History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

Literature on the History of South East Asia
Siam / Thailand Vietnam
First posted on May 18th 2002, last revised on December 13th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Funan and Chenla, 2nd-8th Century . Khmer Empire, 802-1431 . Dark Ages, 1431-1867 . French Protectorate, 1867-1954
Independent Cambodia, 1954-1970 . 1970-1975 . 1975-1979 . 1979-1993 .since 1993
see also French Indochina
see also History of Mainland Southeast Asia

Kingdoms of Funan and Chenla, 2nd to 8th Century AD
The Kingdom of Funan, capital Oc Eo, existed in the 2nd century A.D. It was engaged in trade relations with India and China; even Roman coins have been found. Hinduism and Buddhism also made inroads; a synchretic form of Hinduism (with Buddha a member of its Pantheon) emerged.
In 612-628, Funan was conquered by its successor, the Kingdom of Chenla. In the early 8th century, Chenla fragmented.

The Khmer Empire was established in 802; its capital was Angkor. At its height, it controlled most of mainland South East Asia. Around 1200, King Jayavarman VII elevated Mahayana Buddhism to the favored religion. Following a comeback of Hinduism, Theravada Buddhism became the dominant religion during the 13th century. In the 14th century the Khmer Empire began to decline, Thai states (Sukothai 1238, Lanna 1262, Ayutthaya 1351) being established on former Khmer territory. The Khmer Empire ended in 1431.

Cambodia became a satellite state of Siam, and in the 18th century also of Annam. Spanish and Portuguese adventurers arrived in the 16th century.

In 1867, Cambodia became a protectorate of France. A revolt in 1885-1885 was suppressed. Cambodia became part of French Indochina in 1887. In 1907, Siam ceded territory to France which was annexed into Cambodia. From 1940 to 1945 (France being occupied by Germany), French Indochina in effect was controlled by Japan. In 1946, Cambodia was granted self-government within the French Union.

Status . In 1954, following the Geneva Treaty, Cambodia became fully independent (it had been declared independent within the French Union in 1950). The country's constitution was that of a monarchy, the capital Pnom Penh.
Administration . King Norodom Sihanouk in 1955 abdicated in favour of his father, Norodom Suramarit. The 1955 elections were won by Sangkum Reastr Niyum, a nominally leftist, in reality conservative and anti-Communist political grouping; the Democrats and the (leftist) Citizen's Party failed to win a single seat in parliament; the opposition claimed electoral fraud. Representatives of the opposition parties were beaten up by police, or even assassinated. The Democratic Party disbanded in 1957, the Citizen's Party ceased to function in 1960.
In 1958, the U.S. supported a failed coup to overthrow the Cambodian government. In 1966 elections were held, in which several Sangkum candidates competed against each other.
The Khmer Serei were a guerilla organization fighting the Sangkum/Sihanouk regime, established in 1958, tacitly supported by the U.S., at first from bases in South Vietnam, later from bases in Thailand, with little success. Early Communist resistance was virtually annihilated, when one of their leaders, Sieu Heng, defected to the government in 1959.
In 1967 the communist Khmer Rouge began guerilla warfare against the Cambodian government (Battambang Rebellion).
Just before, on March 18th 1970, General Lon Nol had staged a coup d'etat ousting Prince Norodom Sihanouk who went to China into exile.
Foreign Policy . Cambodia established diplomatic relations with the USSR in 1956.
Upon Cambodian independence, Thai forces occupied area around Preah Vihear temple. In 1958 Cambodian and Thai troops clashed; in 1962 the International Court of Justice decided in favour of Cambodia. Cambodia, PR China established diplomatic relations in 1958. Cambodia claimed to pursue a neutral policy. In 1955 it had declined a U.S. offer to join SEATO. Cambodia severed ties with South Vietnam in 1963. In 1964 Cambodia received military aid from the PR China. In 1965 Cambodia suspended diplomatic relations with the U.S. In 1967 Cambodia and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam established diplomatic relations.
Cambodia and the Vietnam War . The Vietnam War had an impact on Cambodia, as the Viet Minh ran supply lines on the Cambodian side of the border to South Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh Trail) and US/South Vietnamese troops occasionally transgressed onto Cambodian territory. (Secret) U.S. air raids into Cambodian territory began in 1965 and escalated in 1969. In an 1966 agreement between Cambodia and the PR China, Cambodia approved of the North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong using Cambodia's border region with South Vietnam to run supply lines for the Viet Cong. On Feb. 23rd 1970 US President Nixon approved the hitherto secret bombing of Cambodia; on April 30th 1970 he announced that US troops were sent into Cambodia.
Domestic Policy . 1956 penal code introduced. Many new schools were built, the literacy rate significantly raised during the Sihanouk administration. New hospitals were built, access to medical doctors and health care improved.
The Economy . In a 1955 currency reform, the Indochinese Piaster was replaced by the Cambodian Riel.
Cambodia's economy was based on rice cultivation, fishing, rubber plantations. The education system produced graduates, but failed to provide employment for them. Cambodia ran a chronically deficitary budget. A First Five Year Development Plan was launched in 1956; a central project was to develop Kampong Som into a national port called Sihanoukville. The development of the country's infrastructure (roads) received most attention in the plans of 1956-1960, 1960-1964, 1964-1968, 1968-1972.
In 1963, banks, insurance companies and companies involved in foreign trade were nationalized.
Social History . The 1962 census counted 5.72 million Cambodians.

