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Literature on the History of South East Asia
History of Malaysia Pahang
First posted on December 24th 2004, last revised on December 17th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

for history prior to 1511, see Srivijaya, Malacca
split-offs : Siak (1725), Singapore (1819), Riau-Lingga (1819), Pahang (1853)
see also Unfederated Malay States, History of Malaya, History of Malaysia

The predecessor of the Sultanate of Johor is the Sultanate of Malacca (est. around 1400). The Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511 caused the Sultan to establishe a new residence - Johor.
In 1641 the alliance of V.O.C. and Johor drove the Portuguese out; the V.O.C. was to hold Malacca, Johor the hinterland.
In 1818 the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga split off Johor. In 1819 Johor ceded the island of Singapore to the E.I.C. (Bengal Presidency, Straits Settlements). In 1824 Britain and the Netherlands signed a treaty in which the the Netherlands, successor of the V.O.C., ceded Malacca to the British, and both countries agreed on the delimination of their spheres of interest in such a manner, that the mainland territories of Johor fell into the British sphere, the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga with Indragiri into the Dutch sphere.
In 1851 Pahang was split off from the Sultanate of Johor.
An unofficial British protectorate since 1819, until 1942 (mainland) Johor was one of the Unfederated Malay States. From 1945 to 1963 part of the Federation of Malaya, since 1963 part of the Republic of Malaysia.

Spelling varieties : Johor, Johore, Jor, Jehor, Yohor, Yhor

Historical Atlas, Malaya Page

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from Wikipedia; from Virtual Malaysia
Historic A. Hamilton, A new account of the East Indies, vol.2, 1744, GB
Links General Category : Johor, from Wikipedia
on History Category : History of Johor, from Wikipedia
Organizations on Asian History International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
on SE Asian History Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
on Malaysia History Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Historical Dictionary N.B. Dennys, A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya (1894), posted on Internet Archive
Timelines Search Google News Archive for Johor, Johore; click timeline
Accounts of History General Article Johor Sultanate, from Wikipedia; History of Johor, from Johor Tourism; State of Johor, from SEANet 2003; History of Johor, from My Far East; Johor - Brief History of the Bendahara Dynasty, from Christopher Buyers
Thomas John Newbold, Political and statistical account of the British settlements in the Straits of Malacca, viz. Pinang, Malacca and Singapore, with a History of the Malayan States on the Peninsula of Malacca, vol.1, vol.2 1839, GB
Peter James Begbie, The Malayan Peninsula: embracing its history, manners and customs of the inhabitants, politics, natural history &c., from its earliest Records, 1834, GB
Specific Periods The Johor Empire, from Sejarah Melayu
F.A. Swettenham, British Malaya: An Account of the Origin and Progress of British Influence in Malaya (1907), posted on Internet Archive
Military I.A. Mansumoor, Territorial Expansion and Contraction in the Malay Traditional Polity as Reflected in Contemporary Thought and Administration (1999)
Johor : Orders and Decorations, by Christopher Buyers; Orders, Decorations and Medals : Johore, by Jean Paul Leblanc; from World Medals
Economy & Finances J. Anderson, Political and commercial considerations relative to the Malayan Penisula British Settlements in the Straits of Malaya (1824), posted on Internet Archive
Social History
