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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Vietnam Thailand
First posted on May 4th 2002; last revised on December 13th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1353 . 1353-1707 . 1707-1893 . 1893-1954 . 1954-1975 . since 1975
see also History of Lanxang 1353-1707, History of Champassak, History of Luangprabang, History of Viangchan (Vientiane), History of French Indochina
see also History of Mainland Southeast Asia



Until 1353
Prior to the 14th century much of the territory of modern Laos formed part of the Khmer Empire. The Tai migration and conquest in the 13th to 14th is believed to have caused in the emergence of a new socio-political structure : vassal monarchies, and a division into the ruling Lao and the ruled Khmu. The older view that the Lao, like the Tai, have immigrated, has been replaced by the view that both the Lao and Khmu descend from the previous population, believed to have consisted of Mon and Proto-Khmer. Historical evidence attests the presence of Hinduism (Saivism) in the region for the 9th century AD.

Lan Xang, 1353-1707
From 1353 to 1707 the region was under the control of the Kingdom of Lan Xang, the territory of which extended to both banks of the Mekong. By the 16th century, Theravada Buddhism had become the dominant religion.

Era of Partition, 1707-1893
In 1707 it was split in three (soon four), the Kingdoms of Luang Prabang (1707-1949), Viang Chan (1707-1828) (Vientiane), the Principality of Phuan (1707-1946) and the Kingdom of Champassak (1713-1946). During this period of partition, Siam attempted to extend its suzerainty over the Laotian kingdoms; it annexed Viang Chan in 1828; Luang Prabang, Phuan, Champassak became Siamese vassals. Sustained effort of Catholic missionaries to proselytize among the Lao began in 1858; the forst protestant missionary arrived in 1872.

French Protectorate, 1893-1954
In 1893 France established a protectorate over Laos, which was integrated into French Indochina. The French abolished slavery and ended legal discrimination against certain ethnic minorities. A rebellion begun by Ong Keo in 1901 under his successor lasted on until 1937. From 1940 (France occupied by Germany) to 1945, in nominally French French Indochina Japan was in control. When Japan faced imminent defeat, the status of the monarchy of Luang Prabang was elevated over its rivals; France formally restored (hitherto ceremonial) the monarchy in 1949.
French influence concentrated on the few urban centers. By the end of colonial rule, the large majority of the population was still illiterate, and only a small minority adhered to Catholicism. Positions in the administration were often held by Vietnamese immigrants (who had a better education).
Jan Lahmeyer gives population figures for Laos of 364,000 in 1890, 1,350,000 in 1940, 2,103,000 in 1954.

Kingdom of Laos, 1954-1975
In 1954 France withdrew from Indochina, and Laos was declared an independent Kingdom. From independence onward, the Vietnam Conflict was also fought on Laotian territory. Laos, in 1959-1962, pursued a policy of neutrality in an attempt to end the fighting. As the Ho-Chi-Minh-Trail passed through Laotian territory, in 1970 the country being drawn into the Vietnam War, in 1975 the Communist Pathet Lao took control of government and country, and the Lao People's Democratic Republic was proclaimed. During the war, a number of Laotians, esapecially members of the Hmong minority (Montagnards) collaborated with the U.S.; many of them left the country at the end of the war; significant communities of Laotians exist in the U.S. (230,000) and France (140,000).
In 1959 the first South East Asian Games were held in Laos.

Lao PDR, since 1975
Since 1975, Laos is an ally of Vietnam. While most Communist regimes fell in 1989-1991, those in Laos and Vietnam stayed in power, and adopted a Chinese style policy of reforming their economy to integrate it into a capitalist world economy (New Economic Mechanism, 1986). Laos being landlocked and having a comparatively low population density, it lacks behind Vietnam in its economic development.
The 2009 South East Asian Games were held in Laos.
Jan Lahmeyer gives population figures of 3,024,000 in 1975 and 4,974,000 in 1998. By July 2011 it was estimated at 6,480,000.