Cultural Policy . In 1958 the independence monument in Pnom Penh was unveiled. In 1962 tv broadcasting began.

Administration . On March 18th 1970, General Lon Nol staged a coup d'etat ousting Prince Norodom Sihanouk who went to the PR China into exile. On October 9th 1970 the monarchy was declared abolished, and a centralized Republic declared. Preparations for the negotiation of a new constitution werre aborted in 1972.
Foreign Policy; the War . The Lon Nol administration refused ships from the PR China and other Communist nations to use the port of Sihanoukville for weapons supplies to the Viet Cong. North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces were ordered to leave Cambodia. Cambodia resumed diplomatic relations with the U.S.
The Lon Nol administration was in control of only part of Cambodia; the areas adjacent to the Vietnamese border remained under North Vietnamese/Viet Cong control, and were to function as operation bases for the Khmer Rouge.
On Feb. 23rd 1970 US President Nixon officially approved the bombing of Cambodia (which secretly had been going on since 1965, and had been intensified in 1969); on April 30th 1970 he announced that US troops were sent into Cambodia.
In Beijing exile, Prince Sihanouk allied himself with the Khmer Rouge (FUNK), which allowed the PR China to throw her support behind the latter.
From 1970 to 1973, Cambodia was a side theatre of the Vietnam War. While the U.S. aerial bombardment affected the country greatly, regular Cambodian and U.S. troops were unable to maintain control of much of the country, the "liberated areas" growing in size. In 1973 the US troops left; only in 1975 the Khmer Rouge entered Pnom Penh and took over the country.
Social History . Cambodia's population in 1970 was estimated at 7 million.
Prior to the coup, the Cambodian state supported the Viet Cong. The victory of the conservatives within Sangkum in 1967 and the Lon Nol coup of 1970 polarized the Cambodian populace. Lon Nol's call for volunteers for the Cambodian Army resulted in the army swelling from 30,000 to 70,000; the guerilla also quickly expanded her force, what used to be a low scale insurgency escalated into a full scale civil war.
As the government now pursued an anti-Vietnamese policy, Cambodia's ethnic Vietnamese minority of 400,000 was exposed to mob violence, and a number of Cambodian Vietnamese were massacred.
The Economy . Cambodia's rice production decreased from a bumper harvest of 3.8 million metric tons in 1970 to 0.6 million metric tons in 1974 (IHS p.196).

Administration . In 1975 the Khmer Rouge took control of the capital Phnom Penh and now controlled all of Cambodia. Nominally, King Sihanouk was the head of state. In 1976 a Communist constitution was adopted, which mentioned equality, freedom of religion etc. The country was renamed Democratic Kampuchea.
Foreign Relations . Diplomatic relations with the U.S. and the USSR were cut in 1975, those with Vietnam in 1977. Kampuchea leaned heavily on the PR China. The maltreatment of Cambodia's Vietnamese minority caused concern in Vietnam; in 1979 the Vietnamese army invaded and ousted the Khmer Rouge regime.
Social Policy . The Khmer Rouge leadership, despite the warnings by Chinese politicians, planned to immediately transform Cambodian society into a "true Communist society", an Agro-Communism. Population elements deemed as being feudal, capitalist, or bourgeois, if they were not executed, were to be reeducated ("New People"). Buddhist monks, Catholic priests, the minority of ethnic Vietnamese, speakers of a foreign language were treated especially bad. The urban centers, the population of which had swollen due to the arrival of internaly displaced persons during the civil war, were depopulated, the excess population relocated to the countryside.
The party was in control of everything; the individual was expected to follow orders, given a rice ration (the "New People" given a lower ration), had no privacy; even marriages were decided on by the cadres.
The social and economic policies of the Khmer Rouge caused the Cambodian Democide and must be rated among the most extensive peacetime killings of civilians, in relation to the total population, by any government in history, estimates giving the number of victims around 1 million, out of a 1975 population estimated at about 8 million. The Cambodian Democide was depicted by the movie "Killing Fields". Party purges only added to the country's many, largely self-made problems.
The Economy . The Khmer Rouge wanted to establish a self-sufficient, isolationist Agro-Communism; an attempt to move industries to the countryside was made. They, in effect, abolished the Cambodian currency, the Riel. In 1975, foreign trade was interrupted. In 1976-1977, on a limited scale, it was resumed, the PR China being the most important trade partner.
Cambodia's rice production in 1975-1978 was at 1.5 to 1.8 million metric tons annually, compared to 2.0 to 2.5 million metric tons annually in the years 1958-1969 (IHS p.196).