History of Regions History of the Riau Archipelago, from Indonesia Tourism; Article Riau Islands : History, from Wikipedia; Riau-Lingga Sultanate, from Melayu Online
Local History
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Harold Brookfield, Lesley Potter, and Yvonne Byron In Place of the Forest : Environmental and Socio-economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula, UNU 1995
Others History of the State Anthems of Malaysia, by Michael Jamison Bristow
G. Lauts, Onderzoek naar geest en strekking van het traktaat van den 17den Maart 1824 , 1837, in Dutch, GB
Col. Nahuijs, Brieven over Bencoolen, Padang, het rijk van Menang-kabau, Rhiouw, Sincapoera and Poelo-Pinang, 2nd ed. 1827, in Dutch, GB

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Malay States, from World Statesmen
Der Sultan von Djohor, p.52 in 1799 pt.1, pp.53-54 in 1800 pt.1, p.54 in 1801 pt.1, p.54 in 1802 pt.1, p.51 1803 pt.1, of Genealogisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch, in German, GB
Genealogical Gleanings : Johor
Statistical Data Population Figures Malaysia, Historical Population Statistics by Province, from Population Statistics, by J. Lahmeyer
Documents Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Postcards, from Sejarah Melayu Gallery
Locomotives of the Malayan Railway, by Tim Light
Archival Deposits Search Janus for Johor
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Johor
Digital Library Malaysia
Search National Archives (UK) for Johor
Laws Malaysian Legislation Database (1914-)
Digital Library Malaysia, click "Parliament"
Treaties British and Foreign State Papers 1812-1814 I, 1841, 1812-1814 II, 1841, 1814-1815, 1839, 1815-1816, 1838, 1816-1817, 1838, 1817-1818, 1837, 1818-1819, 1835, 1819-1820, 1834, 1820-1821, 1830, 1820-1821, 1861, 1821-1822, 1829, 1821-1823, 1851, 1822-1823, 1828, 1822-1823, 1850, 1823-1824, 1843, 1824-1825, 1846, 1825-1826, 1848, 1826-1827, 1828, 1827-1828, 1829, 1828-1829, 1832, 1829-1830, 1832, 1830-1831, 1833, 1832-1833, 1836, General List, vols.1-20, I, 1842, 1834-1835, 1852, 1836-1837, 1853, 1838-1839, 1856, 1840-1841, 1857, 1841-1842, 1858, 1842-1843, 1858, 1843-1844, 1859, 1844-1845, 1859, 1845-1846, 1860, 1848-1849, 1862, 1849-1850 I, 1862, 1849-1850 II, 1863, 1850-1851, 1863, 1851-1852, 1864, 1852-1853, 1864, General Index, 1865, 1853-1854, 1865 1854-1855, 1865, 1855-1856, 1865, 1856-1857, 1866, 1857-1858, 1866, 1858-1859, 1867, 1859-1860, 1867, 1860-1861, 1868, 1861-1862, 1868, 1862-1863, 1868, 1863-1864, 1869, posted on Google Books
Tratados, convenios y declaraciones de paz y de comercio .. desde del ano de 1700 hasta el dia, 1843, GB
J.E. Heeres (ed.), Corpus Diplomaticum Neerlando-Indicum, Verzameling van politieke contracten en verdere Verdragen door de Nederlanders in het Oosten gesloten, van Privilegiebrieven aan hen verleend, enz., vol.1 1907, covering 1596-1650, posted on Internet Archive
Treaty of 10 Nov. 1784 between the V.O.C. and Johor, from Recueil des principaux traites d'alliance, de paix, de treve, de neutralite, de commerce, des limites, d'echange etc., conclus par les puissances de l'Europe tant entre elles qu'avec les puissances et etats dans d'autres parties du monde, depuis 1761 jusqu'a present, vol.V, 1791-1795 and supplements, 1826 Traites des divers Compagnies des Indes, GB
Treaty of 10 Nov. 1784 between the V.O.C. and Johor, from Recueil des principaux traites d'alliance, de paix, de treve, de neutralite, de commerce, des limites, d'echange etc., conclus par les puissances de l'Europe tant entre elles qu'avec les puissances et etats dans d'autres parties du monde, depuis 1761 jusqu'a present, vo..VII, 1801, 1762-1800, GB
(British) Treaty with Johore 1818, pp.482-489, Final Treaty for the Cession of Singapore, 19 Nov. 1824, pp.490-495, in Thomas John Newbold, Political and statistical account of the British settlements in the Straits of Malacca, vol.1 1839 GB
