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Literature on the History of South East Asia
First posted on December 21st 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . Early History . Precolonial History . 1400-1800s . Celebes within the Dutch East Indies . Celebes within Indonesia

historical Celebes polities Minahasa, Bone, Makassar, Buton
see also V.O.C., Dutch East Indies, 1795-1949, Indonesia

Celebes (Sulawesi in Bahasa Indonesia) is the world's eleventh largest island, with an area of 174,600 square km and a population of 17.4 million.

During the Pleistocene, Celebes was separated from Borneo in the west and the Moluccas in the east by ocean, while, during glacial periods (when the ocean was up to 100 m lower than today) it formed part of a land bridge stretching from mainland China via Taiwan and the Philippines to Celebes; since the onset of the Holocene, Celebes was an island. In Human Arrival and its Dispersal in Sulawesi during the Holocene (2008), H. Widianto discusses the period between 2000 and 300 BC. Other sources attest the presence of humans on Sulawesi much further back in history, to at least 30,000 BP.
The megalithic site of Sinjai has been dated to around 1500 AD (Hasanudin); local bronze production is attested for around 1000 AD; in the case of older bronze items they may have been imported. Hence the application of terms such as "the Megalithic" or "the Bronze Age" to Celebes is problematic.

Early History
Trade contact with other islands as with mainland Asia goes back into prehistory. During early history, Hindu influence on northern Celebes (Minahasa) is assumed. In 1921 a large bronze Buddha statue statue was found, dated to between the 3rd and 5th century AD.
Still today the population of the island is composed of numerous ethnic groups which display a great difference in lifestyle. The influence of Indian religions was limited to coastal populations, for whom seafaring and maritime trade was of greater importance than to tribes of the island's interior.

Precolonial History
The island of Celebes was a rather insignificant part of the southeastern fringe of the Afro-Eurasian trade network. Prior to 1500, none of the world religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam) had established a lasting foothold on the island; a culture of writing had not yet been established.
Many Celebes polities were small. In the extreme northeast (Minahasa) and southwest (the Bugis), larger polities were being formed. The Bugis were excellent navigators.

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to visit Celebes (Simao d'Abreu 1523). In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company (V.O.C.) attempted to establish control over maritime trade in the area, most notably the spice trade, and they found the Bugi Kingdom of Makassar an obstinate competitor. The Bugis had converted to Islam in 1605. Only in 1669 did the Dutch manage to conquer Makassar.
The Portuguese had begun to proselytize in Minahasa in the 1530s; in the first decades of the 17th century they were replaced by the Spanish, who fortified Manado in 1623. In 1679 the Minahasans signed a treaty with the V.O.C., recognizing the latter's sovereignty over their area.
The V.O.C. was only partially capable of establishing control of regional maritime trade. The Dutch had larger vessels, but the regional perahu (most notably those from Makassar) continued to play an important role.

Celebes within the Dutch East Indies
During the 19th and early 20th century, the Dutch East Indies extended their control over Celebes, by the means of military expeditions if necessary.

Sulawesi within Indonesia
During World War II, the island was administrated by the Japanese (1942-1945).
Indonesia became independent in 1949. Indonesia's capital is Jakarta; the country's economy is concentrated on heavily populated Java. From the 1950s to 1980s, the Transmigrasi program resettled Javanese families on the larger, but lesser populated island of Celebes. In the 1990s, tensions between Muslims and Christians in Minahasa escalated into a violent conflict.