Administration . Following atrocities against ethnic Vietnamese residents of Cambodia, in 1979 the Vietnamese Army invaded the country, quickly established control over most areas and installed a pro-Vietnamese government. The country was renamed People's Republic of Kampuchea. Heng Samrin, of the People's Revolutionary Party of Kampuchea (pro-Soviet Communists, est. in 1979), held various functions which made him de facto head of state 1979-1992; Hun Sen held the office of PM since 1985.
The Khmer Rouge, under Pol Pot, retreated into the jungle, posing a problem in the border areas to Thailand for years to come. Prince Sihanouk, nominal head of state during the Khmer Rouge administration, returned into Chinese exile.
Foreign Policy . The People's Republic of Cambodia was perceived as a satellite of Vietnam, and like the latter, an ally of the USSR. The PR China, unable to directly aid the Khmer Rouge, fought a border war with Vietnam (1980); Vietnam responded by ousting her ethnic Chinese minority (Boat People).
In the west, the ousture of the democidal Khmer Rouge government was received as relief; yet the new administration was not granted a general welcome, as it was perceived as a Vietnamese/Soviet satellite.
Thailand, host to a large number of Cambodian refugees, dwelling in camps along the Cambodian border, had to be highly concerned.
Vietnam withdrew her forces from Cambodia in 1986-1989.
Social History . The new administration ended the Cambodian Democide in the areas it controlled. The census of 1993 counted 9.3 million Cambodians. The People's Republic of Kampuchea exerted a lower degree of social control than her predecessor; many moved into the cities. Under the Khmer Rouge, the population of Phnom Penh was estimated at c. 20,000; the J. Lahmeyer gives figures of 329,000 for 1981, 620,000 for 1990.
The Economy . In 1980 Kampuchea introduced a new currency, the New Riel. By comparison to the Khmr Rouge years, foreign trade was increased, with Cambodia being a net importer dependent on Vietnamese and Soviet aid; Vietnam and the USSR replaced the PR China as Cambodia's leading trade partners.
Cambodia's annual rice production rose from 1.1 to 1.4 milliion metric tons in 1980-1982 to 2.1 to 2,5 million metric tons in 1985-1993 (IHS p.196).
Cultural History . The National Olympic Committee of Cambodia was formed in 1983 and recognized by the IOC in 1994.
Transition to Democracy . Following the withdrawal of the Vietnamese troops in 1989, the Cambodian government entered into negotiations with the political opposition (based abroad; the Khmer Rouge continued to fight until 1998). The negotiations led to a constitutional change, the reintroduction of multiparty democracy, the stationing of UN peacekeeping forces in Cambodia. The monarchy was restored. Free elections were held in 1993.

since 1993
Administration . In 1992-1993, the country was placed under UNTAC (United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia).
The 1993 constitution reintroduced the monarchy (Sihanouk; he went into exile in 2004). From 1993 to 1998, Hun Sen held the position of one of two prime ministers; since 1998 he is sole PM.
The multiparty coalition was uneasy; in 1997, Hun Sen ousted his rival Prince Rannaridh and another civil war broke out. In 1998 elections were held; Prince Rannaridh became speaker of Parliament. Another coalition government was formed. In 2003 elections were held.
The Cambodian Civil War . The guerilla war continued; the Khmer Rouge were weakened by a 1996 split. Negotiations lead to the surrender of individual Khmer Rouge groups, who were promised amnesty in return for laying down their arms. Pol Pot died in 1998. The guerilla war ended that year. Cambodia had to deal with the legacy, a part of it being an estimated 7 million land mines, injuring unsuspecting civilians and preventing the cultivation of rice etc. Trials of Khmer Rouge leaders for crimes against humanity are scheduled to begin in 2007.
Foreign Policy . In 1997 Cambodia was admitted to ASEAN; it did not become effective until 1999. The UN in 1998 had agreed to grant the Cambodian seat to the new coalition government.
The Economy . Economically, in 1993 the Kingdom of Cambodia was in a desolate condition. The millions of landmines proved an obstacle to agricultural production. Poverty forced many into illegal and harmful activities, such as prostitution (causing a dramatic rise in HIV infections), poaching (parts of protected animals were highly prized commodities on the East Asian market for oriental medicine) and the theft of priceless, century-old Buddhist art (sculptures from Angkor), which were sold to foreign buyers.
Rice production increased from 2.3 million metric tons in 1993 to 4.0 million metric tons in 1999 (IHS p.196). Inflation, a problem in 1993, dropped quickly to a moderate level; the country experiences strong economic growth but continues to rank among the poorest countries in Asia. Cambodia is recipient of significant amounts of foreign aid.
Cambodia joined the WTO in 2004.
Social History . The census of 1993 established a population of 9.3 million, the census of 1998 a population of 11.4 million. In 1999 the last refugee camps in Thailand were closed, returning refugees contributing to the drastic increase in the population of Cambodia.
Cultural History . Cambodian athletes participated in the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, in the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney and in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. Angkor, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1992, was regarded endangered between 1992 and 2004 due to art theft. It is Cambodia's main tourist attraction.