Dutch Treaty with Johore 1641, pp.452-454, Boundary Treaty with Johore 1833, pp.459-460, in T.J. Newbold, Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, viz. Pinang, Malacca and Singapore, vol.2 1839 GB
Johore pp.286-301 in vol.1 of A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds, relating to India and Neighbouring Countries, 1862, GB
Historiography V. Matheson et al. (trsl.), Tuhfat al Nafis (The Precious Gift), 1982, Sejarah Melayu Library; Bugi Historiography written in 1885; related Wikipedia Article
Document Collections
Historical Maps Maps, from Sejarah Melayu Gallery
Map : Johor administrative, from dromoz
R. Cribb, Digital Atlas of Indonesian History : Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, 16th century, Sumatra, first half of 17th century, Sumatra, second half of 17th century
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Johor, Malay States (British), from EB 1911
Articles Dschohor, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious De la Religion du Royaumes de Tenasserim, de Jor, de Pan, de Patane, de Lugor, de Jonsalem et de Bengarin, pp.279-284 in vol.3 of Nicolas Jovet, L'histoire des religions de tous les royaumes du monde, 1710, in French, GB
Economic Johore, pp.319-320 in vol.2 of William Milburn, Oriental commerce, 1813, GB
Johore, p.346 in : W. Milburn, Oriental commerce, 1826 GB
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Johore
Geographical Royaume de Ior, p.639 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Sian, pp.61-63 in : Nicholas Sanson, L'Europe [l'Asie, l'Afrique, l'Amerique] en plusieurs cartes, 1683, in French, GB; reference on Yhor p.62
Entry : Kingdom of Johor, pp.123-127, in : T.G. Smollett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1768, posted on Google Books
J.C.M.R., Korte Schets van den tegenwoordigen staat van het Half-Eiland beoosten de Ganges, pp.317-347 in : vol.4 of Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap der Kunsten en Weetenschappen, 1786, in Dutch, GB, on Johor pp.343-344
Malaya or Malacca (Johor, Patani), pp.381-383 in : J. Pinkerton, Modern geography: A description of the empires, kingdoms, states, and colonies, with the oceans, seas and isles, in all parts of the world, 1806, GB
Entry : Malaya, or Malacca, pp.554-556 in : Jedediah Morse et al., The American Universal Geography, 1819, GB; reference to Yohor or Jor
Tronganon, Pahang, Johor, pp.279-280 in vol.4 : Asia, of Giulio Ferrario, Il costume antico e moderno o storia del governo, della milizia, della religione, delle arti, scienze ed usanze di tutti i populi antichi ed moderni, 1824
Article : Johor or Jor, p.411 in R. Brookes, A new universal gazetteer, 1832, GB
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Johore
Johor, pp.487-499 in vol.8 of E. Reclus, Universal Geography, n.d. [1876-1894], IA
Historical Article : Ihor, p.9 in vol.6 of Groot algemeen historisch, geografisch, genealogisch en oordeelkundig woordenboek 1729, in Dutch, GB (reference to landhoek van Sincapura)
The Present State of Siam, pp.61-91 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations 1744, GB (reference to Jhor p.78)
Jor, or Johor, Kingdom, pp.220-223, in vol.7 of The modern part of an universal history, 1759
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides
Travelogues Pedro Teixeira, The travels of Pedro Teixeira; with his "Kings of Harmuz" and extracts from his "King of Persia" (reference on the Dutch/Johor siege of Malacca) (c.1601), trsl. by W.F. Sinclair 1902, GB
Nederlandsche reizen: tot bevordering van den koophandel na de meest afgelegene gewesten des Aardkloots, vol.5 1784, in Dutch, GB
Institutions Archives National Archives of Malaysia