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern
Links Virtual Library History : Indonesia
Organizations The Islamic Manuscript Association (TIMA)
The Oxis Group, South Sulawesi before 1900 CE
Historical Dictionary J. Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
Accounts of History General R. Blok, History of the island of Celebes, 1817, IA
Indonesie.nl, Geschiedenis van Sulawesi
Specific Periods Prehistory
H. Widianto, Human Arrival and its Dispersal in Sulawesi during the Holocene 2008
R. Blench, Was there an Austroasiatic Presence in Island Southeast Asia Prior to the Austronesian Expansion ?, Indo Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 30, 2010 pp.133-144
G. Barker, Footsteps and marks: transitions to farming in the rainforests of Island Southeast Asia, Program in Agrarian Studies, Yale, Colloquium Series no.3, n.d.
P. Bellwood, Special Report: Ancient Seafarers, Archaeology vol.50 no.2, March/April 1997
Hasanuddin, Megalithic Sites in the District of Sinjai, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 31 2011
V. Kirleis et al., The megalithic landscape of central Sulawesi. Combining archaeological and palynological investigations, Crossing Borders in Southeast Asian Archaeology, 2 vol. 2010, pp.199-220; also from Univ. Kiel
Anggraeni, The Lifestyle of the Karama Valley Neolithic Inhabitants, draft 2013
D. Henley, A Superabundance of Centers: Ternate and the Contest for North Sulawesi, Cakalele vol.4 (1993) pp.39-60
James, Rajah of Sarawak et al., Narrative of events in Borneo and Celebes, down to the occupation of Labuan vol.1 1848, vol.2 1848, IA
T. Louwerse, Janmaat in de Oost ; of, Vestiging van het Nederlandsche gezag op Celebes ; Geschiedkundig verhaal voor oud en jong Nederland 1894, IA
Since 1914
Historiography A.B. Lapian, Point de vue sur l'Historiographie de Minahasa, Archipel 1987 vol.34 no.34 pp.103-118
Administration K. Kray, Operasi Lilin dan Ketupat: Conflict Prevention in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, thesis Ohio Univ. 2006
A.D. Tyson, The politics of decentralisation and indigenous revivalism in Sulawesi, Indonesia, thesis Leeds 2008
Military M.T.H. Perelaar, De Bonische expeditien, krijgsgebeurtenissen op Celebes in 1859 en 1860 1872, IA
Chain of Command, The Military System of the Dutch East India Company 1655-1663, Makassar: finding a modus vivendi by all means necessary
Dutch Colonial Heritage, The Conquest of Makassar 1595-1800; from Gedenkboek KNIL
Benteng Indonesia, Forts in Sulawesi
Economy & Finances W. Nayati, Social dynamics and local trading patterns in Bantaeng region, South Sulawesi (Indonesia) circa 17th century, thesis Nat'l Univ. Singapore 2005
I.A. Caldwell et al., Three locally-made bronzes from South Sulawesi: possible evidence of cultural transfer from Java about AD 1000, n.d.
L.V. Aragon, Barkcloth Production in Central Sulawesi A Vanishing Textile Technology in Outer Island Indonesia, Expedition Magazone 32 1990
F. Ruf, From Rice to Cocoa through a Political Economy of Dishonesty, Sulawesi, Indonesia, FAO, n.d.
G. Knaap, All about Money : Maritime Trade in Makassar and West Java, around 1775, JESHO vol.49,4 f7 pp.482-508I
Article : Makassan Contact with Australia, Wikipedia
C. MacKnight, 'The view from Marege': Australian knowledge of Makassar and the impact of the trepang industry across two centuries, Aboriginal History Volume 35, 2011
Social History F.D. Bulbeck, ch.13 : The Politics of Marriage and the Marriage of Polities in Gowa, South Sula Wesi, During the 16th and 17th Centuries, from : Origins, Ancestry and Alliance: Explorations in Austronesian Ethnography 1996
Ethnography Muturzikin, Linguistic Map of East Timor, Sulawesi and Nusa Tengara
N. Adriani, De Baree sprekende Toradjas van Midden-Celebes 1912, IA
A. Grubauer, Unter Kopfjaägern in Central-Celebes; Ethnologische Streifzüge in Suüdost- und Central-Celebes, 1913, IA
D. Vermonden, Dans le sillage des grands navigateurs austronesiens: anthropologie des activites maritimes des Butonais d'Indonesie/In the wake of the great Austronesian seafarers: an anthropology of Butonese maritime activities, thesis Univ. Libre de Bruxelles 2008
K.G. Anderson, The open door: early modern Wajorese statecraft and diaspora , thesis Univ. of Hawai'i at Manoa 2003