Historical Atlas : Cambodia Page

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Cambodia
Library of Congress Country Studies : Cambodia; from World Wide Gazetteer
Historic Antonio de Morga, The Philippine Islands, Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan, and China, at the Close of the Sixteenth Century, Engl. trsl. 1868, IA
E. Aymoner, Le Cambodge. vol.1 : Le Royaume actuel, 1900, vol.2 : Le Groupe d'Angkor et l'Histoire 1900, in French, IA
S.L. Louvet, Le Royaume de Cambodge, vol.1, 1883, vol.2, 1883, IA
A. Rousseau, Le protectorat francçais du Cambodge, 1904, in French, IA
Aymonier, Etienne, Notice sur le Cambodge, 1875, in French, SBB
Chou, Ta-kuan, Description du royaume de Camboge pr??? d'une notice chronologique sur le m?e pays, extraite des annales de la Chine, 1819, in French, GB
Links General Category : Cambodia, from Wikipedia
from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL, from dmoz, from Virtual Library Cambodia; from East and Southeast Asia. An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources
List of Cambodia-related Topics, from Wikipedia
Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia
on History Category : History of Cambodia, from Wikipedia
Historical Dictionary
Organizations Cambodian Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, Royal Academy of Cambodia (RAC), from Cultural Profiles : Cambodia
Apsara (authority responsible for archaeology in Cambodia)
AEFEK - Association d'Echanges et de Formation pour les Etudes Khmeres
Center for Khmer Studies
French Ecole Française d'Extreme Orient, Pnom Penh Centre
Other International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News
Accounts of History History of Cambodia, from Lonely Planet, from Asia Tours, 4 chapters; from World Travel Guide
History of Cambodia, from Wikipedia
Beauty and Darkness : Cambodia - the Odyssey of the Khmer People, from mekong.net
Specific Periods / Events Articles : Lovek 1525-1593, Dark Ages of Cambodia, 1593-1863, French Protectorate of Cambodia 1867-1954, Japanese Occupation of Cambodia, 1941-1945, Kingdom of Cambodia, 1954-1970, Cambodian Coup of 1970, Khmer Republic 1970-1975, Khmer Rouge Rule of Cambodia 1975-1979, People's Republic of Kampuchea, 1979-1993, United Nations Transitional Administration of Cambodia 1992-1993, Modern Cambodia, since 1993, from Wikipedia
P. Rungswasdisab, War and Trade: Siamese Interventions in Cambodia, 1767-1851, thesis Wollongong 1995
Historiography M. Hamers, Do nothing, sit still, and wait for my orders. The role of photography in the archive practices, historiography, and memory of Democratic Kampuchea 1975-1979, thesis 2011
Washington Post, May 7 2007 : In Cambodia, a Clash Over History of the Khmer Rouge, Article by E. Kinetz
R.B. Hughes, Fielding genocide: post-1979 Cambodia and the geopolitics of memory, thesis Melbourne 2006
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Cambodia; Governments on the WWW : Cambodia; Article Politics of Cambodia, from Wikipedia
Cambodia Profile, from International Crisis Group
Foreign Relations "Khmerization", The History of Cambodian-Portuguese Relations (2008); Arnold van Wickeren, Geschiedenis van Portugal en de Portugezen, Deel 17 Chapter 3 subch.2, De expeditie van Veloso, Ruiz en Gallinato naar Cambodja, subch.3, Cambodja onder Spaans voogdij, subch.4, Hollanders in Cambodja, in Dutch, posted on Colonial Voyage
Chamvet Kasetsiri, Thailand - Cambodia, a Love-Hate Relationship Kyoto Review 2003
Australia-Cambodian Relations, from Australia DFAT
Article Cambodia-Vietnam Relations, from Wikipedia
Milton Osborne, Preah Vihear: the Thai-Cambodia temple dispute 2008
Long Kosal, Sino-Cambodian Relations, Cambodian Institution for Cooperation and Peace, CICP Working Paper No.28 2009
Russian-Cambodian Relations, from Russian Embassy in Cambodia
Cambodia-Laos Relations, from Bookrags
Celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the Czech-Cambodian diplomatic relations, from Embassy of the Czech Republic in Bangkok
Dijk, Ludovicus Carolus Desiderius, Neerland's vroegste betrekkingen met Borneo, den Solo-Archipel, Cambodja, Siam en Cochin-China een nagelaten werk, 1862, in Dutch, SBB
J. Hallsey, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Cambodian People, 1945-1993, thesis Univ. of Maine 2007
J.P. Millard, Chinese involvement in Cambodia, 1978-1991, thesis Univ. of Arizona 1993
U.S. Dept. of State, Office of the Historian, Visits By Foreign Leaders of Cambodia