Historical Atlas : Laos Page






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Laos
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Laos
from World Wide Gazetteer
AKHA, Missionary Atlas Project, South East Asia, Laos; has section on history
Historic Pierre-Jacques Lemonnier de La Bissachere, Etat actuel du Tunkin, de la Cochinchine, et des Royaumes de Camboge, Laos et Lac-Tho, 1812, in French, GB
Ch. Gosselin, Le Laos, et le protectorat français, 1900, in French, IA
Aymonier, Etienne, Notes sur le Laos, 1885, in French, SBB
Branda, Paul, Le Haut-Mekong ou le Laos ouvert avec une carte autographe du Haut Mekong, 1887, in French, SBB
Reveillere, Paul Emile Marie, Le Haut-Mekong ou le Laos ouvert, 1892, in French, SBB
Gosselin, Charles, Le Laos et le protectorat français, 1900, in French, SBB
Links General from dmoz
List of Laos-related Topics, from Wikipedia; Category : Laos, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Laos, from Wikipedia French edition
from East and Southeast Asia. An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources
on History Category : History of Laos, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Histoire du Laos, from Wikipedia French edition
Organizations Asia International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
South East Asia Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
Laos Ecole Français d'Extreme Orient, Vientiane Center
Center for Lao Studies
Hmong Studies Internet Research Center
Historical Dictionary
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News
Accounts of History Current History of Laos, from Embassy of Laos, very brief; from Infoplease and from Visit Laos
History of Laos, from Wikipedia
SEASite Laos, click on : history
G. Evans, A Short History of Laos, 2002, Scribd
Historical
Specific Periods When Japan ruled Laos, from CPA Media
Sanderson Beck, Siam, Cambodia and Laos 1800-1950
Yong En En, The Failure of Communism to take root among the Cambodians and the Lao before 1945 reflected the Success of a French Divide-and-Rule Policy which pitted these Groups against the Vietnamese. It also reflected the Fact that the Confucian Base of Vietnamese Culture made them more receptive to Marxism. Theravada Buddhist Base of Cambodian and Lao Culture,, NUS History Society e-Journal
Laos 1957-1973. L'Armee Clandestine, from William Blum, Killing Hope, posted by Third World Traveller
Article : Lan Xang, from Wikipedia
Historiography Contesting Visions of the Thai-Lao Past (1999)
M. Vang, Displaced histories : refugee critique and the politics of Hmong American remembering , thesis UC San Diego 2012
V. Grabowski et al., "Important Kings of Laos": Translation and Analysis of a Lao Cartoon Pamphlet, Lao Studies vol.2 2011 pp.1-44
M. Lorrillard, Scripts and History: the Case of Laos, Senri Ethnological Studies 74 2009 pp.33-49
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Laos; Governments on the WWW : Nepal; For the Record 2000 : Lao Peoples Dem. Rep., from UN Human Rights System; Article Politics of Laos, from Wikipedia
J.H. Eddy, The neutralization of Laos, 1959-62, thesis Univ. of Oklahoma 1971
K. Prakoonheang, Political ideologies and development in the Lao people's democratic republic since 1975, thesis Univ. of Western Sydney 2001
R.B. Verrone, Behind the wall of Geneva: Lao politics, American counterinsurgency, and why the U.S. lost in Laos, 1961-1965 thesis Texas Tech 2001
U.S. Dept. of State, Office of the Historian, Visits By Foreign Leaders of Laos
APPF 17th Meeting Vientiane 2009, Brief history of the National Assembly (of Laos, narrative in essence begins in 1975)
TED Case Studies : Opium for Heroin in Laos and Myanmar, 2003
Military Wars of Laos, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Laos, from ODM
Article : Ong Keo, Wikipedia
P.F. Clarkin, Laos, the Not So Secret War
S. Pinkel, Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) in Laos, Trans Asia Photography Review 3/1 2012
V.B. Anthony et al., The War in Northern Laos, 1954-1973, Center for Air Force History 1993
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Laos
Article Economy of Laos, from Wikipedia
Lao Kip, from Wikipedia
Laos Energy Profile, from Energy Information Administration; Category Energy in Laos, from Wikipedia
Category : Enterprise Laos, from Economy Point
Search Company History, Funding Universe : Company Histories for Laos
B. Soukamneuth, The Political Economy of Transition in Laos: from Peripheral Socialism to the Margins of Global Capital, thesis Cornell 2006
