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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Straits Settlements Unfederated Malay States
First posted on May 2nd 2010, last revised on December 16th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

for the history up to 1895, see History of Negeri Sembilan, History of Pahang, History of Perak, History of Selangor
see also Malay Peninsula -1895, History of Malaya, History of Malaysia


In 1786 to 1824 the E.I.C. / Britain acquired Penang, Singapore and Malacca. In 1895 British protectorates on the Malay peninsula, namely Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor, formed the Federated Malay States (FMS). Johor, a British protectorate since 1885, opted not to join; neither did Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu, which became British protectorates by the Treaty of Bangkok 1909. The latter five were called Unfederated Malay States.
From 1942 to 1945 the Federated Malay States were under Japanese military administration. With the reestablishment of British administration, in 1946 the former member states of both the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States, together with Penang and Malacca (hitherto Straits Settlements), formed the Federation of Malaya (1946-1963),

This page focusses on the History of the Federated Malay States (1895-1946). For the individual member states see Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor.

Historical Atlas, Malaysia Page (since 1963)
List of Wars : Malay Peninsula (until 1963)






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles from Wikipedia
Federated Malay States, from Sejarah Malaysia
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; Links on Malaysia (chapter on M. History) from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
List of Malaysia-related Topics, from Wikipedia
Virtual Library Malaysia
on History from Virtual Library Malaysia; from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Historical Dictionaries N.B. Dennys, A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya 1894, IA
Organizations on Asian History International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
on SE Asian History Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
on Malaysia History Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Timelines from BBC News, from timelines.ws; from geographia.com; another one from Malaysia Stall
Accounts of History Sejarah Melayu. A History of the Malay Peninsula, from malaya.org.uk
History of Malaysia, from World Travel Guide, from Asian Info, Lonely Planet
Article History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Historical F.A. Swettenham, British Malaya; an account of the origin and progress of British influence in Malaya, 1907, IA
J. Kennedy, A history of Malaya, A.D. 1400-1959 1962, IA
Specific Periods Global Security : Malaysia History : 1870-1909 - The Malay States , 1909-1941 - Federated and Unfederated States
Politics M.St.C. Smith, Report on the Federated Malay States and Java; their systems of government, methods of administration, and economic development (1906), IA
A. Ireland, The far eastern tropics, studies in the administration of tropical dependencies: Hong Kong, British North Borneo, Sarawak, Burma, the Federated Malay States, the Straits Settlements, French Indo-China, Java, the Phillipine Islands (1905), IA
Tracing the Development of the Legal System : Early Malaya, pp.1-19 in A. bt Ahmad, Legal Systems in ASEAN : Malaysia; scroll down for Federated Malay States
History of Public Service in Malaysia, anonymous, n.d.
Military Wars affecting the Malay Peninsula, until 1963 (at this site)
Wars of Malaysia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Article Military History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
A.H. McCormick, The Volunteer Forces of the Federated and Unfederated States of Malaya, and the Straits Settlerments: 1940- 1942
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Malaysia
Economic History of Malaysia, from Economic History Encyclopedia
Category Economic History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Tin Mining in Malaysia - Present and Future, from TED Case Studies; Tin Tales from the Past, from Malaysia up Close
The Story of Malaysian Natural Rubber, from Malaysian Rubber Board
J.Br. Scrivenor, Notes on prospecting for tin-ore in the Federated Malay States (1911), posted on Internet Archive
On the prospect of mineral oil being found in payable quantities in the Federated Malay States and other parts of the Malay Peninsula (1913), posted on Internet Archive
Y. Tai, Chinese capitalism in colonial Malaya, 1900-1941, thesis Univ. of Hong Kong 2010