Countries and their Cultures : Banggai, Bolaang Mogondow, Bugis, Butonese, Gorontalese, Laki, Makassar, Minahasans, Muna, Toala, Toradja, Toraja
G. Amarell, Bugis Migration and Modes of Adaptation to Local Situations, Ethnology n.d.
R.L. Adams, An ethnoarchaeological study of feasting in Sulawesi, Indonesia, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 23 (2004) pp.56-78
L.Y. Andaya, Malay Connectivities and Networks in Early Modern Eastern Indonesia , 2012
R.E. Elson, Constructing the Nation: Ethnicity, Race, Modernity and Citizenship in Early Indonesian Thought, Asian Ethnicity (2005) 6 (3): pp.145-160
C.H.M. Nooy-Palm, Survey of Studies on the Anthropology of Tana Toraja, Sulawesi, Archipel 1978 vol.15 no.15 pp.163-192, Persee
D. Roth, Lebensraum in Luwu. Emergent identity, migration and access to land, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (BKI) 161-4 (2005): pp.485-516
D. Russell, Aboriginal-Makassan interactions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in northern Australia and contemporary sea rights claims, Australian Aboriginal Studies 2004/1
Religion H. Juhannis, The struggle for formalist Islam in South Sulawesi : from Darul Islam (DI) to Komite Persiapan Penegakan Syariat Islam (KPPSI), thesis Australian Nat'l University 2006
L.V. Aragon, Divine justice: Cosmology, ritual, and Protestant missionization in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, thesis Univ. of Illinois 1992
M. van Bruinessen, "The tariqa Khalwatiyya in South Celebes", in: H.A. Poeze et al. (eds), Excursies in Celebes. Een bundel bijdragen bij het afscheid van J. Noorduyn... 1991, pp.251-269
J. Cote, Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and 'Multiculturality'
N. Said, Religion and Cultural Identity Among the Bugis (A Preliminary Remark), Inter-Religio 45 / Summer 2004
Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending en Overzeese Kerken , chapters Tanah-Toraja 1906-1961, Zuid-Sulawesi 1852-1966
C. Pelras, Religion, Tradition and the Dynamics of Islamization in South-Sulawesi, Archipel 1985 vol.29 no.29 pp.107-135, Persee
Article : Hinduism in Sulawesi, Wikipedia
Guide to Buddhism AtoZ, The Sulawesi Buddha
History of Regions North Sulawesi Tourism Promotion Board, History
F.D. Bulbeck, Economy, Military and Ideology in Pre-Islamic Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, Australasian Historical Archaeology, 18, 2000
R.C. Wahr, De Minahasa geschiedenis, 2001
De VOC Site, Contracten met de Minahasa
Local History W.M. Donselaar, Beknopte Beschrijving van Bonthain en Boelecomba op Zuid Celebes, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indie 3 1854
De VOC Site, Handelsposten : Makassar
Culture C.C. MacKnight, Six Pots from South Sulawesi, Records of the Australian Museum (1993) Supplement 17; the pots were made between 1910 and 1937
Biographies G. Noort, De weg van magie tot geloof : Leven en werk van Albert C. Kruyt (1869-1949), zendeling-leraar in Midden-Celebes, Indonesie, thesis Utrecht 2006
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
S. Biagioni et al., Holocene Dynamics of Tropical Rainforest, Climate, Fire, Human Impact in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia) 2012
van Gorsel's List : Bibliography of the Geology of Indonesia and Surrounding Areas, Ch.V : Sulawesi, 2013
Archaeology The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
ABIA South and Southeast Asian Art and Archaeology Index, Project at IGNCA, New Delhi; ABIA Website
I.C. Glover, Ulu Leang Cave, Maros : A Preliminary Sequence of post-Pleistocene Cultural Development in South Sulawesi, Archipel 1976 vol.11 no.11 pp.113-154, Persee
F.D. Bulbeck et al., Recent Insights on the Chronology and Ceramics of the Kalumpang Site Complex, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Journal 22 2002 pp.83-99
Pits Reveal All in Sulawesi, Canberra Archaeological Society Newsletter Feb. 2013, A Bronze Age burial jar and other archaeological artefacts have been uncovered by a team of ANU archaeologists working in the Lake Towuti region of Sulawesi, Indonesia
A. di Lello, A Use-Wear Analysis of Toalian Glossed Stone Artefacts from South Sulawesi, Indonesia, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Journal 22 2002 pp.45-50