C. Oupravanh et al., Eucalyptus and Rural Development in Lao PDR, Report FAO n.d.
Social History General
Crime Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Laos
Health Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Laos
K.L. Callis, The History of Plant Use in Laos: Analysis of European Accounts of Plant Use for Primarily Religious and Medicinal Purposes, thesis NC State 2005
Education M. Itoh et al., A Comparison Study of Education Systems between the Laos and Japan for the Improvement of Future Education, Research Bulletin of Humanities and Social Sciences, Naruto Univ. of Education, vol.20 2005
S. Vongsopha, Higher Buddhist Education in Laos: The Academic Activities if the two Sangha Colleges, IATBU n.d.
Educational Heritage Project : Laos
J.C. Weidmann, Reform of Higher Education in the Lao People's Democratic Republic 1995
LEOT, Education in Laos
Ethnography Languages of Laos (82), from Ethnologue
Assessment for Hmong in Laos, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Laos
H. Vang, Dreaming of home, dreaming of land: displacements and Hmong transnational politics, 1975-2010 , thesis Univ. of Minnesota 2010
C. Vang, A story of the people: the Hmong, in CIA's secret war in Laos during the Vietnam conflict: a supplemental unit to the history/social science curriculum, project Sacramento State 2013
J. Michaud, Handling mountain minorities in China, Vietnam and Laos: from history to current concerns, Asian Ethnicity vol.10 no.1, Feb. 2009, pp.25-49
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Laos, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Laos, from Wikipedia
Catholic Church in Lao People's Democratic Republic, from GCatholic
Buddhism in Laos, from Buddha Net
Article : Lao Evangelical Church, Wikipedia
S.H. Xiong, History of the Hmong Christian Mission , 2010
History of Regions Provinces of Laos, Divisions of Laos, from www.statoids.com
Lemire, Charles, Le Laos annamite regions des Tiem (Ailao) des Mon et des Pou-Euns (Cam-Mon et Tran-Ninh) restituees en 1893, 1894, in French, SBB
Local History History of Vientiane, from Wikipedia
History of Luang Prabang, from Wikipedia
Institutions Royal Palace Museum, from Wikipedia
History, from National University of Laos
Laos, Indo-China, from Airline History
Structurae : Laos
Culture Laos Cultural Profile, from Cultural Profiles
Article Laos at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Social Realism in Laos, from CPA Media
J. Segay, Current Audiovisual And Cinema Situation In Laos , has section on history
Biographies List of Laotian Politicians, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Laos, from Relief Web
Sovu, Forest restoration on degraded lands in Laos, thesis Lund 2011
B. Douangboupha et al., Rodent outbreaks in the uplands of Laos: analysis of historical patterns and the identity of nuu khii, n.d.
S. Phimmavong et al., Forest and plantation development in Laos: history, development and impact for rural communities, International Forestry Review Vol.11(4), 2009