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Malaysia (141), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Malaysia - Chinese, East Indians
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Malaysia
P.E.L. avre, An account of the wild tribes inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and a few neighbouring islands [microform] : with A journey in Johore and A journey in the Menangkabaw states of the Malayan Peninsula (1865), posted on Internet Archive
World Huaren Federation, Malaysian Chinese
M. Rerceretnam, Black Europeans, the Indian coolies and empire : colonialisation and christianized Indians in colonial Malaya & Singapore, c.1870s-c.1950s, thesis Sidney 2002
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Malaysia, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Article History of the Jews in Malaysia, from Wikipedia; Malaysia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Catholic Church in Malaysia, from GCatholic
C.R. Yeoh, Malaysia, Truly Asia ? Religious Pluralism in Malaysia
J. Roxborogh, An outline history of Christianity in Malaysia
C.R. Yeoh, Malaysia, Truly Asia ? Religious Pluralism in Malaysia
Nalanda, Buddhism in Malaysia
Malaysia Hindudharma Mamandram, Hinduism in Malaysia
History of Regions see History of Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, at this site
States of Malaysia, Districts of Malaysia, from www.statoids.com
J.E. Nathan, E.O. Winstedt, Johol, Inas, Ulu Muar, Jempul, Gunong, Pasir and Terachi; their history and constitution (1920), posted on Internet Archive (on Negri Sembilan)
Local History History of Kuala Lumpur, from Kiat.Net; from Wikipedia
History of Ipoh, from Wikipedia
Institutions History of Carcosa Seri Negara, from Carcosa Seri Negara (i.e. the residence of the resident general of the Federated Malay States)
EngRailHistory, The Development of Malaya. A Line that Brought Prosperity to the Jungle
Culture Online books on History of Malaysian architecture, from ArchNet
Malaysia, from UK Food Online, a culinary history of Malaysia
Biographies List of Malaysians, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Residents General and Chief secretaries of the FMS, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Malaysia, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
City Population : Malaysia, from City Population
Documents Historical Newspapers
Online Yearbooks
Image Databanks Sejarah Melayu Gallery
Malaysia Design Archive
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Digital Library Malaysia
National Archives (UK)
Constitutions
Laws The laws of the Federated Malay States, 1877-1920 vol.1 (1921), vol.2 (1921), vol.3 (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Treaties Double Taxation (Federated Malay States) Relief Order, 1930, from Irish Statute Book Database 1922-1998
Historiography
Document Collections
Historical Maps Maps, from Sejarah Melayu Gallery
click WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Malaya Page, Malaysia Page
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious
Economic
Geographical
Ethnographical The Malay Peninsula, pp.525-527 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
British Empire in Asia : Malay States, pp.865-888 in vol.2A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Historical
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides C.W. Harrison, An illustrated guide to the Federated Malay States (1920), IA
E.A. Powell, Where the strange trails go down; Sulu, Borneo, Celebes, Bali, Java, Sumatra, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Cambodia, Annam, Cochin-China (1921), IA
Travelogues
Institutions Archives National Archives of Malaysia; Repositories of Primary Sources : Asia : Malaysia, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 8 entries
UNESCO Archives Portal : National Archives Asia Pacific, has one entry for Malaysia (Nov. 13th 2006), scroll down; UNESCO Archives Portal : State and Regional Archives, Asia-Pacific Malaysia, 1 entry
Musea Lists, Links Museums in Malaysia
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments Tentative Lists : Malaysia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Malaysia, from UNESCO World Heritage
Malaysia Index, from Showcaves
Libraries Libraries in Malaysia, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Image : Crest of Chief Secretary, Federated Malay States (undated), from Nat'l Archives of Malaysia, Exhibition Hall On-Line
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Malaya; Malaya and British North Borneo, Malaysia (attached Sarawak, British North Borneo); from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Zeno
Banknotes of Malaya, Malaya & British Borneo, Malaysia, from World Currency Museum