Military Wars of Cambodia, from ACED; Orders, Decorations and Medals of Cambodia, from ODM; Recently ended Conflicts - Cambodia, from ploughshares
Cambodia Index, from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Articles : Cambodian Campaign, 1970, Cambodian-Vietnamewse War 1979-1987, from Wikipedia
P. Rungswasdirap, War and trade: Siamese interventions in Cambodia, 1767-1851, thesis Wollongong 1995
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Cambodia; Article Economy of Cambodia, from Wikipedia
Article Cambodian Riel, from Wikipedia
The Political and Economic History of Cambodia, by Thayer Watkins
Cambodia's Economic Development and History, by Sophal Ear; Cambodia's Economic Development in Historical Perspective, by Sophal Ear
Cambodia Energy Profile, from Energy Information Administtration
Global Integrity : Cambodia 2006
Search Company History, Funding Universe : Company Histories for Cambodia
P. Rungswasdirap, War and trade: Siamese interventions in Cambodia, 1767-1851, thesis Wollongong 1995
Social History Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Cambodia
Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Yong En En, The Failure of Communism to take root among the Cambodians and the Lao before 1945 reflected the Success of a French Divide-and-Rule Policy which pitted these Groups against the Vietnamese. It also reflected the Fact that the Confucian Base of Vietnamese Culture made them more receptive to Marxism. Theravada Buddhist Base of Cambodian and Lao Culture,, NUS History Society e-Journal
Educational Heritage Project, Cambodia
S. Rany et al., Cambodia's Higher Education Development in Historical Perspectives (1863-2012), International Journal of Learning & Development vol.2 no.2 2012
S.S. Dy, Strategies and Policies for Basic Education in Cambodia: Historical Perspectives, International Education Journal Vol 5, No 1, 2004
SEAMEO RETRAC, Education Development in Cambodia, 1979-2008
S. Ear, Cambodia's Economic Development in Historical Perspective (1953-1970), The Berkeley MacNair Journal 1995 vol.3
Khmer-Buddhist Educational Assistance Project, Buddhism in Cambodia (on education)
IATBU, Preah Sihanouk Raja Buddhist University
Ethnography Languages of Pakistan (21), from Ethnologue; Minorities at Risk - Cambodia, entry Vietnamese
Country Report : Cambodia, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (Reports 1997-2004)
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Cambodia
Thai - Cambodia Border Refugee Camps 1975 - 1999 Information and Documentation Website
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Cambodia
Category Religion in Cambodia, from Wikipedia
Catholic Church in Kingdom of Cambodia, from GCatholic
History of Buddhism in Cambodia, from Cambodian View
L'Etat present de l'Eglise de la Chine et des autres roiaumes voisins, 1670, in French, GB ; numerous Camboya references
De la Mission que piden en el Reyno de Camboya, pp.173-175 in vol.1 of Luis de Guzman O.S.J., Historia de las missiones que han hecho los religiosos de la Companha de Iesus, para predicar el Sancto Euangelio en la India Oriental, y en los Reynos de la China y Japon 1601, in Spanish, GB
Virtual Sambor Prei Kuk, Cambodia. A digital reconstruction of a 7th century Khmer temple
A. Perez Pereiro, Historical Imagination, Diasporic Identity And Islamicity Among The Cham Muslims of Cambodia, thesis Univ. of Arizona 2012
Article : History of Buddhism in Cambodia, Wikipedia
History of Regions Provinces of Cambodia, Regencies of Cambodia, from www.statoids.com
Local History History of Pnom Penh, from Pnom Penh Municipality, from Go Cambodia
Institutions Article Transport in Cambodia from Wikipedia
Cambodia, Indo-China, from Airline History
Structurae : Cambodia
History, of Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace (CICP)
Culture Film, Literature, Performing Arts, from Cambodia Cultural Profile
Article Cinema of Cambodia, from Wikipedia
Tissandier, Albert, Cambodge et Java ruines khm?es et javanaises 1893-1894, 1896, in French, SBB
Biographies List of Cambodians, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Disaster History by Country : Cambodia, from Relief Web
Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
A.S. Roberts, Phytosociology, history and diversity in farmer-managed landscapes on the Tonle Sap floodplain, Cambodia, thesis City Univ. of New York 2011
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Cambodia
Cambodia, from UK Food Online, a culinary history