Musea Malaysian Museums
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Johore, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Article Banknotes of the Constantinople Estate (Johore), from Wikipedia
Coin Catalog of Johore, from Numismaticon; Search Coin Archives for Johore
Coins of Johore (1528-1885), from History of Money in Malaysia
Johor, from Zeno

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Johore Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Perak
on SE Asia South East Asia Digital Library (project)
South East Asia Visions, at Cornell
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
on Malaysia Digital Library Malaysia
Sejarah Melayu Library
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
South East Asia Dissertations, click Indo-China, Laos
Online Journals Guides Directory of Open Access Journals
Electronic Journals Online
modern, on SE Asia South East Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Journal of Southeast Asian History 1960-1969, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 2009-, from Cambridge Journals Online (require registration)
ASEAS (Austrian Journal of South East Asian Studies), open access, 2008-
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
historic, on Asia The Quarterly Oriental Magazine, Review and Register (Calcutta) 1824 Mar.-Jun., 1825 Jan.-Jun., 1825 Jul.-Dec., 1826 Jan.-Jun., 1826 Jul.-Dec., 1827 Jan.-Jun., 1827 Jul.-Dec., GB
Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany for British India and its Dependencies (London) vol.1 1816 Jan.-Jun., vol.2 1816 Jul.-Dec., vol.3 1817 Jan.-Jun., vol.4 1817 Jul.-Dec., vol.5 1818 Jan.-Jun., vol.6 1818 Jul.-Dec., vol.7 1819 Jan.-Jun., vol.8 1819 Jul.-Dec., vol.9 1820 Jan.-Jun., vol.10 1820 Jul.-Dec., vol.11 1821 Jan.-Jun., vol.12 1821 Jul.-Dec., vol.13 1822 Jan.-Jun., vol.14 1822 Jul.-Dec., vol.15 1823 Jan.-Jun., vol.16 1823 Jul.-Dec., vol.17 1824 Jan.-Jun., vol.18 1824 Jul.-Dec., vol.19 1825 Jan.-Jun., vol.20 1825 Jul.-Dec., vol.21 1826 Jan.-Jun., vol.22 1826 Jul.-Dec., vol.23 1827 Jan.-Jun., vol.24 1827 Jul.-Dec., vol.25 1828 Jan.-Jun., vol.26 1828 Jul.-Dec., vol.27 1829 Jan.-Jun., vol.28 1829 Jul.-Dec., The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China and Australasia (London), vol.1 1830 Jan.-Apr., vol.2 1830 May-Aug., vol.3 1830 Sep.-Dec., vol.4 1831 Jan.-Apr., vol.5 1831 May-Aug., vol.6 1831 Sep.-Dec., vol.7 1832 Jan.-Apr., vol.8 1832 May-Aug., vol.9 1832 Sep.-Dec., vol.10 1833 Jan.-Apr., vol.11 1833 May-Aug., vol.12 1833 Sep.-Dec., vol.13 1834 Jan.-Apr., vol.14 1834 May-Aug., vol.15 1834 Sep.-Dec., vol.16 1835 Jan.-Apr., vol.17 1835 May-Aug., vol.18 1835 Sep.-Dec., vol.19 1836 Jan.-Apr., vol.20 1836 May-Aug., vol.21 1836 Sep.-Dec., vol.22 1837 Jan.-Apr., vol.23 1837 May-Aug., vol.24 1837 Sep.-Dec., vol.25 1838 Jan.-Apr., vol.26 1838 May-Aug., vol.27 1838 Sep.-Dec., vol.28 1839 Jan.-Apr., vol.29 1839 May-Aug., vol.31 1840 Jan.-Apr., vol.32 1840 May-Aug., vol.33 1840 Sep.-Dec., vol.34 1841 Jan.-Apr., vol.35 1841 May-Aug., vol.36 1841 Sep.-Dec., vol.37 1842 Jan.-Apr., vol.38 1842 May-Aug., vol.39 1843 Sep.-Dec., vol.40 1843 Jan.-Apr., The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany, vol.1 1843 May-Oct., vol.2 1843 Nov.-1844 Apr., vol.3 1844 May-Oct., vol.4 1844 Nov.-1845 Apr., GB
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (London), vol.1, 1834, vol.2, 1835, vol.3, 1836, vol.4, 1837, vol.5, 1839, vol.6, 1841, vol.7, 1843, vol.8, 1846, vol.9, 1848, vol.10, 1847, vol.12, 1850, vol.13, 1852, vol.14 pt.1, 1851, vol.15, 1855, vol.16, 1856, vol.17, 1860, vol.18, 1861, vol.19, 1864, vol.20, 1863, New Series, vol.1, 1865, vol.2, 1866, vol.3, 1868, vol.4, 1870, 1904, 1935, GB