C. Oupravanh et al., Eucalyptus and Rural Development in Lao PDR, Report FAO n.d.
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors Liste Chronologique des Ambassadeurs (de France au Laos), from Ambafrance; U.S. Ambassadors to Laos, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Laos, from PRC MOFA; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Vientiane (Laos), from Wikipedia German edition
List of Canadian Heads of Post, click Laos
Lists of Apostolic Vicars etc. Articles : Vicariate Apostolic of Vientiane, Vicariate Apostolic of Luang Prabang, Vicariate Apostolic of Pakse, Vicariate Apostolic of Savannakhet, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Lao Statistics Bureau
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Laos, from Population Statistics, Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Laos, from City Population
Estimates of Death Toll under Pathet Lao, posted by Matthew White, scroll down for Laos
Election Results from Psephos ; from IFES Election Guide (since 2006)
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Documents Historical Newspapers History of Laos, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers links from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Archives nationales d'outre-mer, Base Ulysse, image base
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Viengxay, PDR Laos : Historical Photos
Metta5112, 1950-1960+ Old Pictures in Vientiane
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on Laos
Image Databank : South East Asian Images & Texts, from University of Wisconsin Digital Collection (on Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia)
Propaganda poster warning of the Viet Minh, posted by Memorial - Le Mur de Donateurs
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Universal Collections
Items on Laos
License Plate, from World License Plate
Passport, from World Passports
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Laos
Video Documentaries Search INA (video documentaries 1941-2001) for Laos
Archival Deposits France, Archives nationales d'outre-mer
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, search for Laos
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Laos
Search CIA Released Documents for Laos
Constitutions Constitution of 1991, from Lao Embassy Washington
Laws List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Laos, from ILO, 4 docs. since 1964
Internatonal Law Library : Laos
Treaties Australian Treaty Series : Bilateral Treaties - Laos
Indochina - Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos : Documents 1950-1964, from Avalon Project at Yale Law School
Historiography
Document Survey Bibliography, Thai, Lao and Cambodian Manuscript Collection, British Library
Document Collections Digital Library of Lao Manuscripts
Documents : Laos, from CEAS at UCLA
Individual Documents
Historical Maps responsible institutions
collections : Asia Historical Map Archive : Historical Maps of Asia
collections : Laos see here
SEASite Laos, click on : maps
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
Maps of Laos, posted by Mapas Imperiales, scans, scroll down for Laos
Cartotheque et Chronologie, from Dossier Indochine by Academie Rheims
Canby Publications, Cambodia : Historical Map Index
Historical Maps Archive : Historical Maps of Indo-China
Indochine Souvenir : Cartes
Laos Maps, PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Laos, Wikimedia Commons
PRINT : J.M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Asia, Modern Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., 527 BC, 500 BC, 400 BC, 335 BC, 323 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC, 100 BC, 050 BC, 050 AD, 200 AD, 300 AD, 400 AD, 450 AD, 565 AD, 600 AD, 610 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, Asia 700 AD, 800 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Asia, Historical Asia : Güssefeld/Homann 1793, Güssefeld/Homann 1805, Schmidt/Schropp 1820, Herisson 1848, GDZ
Asia 1892, PCL, UTexas
Laos, Modern Map of Ethnic Groups in Laos, from IKAP - MMSEA
W. Pfriemer, MAG map of Laos where still unexploded ordnances lying around
