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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Burma Aceh
First posted on January 8th 2005, last revised on May 17th 2010






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

see also History of Burma / Myanmar



The Kingdom of Arakan was established in 1431 with Mrauk U as its capital. It was conquered in 1783 by the Burmese Empire. Arakan was a seafaring nation, engaging in maritime trade and piracy. Arakan was majority Hindu, with a minority Muslim population. Relations with Bengal were poor because the King of Arakan claimed to rule over Bengal, and because of the Arakanese sale of abducted Bengali as slaves. Arakan was in contact with Arabs, Persians, the Portuguese, later the V.O.C. Following the First Anglo-Burmese War, Burma in 1826 ceded Arakan (and Tenasserim) to the E.I.C.; after the British acquisition of the remainder of Burma (1852-1886), Arakan was reintegrated into Burma. Since 1948 part of independent Burma (in 1989 renamed Myanmar). In 1989 Arakan was renamed Rakhine State.

Spelling varieties : Arrakan, Rakan, Arakan, Aracan, Arracan, Aracaon, Arracaon, Arracao

Timeline : Arakan
List of Wars, Burma






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from Wikipedia
Historical
Links General Category : Rakhine State, from Wikipedia
Search Scribd for publications on Arakan; caution, it seems a number of publications have been uploaded without regard of the copyright
Organizations on Asian History International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Timelines Arakanland, scroll down for timeline
Chronology for Rohingya (Arakanese) in Burma, from Minorities at Risk
Search Google News Archive for Arakan, click Timeline
Accounts of History from Wikipedia; from Arakanland; from Banglapedia; John Ogilvy Hay, Arakan Past - Present - Future, posted by Arakan Library; Arakanese History at a Glance, from Rakhapura; Arakanese History, from Arakan Society; A Short Historical Background of Arakan, from Rohingya Times
Ch.J.F. Smith-Forbes, Legendary History of Burma and Arakan (1882), posted on Internet Archive
M. Yunus, History of Arakan, Past and Present 1994
Specific Periods J.P. Leider, Arakan during the Mrauk U Period: The Political Success of a Buddhist Border States
M.W. Charney, Arakan, Min Yazagyi, and the Portuguese : The relationship between the Growth of Arakanese Imperial Power and Portuguese Mercenaries on the Fringe of South East Asia, 1517-1617, thesis Ohio Univ. 1993
S.E.A. van Galen, Arakan and Bengal : the rise and decline of the Mrauk U kingdom (Burma) from the fifteenth to the seventeeth century AD, thesis Leiden 2008
M.W. Charney, Crisis and Reformation in a Maritime Kingdom of Southeast Asia : Forces of Instability and Political Disintegration in Western Burma (Arakan), 1603-1701
P. Gutman, Ancient Arakan, thesis Australian Nat'l Univ. 2008
Historiography
Politics About ARNO, from Arakan Rohingya National Organisation; Rohingya Politics, from ARNO
Military
Economy & Finances Economy, from Arakanland, on economic history
Arracan Division, pp.135- in J.G. Medlicott, Cotton hand-book, for Bengal, 1862, GB
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Myanmar, from Ethnologue
Religion Muslim Influence in Arakan and the Muslim Names of Arakanese kings: A Reassessment, by Alamgir M. Serajuddin, 1986
Rohingya History, from Arakan Rohingya National Organisation
Article : Rohingya, from Banglapedia
Chronology for Rohingya (Arakanese) in Burma, from Minorities at Risk; Assessment for Rohingya (Arakanese) in Burma, from Minorities at Risk
Arakan, the Land of Buddhism - A Brief History of Mahamuni, by Khaing Kyaw Kyaw
Local History R. Mukherjee, The struggle for the Bay: The life and times of Sandwip, an almost unknown Portuguese port in the Bay of Bengal in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, Revista da Faculdade de Letras, Historia Porto, III Serie, vol.9, 2008, pp.67-88
Institutions search Lighthouse Explorer for Myanmar
Culture
Biographies
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Others The Portuguese in the Bay of Bengal, by Marco Ramerini
van Galen, Stephan Egbert Arie, Arakan and Bengal : the rise and decline of the Mrauk U kingdom (Burma) from the fifteenth to the seventeeth century AD, diss. Leiden 2008