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta), vol.1, 1832 Jan.-Dec., vol.3, 1834 Jan.-Dec., vol.4, 1835 Jan.-Dec., vol.5, 1836 Jan.-Dec., vol.6 pt.1 1837 Jan.-Jun., vol.6 pt.2 1837 Jul.-Dec., vol.7 pt.1 1838 Jan.-Jun., vol.7 pt.2 1838 Jul.-Dec., vol.9 pt.2 1840 Jul.-Dec., vol.10 pt.1 1841 Jan.-Jun., vol.10 pt.2 1841 Jul.-Dec., vol.11 pt.1 1842 Jan.-Jun., vol.11 pt.2 1842 Jul.-Dec., vol.12 pt.1 1843 Jan.-Jun., vol.12 pt.2 1843 Jul.-Dec., vol.13 pt.1 1844 Jan.-Jun., vol.13 pt.2 1844 Jul.-Dec., vol.14 pt.1 1845 Jan.-Jun., vol.14 pt.2 1845 Jul.-Dec., vol.15 1846, vol.16 pt.1 1847 Jan.-Jun., vol.17 pt.1 1848 Jan.-Jun., vol.17 pt.2 1848 Jul.-Dec., vol.18 pt.1 1849 Jan.-Jun., vol.18 pt.2 1849 Jul.-Dec., vol.19 1850, vol.20 1851, vol.21 1852, vol.22 1853, vol.23 issues 1-4 1854, vol.23 issues 5-7 1854, vol.26 1857, vol.27 1858, vol.28 1859, vol.29 1860, vol.31 1862, vol.32 1863, vol.33 1864, vol.36 1867, vol.37 1868, vol.38 1869, GB
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Dissertations and Miscellaneous Pieces Relating to the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia (London) vol.1 1801, vol.2 1801, vol.3 1796, vol.4 1798, Asiatick Researches; or Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal for Inquiring into the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia, vol.5 1799, vol.6 1801, vol.7 1803, vol.8 1808, vol.9 1809, vol.10 1811, vol.11 1812, vol.12 1818, vol.13 1820, vol.14 1822, vol.15 1825, vol.16 1828, vol.17 1832, vol.20 1836, GB
The Oriental Herald and Colonial Review (London) vol.1 1824 Jan.-Apr., vol.2 1824 May-Aug., The Oriental Herald and Journal of General Literature (London) vol.4 1825 Jan.-Mar., vol.6 1825 Jul.-Sep., vol.7 1825 Oct.-Dec., vol.8 1826 Jan.-Mar., vol.9 1826 Apr.-Jun., vol.10 1826 Jul.-Sep., vol.11 1826 Oct.-Dec., vol.12 1827 Jan.-Mar., vol.13 1827 Apr.-Jun., vol.14 1827 Jul.-Sep., vol.15 1827 Oct.-Dec., vol.16 1828 Jan.-Mar., vol.17 1828 Apr.-Jun., vol.18 1828 Jul.-Sep., vol.19 1828 Oct.-Dec., vol.21 1829 Apr.-Jun., vol.22 1829 Jul.-Sep., vol.23 1829 Oct.-Dec., GB
The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan and of the Politics, Commerce and Literature of Asia, vol.1 1799, vol.2 1800, vol.3 1801, vol.4 1802, vol.5 1803, vol.6 1804, vol.7 1805, vol.8 1806 pt.2, vol.9 1807, vol.10 1808, vol.11 1809, vol.12 1810-1811, GB
Journal Asiatique 1822-1937, posted by Gallica, in French
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
On Malaya / Malaysia On Malaya / Malaysia P.E.L. Favre, An account of the wild tribes inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and a few neighbouring islands : with A journey in Johore and A journey in the Menangkabaw states of the Malayan Peninsula; (1865), posted on Internet Archive
Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard V. Andaya, A History of Malaysia, Honolulu : Univ. of Hawai'i Press 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.5 A 543h
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.745-755 Article Southeast Asia : Malaysia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Specific Topics
Historical Atlas HASEA : Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Siam, the Malay States and Britain, 15th to 20th Centuries, pp.247-253 in : G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville, Historical Atlas of Islam, NY : Continuum (1991) 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article Johore, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp. 631-632 (on events of 1912) [G]
Article : Malay States - Johore, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.522, 1928 pp.475-476 [G]
Article : Johore, in : New International Year Book 1913 p.380 [G]
Articles Johor, Other British Protectorates, in : Statesman's Year Book 1910 pp.163-167 [G]

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