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors Liste des Ambassadeurs de France au Cambodge depuis 1956, from Ambafrance; List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to Cambodia, from Wikipedia; Ambassador of Russia to Cambodia, from Wikipedia; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Phnom Penh (Kambodscha), from Wikipedia German edition
List of Canadian Heads of Post, click Cambodia; U.S. Ambassadors o Cambodia, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Cambodia, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia
Population Figures Cambodia, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Population of Cities : Cambodia, from City Population
Election Results from Psephos (since 1998) ; from IFES Election Guide (since 1998)
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Documents Historical Newspapers History of Cambodia, from World History Archives
Online Yearbooks
Modern Newspapers from World Newspapers, from Online Newspapers
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base
Systematic Collections
Digital Archive of Cambodian Holocaust Survivors (DACHS)
Cambodian Genocide Program, Photographs
Cambodia, Beauty and Darkness : Cambodia, a Photo Gallery
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Cambodia
Image Databank : South East Asian Images & Texts, from University of Wisconsin Digital Collection (on Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia)
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Asia Insider Photos, Angkor Wat Pictures
Southeast Asia Digital Library, The May Ebihara Collection: Ethnographic Research in Rural Community [in Cambodia], 1959-1995
Universal Collections
Items on Cambodia
License Plate, from World License Plates
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Cambodia
Video Documentaries Search INA (video documentaries 1941-2001) for Cambodge
Archival Deposits France, Archives nationales d'outre-mer
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, search for Cambodia
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Cambodia
Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Cambodja" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 4 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Cambodia, Cambodja
Search CIA Released Documents for Cambodia
Constitutions 1993 Constitution, from constitution.org
Laws Cambodian Laws Database
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Cambodia, from ILO, 12 docs. since 1969
Internet Law Library : Cambodia;
Treaties Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Cambodia
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Cambodia, from United States Institute of Peace
Historiography J. Moura, Le Royaume de Cambodge, chronique royale du Cambodge, ou, Pongsa vodar vol.1, 1883, in French, IA
Document Collections Indochina - Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, Documents 1950-1964, from Avalon Project at Yale Law School
Documents : Cambodia, from CEAS at UCLA
International Commission for Supervision and Control for Cambodia 1954, from Documents on Canadian External Relations
Individual Documents Great victory of the Cambodian people : warmly congratulating the patriotic Cambodian armed forces and people on the liberation of Phnom Penh and all Cambodia, 1975, IA
Historical Maps responsible institutions
collections : Asia Historical Map Archive : Historical Maps of Asia
collections : Cambodia WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Cambodia Page
Atlas of Cambodia, from Wikimedia Commons
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
Maps of Cambodia, posted by Mapas Imperiales, scans, scroll down for Camboya
Cartotheque et Chronologie, from Dossier Indochine by Academie Rheims
Canby Publications, Cambodia : Historical Map Index
Historical Maps Archive : Historical Maps of Indo-China
Indochine Souvenir : Cartes
Cambodia Maps, PCL, UTexas
Cambodia Maps, anonymous, but useful blog entry
PRINT : J.M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Asia, Modern Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., 527 BC, 500 BC, 400 BC, 335 BC, 323 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC, 100 BC, 050 BC, 050 AD, 200 AD, 300 AD, 400 AD, 450 AD, 565 AD, 600 AD, 610 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, Asia 700 AD, 800 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Asia, Historical Asia : Güssefeld/Homann 1793, Güssefeld/Homann 1805, Schmidt/Schropp 1820, Herisson 1848, GDZ
Asia 1892, PCL, UTexas
Cambodia, Modern Map of Ethnic Groups in Cambodia, from IKAP - MMSEA
Cambodia, Contemporary Cambodia 1922, 1932, 1938, from Probert Encyclopedia
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary U.S. Army Map Service, Indochina and Thailand, 1:250,000, 1954-, PCL, UTexas
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Cambodia, French Indo-China, from EB 1911
Artikel Kambodscha, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Indo-China, from Catholic Encyclopedia
De la Religion du Royaume de Cambaye, pp.416-420 in vol.3 of Nicolas Jovet, L'histoire des religions de tous les royaumes du monde, 1710, in French, GB
Economic Camboya, p.1172 in vol.1 of Jacques Savary des Bruslons, Dictionnaire universel de commerce, 1726, in French, GB
Camboya, Commerce de Canton a Camboya, p.200 in vol.5 of Jacques Savary des Brulons, Dictionnaire universel de commerce, 1765, in French, GB
Trade of Canton with Camboya, p.668 in W. Beaves, Lex Mercatoria Rediviva or, The merchant's directory, 1773, GB