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), Regnal Chronologies : Arakan
Statistical Data Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Myanmar, Provinces, from Population Statistics
Documents Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons; search same site for Arakan
Archival Deposits Search ARCHIEVEN.NL
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
Search National Archives (UK)
Laws
Treaties J.E. Heeres (ed.), Corpus Diplomaticum Neerlando-Indicum, Verzameling van politieke contracten en verdere Verdragen door de Nederlanders in het Oosten gesloten, van Privilegiebrieven aan hen verleend, enz., vol.1 1907, covering 1596-1650, posted on Internet Archive; here English-language ToC
Historiography
Document Collections Documents on Western Burmese History, from SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 2003
Joao Baptista Lavanha, Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.5 : Decada Terceira. Parte Primeira, 1777 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.12 : Decada Quinta. Parte Primeira, 1779 ; vol.14 : Decada Sexta. Parte Primeira, 1781 ; vol.15 : Decada Sexta. Parte Secunda, 1781 ; vol.20 : . Decada Decima. Parte Primeira., 1788 ; Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.23 : Decada Duodecima, 1788, in Portuguese, GB
Individual Documents A 1608 letter by King Minrazagri to the VOC; Dutch transcription, Engl. translation, from Arakan Society Website
Historical Maps Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
Map featuring Arakan, Lower Burma, from Historical Maps of India (Constable 1893)
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Arakan, Akyab, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German, posted by Retro Bibliothek
Article : Arakan, Akyab, Sandoway, , Cheduba, from EB 1911
Religious
Economic Aracan & Pegu, p.1247-1248 in J. Savary de Brulons, Dictionnaire universel de commerce, 1765, in French, GB
Arakan und Azem, pp.142-143 in J.Chr. Schedel, Historisches Handbuch für Kaufleute, 1793, in German, GB
Aracan, pp.279-280 in vol.2 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Arakan
Geographical Die königliche Stadt Arakan, pp.292-293 in vol.3 of E.W. Happel, Mundus Mirabilis Tripartitus, oder Wunderbare Welt, 1689, in German, GB
I.R. Savonarola, Universus terrarum orbis scriptorum calamo delineatus, hoc est auctorum fere omnium qui de Europae, Asiae, Africae et Americae regnis, provinciis, populis, civitatibus, oppidis... qualibet lingua scripserunt , 1713, GB ; Arracanum regnum vol.1 p.96
Entry : The Kingdom of Arrakan, pp.88-95, in : T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1768, posted on Google Books
Arracan, pp.485-491 in vol.5 of L.P. Anquetil, Precis de l'Histoire Universelle ou Tableau historique presentant les vicissitudes des Nations ... , 1799, in French, GB
Kingdom of Aracan, pp.1-5 in Th. Pennant, The view of India extra Gangem, China, and Japan, 1800, GB
Of the Coasts of Arrakan and Ava, pp.239-243 in W. Herbert, A New Nautical Directory for the East-India and China Navigation, 1804, GB
Aracan, pp.602-603 in vol.5 of J. Playfair, A System of Geography, Ancient and Modern, 1813, GB
Arracan, pp.800-805 in vol.2 of W. Hamilton, A geographical, statistical, and historical description of Hindostan and the Adjacent Countries, 1820, GB
The Kingdom of Arracan, pp.345-347 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography, or A description of all the parts of the world , 1822, GB
Article Aracan from General Gazetteer ed. W. Gracie, 1823
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Aracan
Article Arakan Division, Akyab District, Sandoway District, Kyaukpyu District, from Imperial Gazetteer of India
Ethnographical Assam, Laos, Cambodia and Arakan p.179 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
Historical Arracan, p.400 in vol.1 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionaire historique, 1683, in French, GB
Arracan, p.657 in L. Moreri, Le grand dictionaire historique, 1740, in French, GB
Peuple d'Arrakan, pp.414-445 in vol.3 of F.M. de Marsy, Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonais, des Indiens ... , 1756, in French, GB
Kingdom of Arrakan, or Rakan, pp.12-38 in vol.7 of The Modern Part of an Universal History, 1759, GB
Le Royaume d'Arrakan, pp.438-441 in vol.2 of P.J.A. Roubaud, Histoire generale de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Amerique, 1770, in French, GB
Royaume d'Arrakan, pp.409-420 in vol.1 of C. Dorville, Histoire des differens peuples du monde, 1770, in French, GB
Historie van Arrakan, pp.41-58 in vol.7 of Hedendaagsche historie, of het vervolg van de algemeene historie, 1772, in Dutch, GB
Kingdom of Arrakan, pp.134-143 in vol.24 of G. Sale, An Universal History, from the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time, 1781, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues On Arracao, pp.441-454 in Peregrinaçao de Fernao Mendes Pinto, 1725, in Portuguese, GB
On Arakan, pp.338-347 in De nieuwe reisiger of Beschryving van de oude en nieuwe waerelt, 1767, in Dutch, GB
On Arakan, pp.101-156 in vol.1 of W. Schouten, Reistogt naar en door Oostindiën, 1780, in Dutch, GB
W.G. Hughes, The hill tracts of Arakan (1881), posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Archives
Musea
Monuments
Libraries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Coins of Arakan, from Zeno; Search Coin Archives for Arakan
Coin Catalog of Arakan, from Numismaticon
The Contemporaries of the Mughals, has a 17th c coin of Arakan
Arracan, pp.804-805 in vol.2 of W. Marsden, Numismata orientalia illustrata, 1825, GB

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies General RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Arakan Books List, from Arakan Library
Rohingya Books, from Arakan Rohingya National Organisation
Online Libraries General Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
on Burma Online Burma/Myanmar Library
on Arakan Search Scribd for publications on Arakan; caution, it seems a number of publications have been uploaded without regard of the copyright
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Guides Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Electronic Journals Online
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Historical Dictionaries Articles : Arakan pp.31-33, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]