South East Asia c.1400, Wikipedia
thailand 1867-1909, Wikipedia
Laos, Contemporary
Detail, Modern Ho Chi Minh-Trail Map, from Ewectourism
Detail, Contemporary U.S. Army Map Service, Indochina and Thailand, 1:250,000, 1954-, PCL, UTexas
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular from EB 1911; from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German (Lao)
Religious Entry : Religion des Laies, Langiens ou Laos, pp.98-101, in : vol.2 pt.1 of Bernard Picart, Ceremonies et coutumes religieuses des Peuples Idolatres, 1728, in French, GB
from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914
Economic
Geographical Entry : The Kingdom of Lawhos, pp.106-112, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World, vol.7 1768, GB
Laos, pp.502-512 in vol.5 of L.P. Anquetil, Precis de l'Histoire Universelle ou Tableau historique presentant les vicissitudes des Nations ... , 1799, in French, GB
Laos, pp.174-175 in vol.2 of J. Pinkerton, Modern Geography 1804, GB
Entry : The Kingdom of Laos, pp.278-279 in vol.2 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography : or a description of All Parts of the World, 1827, GB
Articles : Lanjan, Laos, in : J. Walker, The Universal Gazetteer , 1807 (unpaginated), GB
Entry : Royaume de Laos, pp.60-61 in vol.4 of J.J. Vaissete, Geographie historique, ecclesiastique et civile, 1755, in French, GB
Entry : Laos, pp.485-500, in : Adolphe Philibert Dubois de Jancigny, Histoire et Description de Tous les Peuples : Japon, Indochine, Ceylan etc., 1801, in French, GB
Ethnological Entry : Storia e Governo di Laos, pp.121-126, in vol.4 of D. G. Ferrario, Il Costume Antico e Moderno di Tutti i Popoli, 1824, in Italian, GB
Assam, Laos, Cambodia and Arakan p.179 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
The Tai Nation : Shans and Laos pp.202-203 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Historical Entry : Du Laos, pp.234-240 in vol.1 of Antoine Augustin Bruzen de La Martiniere, Introduction a l'histoire de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, et de l'Amerique, 1735, in French, GB
The Present State of Siam, pp.61-91, in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB ; pp.61-62 refer to Laos
Entry : Du Laos, pp.500-508 in : Samuel von Pufendorf, Introduction a l'histoire generale et politique de l'univers, completee & continuee jusqu'a 1745, 1745, in French, GB
The Kingdom of Lawhos, or Laos, pp.140-194, in : The Modern Part of an Universal History, vol.7, 1759, GB
The Kingdom of Lawhos, or Laos, pp.218-252, in : G. Sale et al., The Modern Part of an Universal History, vol.24, 1781, GB
Entry : Laos, pp.48-59 in vol.7 of Louis Pierre Anquetil, Precis de l'histoire universelle, ou tableau historique, 1801, in French, GB
Entry : Laos, pp.834-835, in : vol.4 of E.W. Whitaker, A complete system of universal history, 1821, GB
Parliamentary Debates
Tour Guides
Travelogues
Resident Memoires D. McGilvary, A Half Century among the Siamese and the Lao, an Autobiography, 1912
Institutions Archives Archives in Laos, from Laos Cultural Profile
Musea Lists, Links
Musea Museum Websites Lao National Museum, Luang Prabang National Museum, from Laos Cultural Profile
Monuments Tentative Lists : Lao PDR, World Heritage List, scroll down for Lao PDR; from UNESCO World Heritage
Laos Index, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library, Laos
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Wikipedia; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes from World Currency Gallery; from Ron Wise's World Paper Money

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Laos survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.170-239 in M. Stuart-Fox and M. Kooyman, Historical Dictionary of Laos, Lanham Md : Scarecrow 1992 [G]
Cordier, Bibliotheca indo-sinica; essai d'une bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a la presqu'ile Indo-chinoise 1908, IA
Clio, Voyages Culturels : Bibliographie Laos
Comite de Cooperation avec le Laos, Bibliographie sur le Laos
Bibliography, from Library of Congress Country Studies : Laos
Lao-Related Bibliography, from Hmong Studies
Universaity of Washington, South East Asia Section, Laos Bibliography