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Malaysia Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Malaysia Women's Studies Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
NNDB Bibliography Malaysia
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Malaysia
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for Malaysia
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
Books on Malaysia, from Orchid Press
South East Asia Dissertations, click Malaysia
Malaysia, from The Online Books Page
booksellers Nutmeg Publications. Malaysian Heritage Publications
Books on Malaysia, from Orchid Press
mymalaysiabooks
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
on Malaysia Sejarah Melayu Library
Digital Library Malaysia
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Malaysia
Malaysian Theses Online
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
South East Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Indonesia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Search Electronic Journals Online for Thailand
Journal of Southeast Asian History 1960-1969, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 2009-, from Cambridge Journals Online (require registration)
ASEAS (Austrian Journal of South East Asian Studies), open access, 2008-
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
Historiography Article : Malay Historical Writing, by E.U. Kraatz, pp.585-589, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts on SE Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
on Malaysia Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard V. Andaya, A History of Malaysia, Honolulu : Univ. of Hawai'i Press 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.5 A 543h
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.745-755 Article Southeast Asia : Malaysia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Specific Topics British Malaya, in : Lilian Charlotte, Economic History of Asia and Africa, New Delhi (c. 1926) reprint 1998, pp.469-485 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Amarjit Kaur, Historical Dictionary of Malaysia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow, 2nd edition 2001
Articles : Sabah pp.465-467, Sarawak pp.487-489, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Historical Atlas HASEA : Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Siam, the Malay States and Britain, 15th to 20th Centuries, pp.247-253 in : G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville, Historical Atlas of Islam, NY : Continuum (1991) 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article : Federated Malay States, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp. 628-631 [G]
Article : Straits Settlements (incl. Federated Malay States), in : Statesman's Year Book 1898 pp.158-166, 1901 pp.172-179 [G]
Article : Federated Malay States, in : Statesman's Year Book 1905 pp.187-189, 1910 pp163-166, 1918 pp.165-169 [G]
Article : Federated Malay States, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.252-253, 1908 pp.237-238, 1913 p.240, 1914 p.238, 1916 p.213, 1918 p.201 [G]
Article : Malay States, in : New International Year Book 1909 pp.442-443 [G]
Article : Federated Malay States, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1919 pp.170-174, 1924 pp.170-174, 1925 pp.172-176, 1926 pp.176-180, 1928 pp.177-181, 1929 pp.177-181, 1932 pp.180-185 [G]
Article : Malaya : Federated Malay States, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1937 pp.199-203 [G]
Article : Federated Malay States, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.334, 1928 p.291 [G]
Article : Malaya, British, in : Americana Annual 1930 pp.464-465, 1931 pp.459-460, 1932 pp.432-433, 1933 pp.452-453, 1934 pp.352-353, 1935 pp.425-426, 1936 pp.427-428, 1937 p.427, 1938 pp.410-411, 1939 pp.461-462, 1940 pp.473-475 [G]
Article : Federated Malay States, in : New International Year Book 1919 p.232, 1920 p.219, 1921 pp.220-221, 1923 pp.224-225, 1925 p.228, 1928 pp.247-248, 1930 p.258, 1932 p.270, 1933 p.255, 1934 p.224, 1935 p.232, 1938 p.246, 1939 p.266 [G]
Article : British Malaya, in : New International Year Book 1932 p.116, 1933 p.111, 1934 p.101, 1935 p.103, 1938 p.107, 1939 p.95, Events of 1940 pp.90-91, 1941 pp.82-83 [G]
Article : Federated Malay States, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 p.201, 1933 pp.248-249, 1934 p.222, 1935 p.218, 1936 p.190, 1937 p.192, 1938 pp.200-201, 1939 p.213 [G]
Article : British Malaya, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 pp.95-96, 1933 pp.126-127, 1934 pp.109-110, 1935 p.102, 1936 p.89, 1937 p.87, 1938 p.89, 1939 p.80, 1940 p.76, 1941 pp.81-82 [G]
Article : Malay States (Unfederated), in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1933 p.365; Unfederated Malay States 1935 p.507, 1936 pp.498-499, 1937 p.501, 1938 pp.499-500 [G]