J.C.M.R., Korte Schets van den tegenwoordigen staat van het Half-Eiland beoosten de Ganges, pp.317-347 in : vol.4 of Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap der Kunsten en Weetenschappen, 1786, in Dutch, GB, on Cambodia p.344
Article : Camboya, col.91-95 in vol.2 of Carl Günther Ludovici, Johann Christian Schedel, Neu eröfnete Academie der Kaufleute, oder encyclopädisches Kaufmannslexicon 1798, in German, GB
Handel von Camboya, pp.58-59, in : Friedrich Ludwig Langstedt, Geschichte des asiatischen Handels, 1803, in German, GB
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Cambodia
Geographical Royaume de Camboya, pp.643-644 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Camboya, p.137 in : vol.3 od Pherotee de la Croix, Algemeene Weereld-Beschryving, 1705, in Dutch, GB
Camboja, pp.727-728 in J.E.B., Compendieuse Staats-Beschreibung Des Durchlauchtigen Welt-Kreises, 1721, in German, GB
Camboye, pp.100-101 in vol.2 of Antoine Augustin Bruzen de La Martiniere, Le grand dictionnaire geographique et critique, 1730, in French, GB
Cambodia, pp.195-207 in : Alexander Hamilton,A new account of the East Indies, vol.2, 1744, GB
Treats of Couchin-China, and Tonquin, their Religion, Laws and Customs : Cambodia, pp.372-376, in : A new history of the East-Indies, 1754, GB
Camboye, p.63, in : J.J. Vaissete, Geographie historique, ecclesiastique et civile, 1755, in French, GB
Entry : The Kingdom of Cambodia, pp.127-134, in : T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1768, posted on Google Books
Camboye, pp.544-548 in vol.5 of L.P. Anquetil, Precis de l'Histoire Universelle ou Tableau historique presentant les vicissitudes des Nations ... , 1799, in French, GB
Along the Coast of Cambodia - Islands off the Coast of Tsiompa, pp.460-463 in : Joseph Huddart et al., The Oriental Navigator, or New Directions for Sailing to and From the East Indies, China, New Holland etc., 1801, GB
Entry : Camboje, pp.293-294 in vol.1 of C. de Grandpre, Dictionaire universel de geographie maritime, 1803, GB
Cambodia, p.176 in vol.2 of J. Pinkerton, Modern Geography 1804, GB
Entry : Cambodia, pp.381-382 in : vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography: or a description of all parts of the world, 1825, GB
Article : Cambodia, pp.151-152 in R. Brookes, A new universal gazetteer, 1832, GB
Entry : Cambodia, p.276 in : A. Arrowsmith, A grammar of modern geography, 1832, GB
Stato del paese di Camboje, pp.166-167, in : Annali universali di statistica, economia pubblica, storia, viaggi e commercio vol.35, Jan.-Mar. 1834, in Italian, GB
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Cambodia
Ethnographical Entry : Regno di Cambogia, pp.221-226, in vol.4 of D. G. Ferrario, Il Costume Antico e Moderno di Tutti i Popoli, 1824, in Italian, GB
Assam, Laos, Cambodia and Arakan p.179 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
Cambodia, pp.527-530 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Cambodia, pp.1093-1120 in vol.2A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Historical Article Camboia, pp.738-739 in vol.1 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionnaire historique, 1683, in French, GB
Article Camboje, p.253 in vol.3 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionnaire historique, 1689, in French, GB
Article Camboje, p.29 in vol.2 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionnaire historique, 1692, in French, GB
Article Camboje, p.52 in vol.2 of L. Moreri, Le grand dictionnaire historique, 1711, in French, GB
The Kingdom of Kamboja, pp.394-424, in : The modern part of an universal history, vol.7, 1759, GB
Le Royaume de Camboje, pp.409-457 in vol.52 of Histoire universelle, depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'a present, 1783, in French, GB
Entry : Camboje, pp.94-98 in vol.7 of P.L. Anquetil, Precis de l'histoire universelle, ou tableau historique, 1801. in French, GB
Entry : Cambodia pp.339-340 in vol.5 of J.G. Eichhorn, Geschichte der letzten drey Jahrhunderte, 1806, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides
Travelogues Alexander Hamilton, Account of Pegu and the Voyage to Cambodia and Siam in 1718 (SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research), posted on Internet Archive
Ch. Lemire, Cochinchine française et royaume de Cambodge avec l'Itineraire de Paris a Saigon et a la capitale cambodgienne, 1869, in French, IA
W.H.D. Adams, In the Far East: A Narrative of Exploration and Adventure in Cochin-China, Cambodia, Laos, and Siam, 1881, IA
John McGregor, Through the Buffer state ; a record of recent travels through Borneo, Siam and Cambodia, 1896, IA
Delaporte, Louis, Voyage au Cambodge l'architecture khmer, 1880, in French, SBB
Institutions Archives National Archives of Cambodia
Libraries, Archives : Cambodia, from Portal to the World
Archives, from Cambodia Cultural Profile
Musea Lists, Links Museums, from Cambodia Cultural Profile
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments Tentative Lists : Cambodia; World Heritage List, scroll down for Cambodia; from UNESCO World Heritage
Libraries Bibliotheque Nationale du Cambodge
Libraries, National Library, Cambodia, from Cambodia Cultural Profile
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Cambodia, from World Currency Museum; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Zeno
Coins - Ancient Cambodia, Modern Cambodia, French Protectorate, from Zeno

