia Commons
License Plates Francoplaque, License Plates of the World
Airline Timetable Images : Faroe Islands
Archival Deposits
Laws Faroes Collection of Laws, since 1685, from Faroernes Love, in Danish, also offered in Faroean; rich collection of documents
Cartularia Diplomatarium Norvegicum Online (1050-1590)
Diplomatarium Norvegicum, vol.1 pt.1, 1847, vol.1, 1849, vol.2, 1852, vol.3 pt.1, 1853, vol.3, 1855, vol.4 pt.1, 1857, vol.4 pt.2, 1858, vol.5 pt.1, 1860, vol.5 pt.2, 1861, vol.6 pt.1, 1863, vol.7 pt.1, 1863, vol.7 pt.2, 1864, in Latin, GB
Specimen diplomatarii norvagici, exhibentis monumenta diplomatica ..., 1828, in Latin, GB
Regesta Norvegica Online
Diplomatarium Arna-Magnaeanum vol.1, 1786, vol.2, 1786, in Latin, GB
Diplomatarium Danicum
Documents on Danish History, from Eurodocs; Skræp, from Nomos, in Danish, numerous sources, many in excerpt
Dokumentation, from Plads til os alle, Danish language site
Documents on Danish Naval History, posted by Lars Bruzelius
Danish state finance 1230-1806 (Poulsen), Danish state finance under Christian IV (1589-1648) (Krug), European Armies: 1660-1861 (Lind); mostly on Danish-Norwegian Army; from ESFDB
Regesta diplomatica historiae danicae, 1847, another scan 1847, 1870, II.1.1-3 1880, II.1.4-6 1880, II.2.1-3 1880, II.2.4-6 1880, 1889 1895, 1907, posted on Internet Archive
Historiography Thormodus Torfäus (Torfason), Geschichte der Thaten der Einwohner von den Inseln Färöe, trsl., from the Latin into German, 1757, GB
C.Chr. Rafn, Færeyinga-saga eller Færøboernes historie i den islandske grundtext med færøisk og danske oversættelse, 1832, GB
Document Collections
Individual Documents C. Chr. Rafn, Færeyinga saga eller Færøboernes historie i den islandske grundtekst med Færøisk og Dansk Oversættelse, 1832, in Danish etc., GB, Faereyinga Saga, oder Geschichte der Bewohner der Färöer , 1833, in German, GB
Historical Maps click here
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Article Faroe Islands, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Article Faeroe, from EB 1911
Article Fåröer, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Entry : The Islands of Farroe or Fero, pp.135-143, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.1 1768, posted on Google Books
Les Illes de Fero, p.104 in vol.1 of J. Vaissette, Geographie historique ecclesiastique et civile 1755, in French, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Historic Tour Guides
Travelogues
Institutions Archives Repositories of Primary Sources : Europe : Faroe Islands, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 1 entry
The Faroese National Archives
Musea Føroya Fornminnasavn (Museum)
Libraries Libraries in the Faroe Islands, from LibDex, 1 entry
National Library of the Faroe Islands
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the Faroe Islands, from Numismondo, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general
on Denmark Dansk Historisk Bibliografi, maintained at the Royal Library, Copenhagen
Det Kongelige Bibliothek (Royal Library, Catalogue)
on the Faroes
Series History Press Faroe Islands
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on Denmark Scandinavian Digital Libraries and Projects, from Wess Web
Electronic Resources of the Royal Library (Copenhagen); Project Runeberg
Copenhagen, Det Kongelig Bibliothek : Dansk Nationallitteraturet Arkiv (archive of Danish national literature)
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories, Denmark, Norway
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals full text online Directory of Open Access Journals
tidsskrift.dk, online library providing free access to a number of Danish-language scholarly magazines
Contents Online Cumulative index pf Personalhistorisk Tidsskrift 1880-1990
Scandinavian Journal of History Index 1985-1995, from H-net
Registre for Handels- og Søfartsmuseets årbøger
General Accounts
Specific Topics The North Atlantic Saga, in : Historical Atlas of the Vikings, by John Haywood, London : Penguins 1995, pp.86-99, illustrated, concise, scholarly
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Europe 1750-1988, London : Palgrave 2000 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Faeroe Islands, 1953 p.268, 1954 p.266, 1955 p.314, 1956 p.251, 1958 p.247, 1959 p.244, 1960 p.244, 1961 pp.255-256, 1962 p.244, 1963 p.358 [G]
Colonies and Dependent Territories, 1964 pp.265-268 [G]
Colonies and Other Depencies : Faeroe Islands, 1965 p.253, 1966 p.204, 1967 p.219, 1968 p.217 [G]
Dependent States : Faeroe Islands, 1969 p.279, 1970 p.279, 1971 p.269, 1972 p.240, 1973 p.232, 1974 p.248, 1976 p.250, 1977 p.250, 1978 p.303, 1979 p.304, 1980 p.302, 1981 p.302, 1982 p.296, 1983 p.296, 1984 p.296, 1985 p.603, 1988 p.518, 1990 p.534 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Denmark : 1970-1971 pp.861-862, 1975-1976 p.870, 1976-1977 pp.879-880, 1978-1979 p.400, 1979-1980 p.400, 1980-1981 p.401, 1981-1982 p.406, 1983-1984 pp.411-412, 1984-1985 pp.409-410, 1985-1986 pp.411-412, 1986-1987 p.416, 1987-1988 pp.422-423, 1988-1989 pp.424-425, 1989-1990 pp.427-429, 1990-1991 pp.426-427, 1991-1992 pp.425-427, 1992-1993 pp.492-494, 1993-1994 pp.499-501, 1994-1995 pp.486-486, 1995-1996 pp.481-483, 1996-1997 pp.421-423, 1997-1998 pp.430-433, 1998-1999 pp.473-475, 2000 pp.544-546, 2001 pp.528-531, 2002 pp.550-552, 2003 pp.549-551, 2004 pp.550-552, 2005 pp.550-552, 2006 pp.545-547 [G]
Americana Annual Faroe Islands, 1940 p.280, 1943 p.269, 1944 pp.255-256, 1945 p.269 [G]
Faeroe or Faroe Islands, 1947 p.240, 1957 p.265, 1962 p.251 [G]
Denmark - Faroe Islands, 1993 pp.212-213 [G]
Other Article : Faroe Islands, in : New International Year Book 1930 p.257, 1932 p.268, 1933 p.252, 1934 p.222, 1935 p.230, 1938 pp.242-243, 1939 p.256, Events of 1940 p.247, 1941 p.194, 1942 p.223 [G]
Article : Faeroes, in : New International Year Book Events of 1943 p.191, 1944 p.202, 1945 p.191 [G]