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Image Databanks Geheugen van Nederland; site in Dutch; Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam; Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden; Maritiem Digitaal (Dutch Maritime Musea); Leiden University Digital Sources (mostly images); Wikimedia Commons; Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Koleksi Foto, from Indonesian National Library, site in Bahasa Indonesia
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Ceremonial object in the form of an ax head, 500 BC-300 AD Indonesia (Sulawesi)
Stichting Pelita, Beeldbank Virtueel Indië
Archival Deposits Indonesian Provenience
Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
Dutch Provenience
Universiteit Leiden, South Ease Asia Collections
Memories van Overgave, from IDC Publishers; pdf file contains table of contents
E. Schwidder, E. Vermeij, Guide to the Asian Collections at the International Institute of Social History (IISG 2007) [400 page file]
Nationaal Archief, Commissariaat Makassar
British Provenience
British Library, Indonesian Manuscripts
U.S. Provenience
Historiography Foreign Office, Historical Section : Celebes 1919, IA
W. Cummings (trsl.), The Makassar annals KITLV 2010; open access
W. Cummings (trsl.), The Makassarese chronicles of Gowa and Talloq, KITLV 2007; open access
Document Surveys British Library, Help for Researchers, Indonesian Studies
N. Heer, A List of Malay Manuscript Catalogues, 2010
Malay Concordance Project
Document Collections Thesaurus of Indonesian Islamic Manuscripts (T2IM)
Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
Digital Library of Malay Manuscripts
Individual Documents
Historical Maps R. Cribb, Digital Atlas of Indonesian History : Continental plates and plate fragments, twenty million years ago (Sumatra and Java form a combined island), Coastlines of the archipelago, ca 17,000 years ago (Sumatra with Java, Borneo attached to the mainland), Political entities known in the archipelago, ca A.D. 250, States and courts in the archipelago, ca A.D. 450, States and courts in the archipelago, ca A.D. 550, States and courts in the archipelago, ca A.D. 650, Kawi and Pallawa inscriptions, 4th-12th centuries, Celebes
N. Adriani et al., Map of Central Celebes, ca.1912, from J. Cote, Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and 'Multiculturality'
Muturzikin, Linguistic Map of East Timor, Sulawesi and Nusa Tengara
Encyclopedia Entries
Economic Celebes, pp.409-414 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Makassar, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Boeton p.56, Boni p.57, Bugis pp.74-75, Celebes pp.86-92, Gorongtalo p.145, Macassar p.231, Menado p.273, Minahasa pp.276-277 in J. Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
ch.8 : Celebes, pp.275-306 in : Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel 1894, IA
Historical Celebes, pp.349-395 in vol.5 of F. de Marsy, Histoire Moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens &c., 1766, in French, GB
Celebes p.385, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Ethnographical Celebes, pp.198-199 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
Parliamentary Debates Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues Het Journaal van Padtbrugge's Reis naar Noord-Celebes en de Noordereilanden. (16 Aug.-23 Dec. 1677), Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indie 14 1867, IA
The narrative of Captain David Woodard and four seamen : who lost their ship while in a boat at sea, and surrendered themselves up to the Malays, in the island of Celebes; containing an ... account of their sufferings ... and their escape from the Malays, after a captivity of two years and a half: alsoan account of the manners and customs of the country, and a description of the harbours and coast, &c. Together with an introduction, and an appendix, containing narratives of various escapes from shipwrecks 1804, IA
S.J. Hickson, A naturalist in north Celebes : a narrative of travels in Minahassa, the Sangir and Talaut [I]slands, with notices of the fauna, flora and ethnology of the districts visited 1889, IA
P. Sarasin, Reisen in Celebes : ausgeführt in den Jahren 1893-1896 und 1902-1903 vol.1 1905, vol.2 1905, IA
L.M. van Klaveren, Reisherinneringen van een bestuursambtenaar in Zuid-Celebes, De Aarde en haar Volken, 1918
Resident Memoirs NIOD, Dagboeken geschreven in de Minahasa diaries written in the Minahasa; the diaries are in Japanese
Institutions Musea
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Coins, Macassar, from Oriental Coin Database

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
The Oxis Group, South Sulawesi before 1900 CE; see under articles, books & monographs, papers & theses
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Sejarah Melayu Library
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Indonesia
Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands)
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Archipel, use Persee (French search engine)
Archipel 1971-2004 (French search engine)
BTLV 1853-1908, 1853-2009
Institute of the Malay World and Civilization, Sari 1999-2009, partly in English, partly in Bahasa Malaysia
Tribal Arts 1994-2004
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Moussons. Recherche en sciences humaines sur l'Asie du Sud-Est
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
On Indonesia Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.213-245 Article Indonesia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.21
Steven Drakeley, The History of Indonesia, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.8 0763h
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Yearbook Entries

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