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Cambodia survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Cordier, Bibliotheca indo-sinica; essai d'une bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a la presqu'ile Indo-chinoise 1908, IA
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Cambodia
Cambodian-Related Bibliography, from Hmong Studies
AEFEK, Catalogue bibliographique sur le Cambodge
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Tribal Textiles : Cambodia Bibliography
Women's Studies Bibliography : Cambodia
Bibliography, Thai, Lao and Cambodian Manuscript Collection, British Library
Hill Center, Cambodia Handbook, bibliography of English language publications on the history of Cambodia
serial publications New Asia Books : Cambodia
general bibliographies
Cambodia entries
booksellers Books on Cambodia, from DCO Thai
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Cambodia
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for Cambodia
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
Books on Genocide and Related Topics in Khmer, from Prevent Genocide
Books on Cambodia, from Orchid Press
South East Asia Dissertations, click Indo-China, Cambodia
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
International Boundary Studies
on Cambodia Bibliotheque Nationale du Cambodge, Bibliotheca Khmerica
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Digitale Sammlungen : Ostasiatica, from Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Search Electronic Journals Online for Cambodia
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Working Papers, from CICP
Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 1991-2003
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
Southeast Asia Chronicle No.64 : Sept.- Oct. 1978 "Vietnam-Kampuchea War", IA
Historiography Article : Cambodian Historiography, by D. Chandler, pp.134-136 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.730-740 Article Southeast Asia : Cambodia, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Historical Dictionaries J. Corfield, L. Summers, Historical Dictionary of Cambodia, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2002
Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Article : Cambodia, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.165-166, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.165-166 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year 1956 p.138, 1957 p.198, 1958 p.135, 1959 p.137, 1960 pp.135-136, 1961 pp.133-134, 1962 pp.123-124, 1963 pp.239-240, 1964 pp.214-215, 1965 pp.210-211, 1966 pp.167-168, 1967 pp.183-184, 1968 pp.181-182, 1969 pp.182-183, 1970 pp.181-182, 1971 pp.176-177, 1972 pp.161-163, 1973 pp.158-160, 1974 pp.167-168, 1975 pp.150-152, 1976 pp.178-179, 1977 pp.181-182, 1978 pp.234-235, 1979 pp.232-233, 1980 pp.228-230, 1981 pp.226-228, 1982 pp.474-475, 1983 pp.468-469, 1984 pp.467-468, 1985 pp.516-517, 649, 1986 pp.510-511, 713, 1987 pp.480-481, 681, 1988 pp.438-439, 633, 1989 pp.438-439, 634, 1990 pp.454-455, 649, 1991 pp.435-436, 566, 1992 pp.408-409, 566, 1993 pp.412, 576, 1994 pp.412-413, 576, 1995 pp.385-386, 576, 1996 pp.383-384, 576, 1997 pp.403, 574, 2002 pp.401, 571
Statesman's Year-Book 1895 pp.508-510, 1898 pp.506-508, 1901 pp.580-583, 1905 pp.638-643, 1910 pp.784-789, 1912 pp.803-804, 1918 pp.846-847, 1919 pp.852-853, 1924 pp.892-893, 1925 pp.903-904, 1926 pp.877-878, 1928 pp.890-891, 1929 pp.878-879, 1932 pp.880-881, 1933 pp.883-884, 1937 pp.919-920, 1943 pp.906-907, 1970-1971 pp.793-796, 1975-1976 pp.1099-1105, 1976-1977 pp.811-815, 1978-1979 pp.748-752, 1979-1980 pp.752-756, 1980-1981 pp.752-756, 1981-1982 pp.755-759, 1983-1984 pp.258-262, 1984-1985 pp.257-260, 1985-1986 pp.259-262, 1986-1987 pp.262-265, 1987-1988 pp.261-264, 1988-1989 pp.260-263, 1989-1990 pp.261-264, 1990-1991 pp.261-264, 1991-1992 pp.262-265, 1992-1993 pp.263-267, 1993-1994 pp.263-266, 1994-1995 pp.257-260, 1995-1996 pp.249-252, 1996-1997 pp.266-269, 1997-1998 pp.270-273, 1998-1999 pp.295-299, 2000 pp.351-356, 2001 pp.339-343, 2002 pp.355-359, 2003 pp.352-356, 2004 pp.353-357, 2005 pp.348-352, 2006 pp.345-349
(New) Int'l Yearbook 1898 p.149, 1899 p.151, 1900 pp.157-158, 1907 p.128, 1908 p.119, 1909 p.124, 1913 p.130, 1918 p.105, 1919 pp.123-124, 1920 p.114, 1921 p.113, 1923 p.116, 1925 pp.117-118, 1928 p.127, 1930 p.127, 1932 p.129, 1933 p.123
Americana Annual 1927 p.138, 1928 p.126, 1930 p.139, 1931 p.134, 1932 p.130, 1933 pp.123-124, 1934 p.123, 1935 p.119, 1936 pp.107-108, 1937 p.96, 1938 p.96, 1939 p.104, 1940 p.94, 1943 p.120, 1944 pp.115-116, 1957 p.122, 1961 p.108, 1962 pp.105-106, 1963 pp.113-114, 1964 pp.114-115, 1965 pp.131-132, 1967 pp.141-142, 1968 pp.130-131, 1969 pp.142-143, 1970 pp.146-147, 1971 pp.170-172, 1972 p.173, 1973 pp.166-167, 1974 p.151, 1976 pp.103, 149-150, 1988 p.161, 1989 p.159, 1990 pp.156-157, 1992 pp.166-167, 1993 pp.161-162, 1994 p.163, 1998 pp.184-185, 2006 p.89
YB on Int'l Communist Affairs 1973 pp.420-427, 1974 pp.411-418, 1976 pp.250-257, 1978 pp.225-228, 1979 pp.227-229, 1980 pp.263-267, 1984 pp.235-237, 1988 pp.150-156, 1989 pp.176-189
Other Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1933 p.137 [G]

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