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Tribal Textiles : Laos Bibliography
Women's Studies Bibliography : Laos
J. Halpern, An annotated bibliography on the peoples of Laos and Northern Thailand [selected sources in English, French and Japanese, published since 1945] 1961
Bibliography, Thai, Lao and Cambodian Manuscript Collection, British Library
CSCA Mission Research and Documentation Portal, CSCA: SOAS Mission Collection on Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Indochina and Myanmar : Laos, Thailand, 2005 (many entries under Thailand also concern Laos)
serial publications New Asia Books : Laos
general bibliographies
Laos entries
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Laos
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for Laos
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
specialist bibliographies
booksellers Books on Laos, from Orchid Press
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; International Boundary Studies, search for Laos
Gallica
on Laos Digital Library of Lao Manuscripts
Digitale Sammlungen : Ostasiatica, from Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
South East Asia Dissertations, click Indo-China, Laos
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Journal for Lao Studies, 2010-
Search Electronic Journals Online for Laos
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 1901-2003
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
Indochina Chronicle 46 ; Jan. 1976 "Laos; A New Begining", IA
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.740-744 Article Southeast Asia : Laos, KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries Martin Stuart-Fox and Mary Kooyman, Historical Dictionary of Laos, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1992, 258 pp. [G]
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year 1956 p.393, 1957 p.455, 1958 p.395, 1959 pp.391-392, 1960 pp.385-386, 1961 pp.392-393, 1962 pp.388-390, 1963 pp.505-406, 1964 pp.489-490, 1965 pp.474-475, 1966 p.445, 1967 pp.469-470, 1968 pp.468-469, 1969 pp.455-456, 1970 pp.457-458, 1971 pp.437-438, 1972 pp.407-408, 1973 pp.403-404, 1974 pp.403-405, 1975 pp.425-426, 1976 pp.453-454, 1978 pp.481-482, 1979 pp.475-476, 1980 p.478, 1981 p.480, 1982 p.480, 1983 p.474, 1984 pp.473-474, 1985 pp.517, 721, 1986 p.719, 1987 pp.481-482, 687, 1988 pp.439, 639, 1989 pp.439, 640, 1990 pp.455-456, 655, 1991 pp.437-438, 639, 1992 pp.410, 638, 1993 pp.413-414, 649, 1994 pp.414, 648, 1995 pp.436, 649, 1996 pp.433-434, 649, 1997 pp.443-444, 647, 1999 pp.464-465, 642, 2002 pp.455, 653 [G]
Statesman's Year-Book French Indo-China - Laos 1905 pp.638-643, 1906 p.680, 1907 p.934, 1910 pp.784-789, 1918 pp.847-848, 1919 p.853, 1924 pp.892-893, 1925 p.905, 1926 p.878, 1928 p.892, 1929 pp.879-880, 1932 p.882, 1937 pp.921-922, 1942 p.911, 1943 p.908, Laos 1961-1962 pp.1203-1206, 1970-1971 pp.1116-1121, 1973-1974 pp.1127-1131, 1975-1976 pp.1115-1119, 1976-1977 pp.1115-1119, 1978-1979 pp.770-773, 1979-1980 pp.774-777, 1980-1981 pp.777-780, 1981-1982 pp.780-783, 1982-1983 pp.781-784, 1983-1984 pp.774-777, 1984-1985 pp.776-779, 1985-1986 pp.779-782, 1986-1987 pp.779-782, 1987-1988 pp.783-786, 1988-1989 pp.785-788, 1989-1990 pp.794-797, 1990-1991 pp.795-798, 1991-1992 pp.796-799, 1992-1993 pp.873-876, 1993-1994 pp.866-869, 1994-1995 pp.859-862, 1995-1996 pp.855-859, 1996-1997 pp.804-808, 1997-1998 pp.815-819, 1998-1999 pp.874-878, 2000 pp.1000-1004, 2001 pp.976-980, 2002 pp.1018-1022, 2003 pp.1020-1024, 2004 pp.1026-1030, 2005 pp.1032-1036, 2006 pp.1030-1036, 2007 pp.771-774, 2008 pp.767-770 [G]
(New) Int'l Yearbook 1907 p.448, 1908 p.402, 1909 pp.414-415, 1913 p.395 [G]
Americana Annual 1957 pp.443-444, 1961 pp.415-418, 1962 pp.424-427, 1963 pp.383-384, 1964 pp.380-382, 1965 pp.396-398, 1967 pp.398-399, 1968 p.396, 1969 p.408, 1970 p.406, 1971 p.396, 1972 pp.393-394, 1973 p.395, 1974 pp.332-333, 1976 pp.103, 332, 1988 p.316, 1989 p.320, 1990 p.312, 1992 p.320, 1993 p.318, 1994 p.316, 1998 p.311
YB on Int'l Communist Affairs 1973 pp.506-510, 1974 pp.489-494, 1976 pp.324-330, 1978 pp.279-283, 1979 pp.262-266, 1980 pp.272-276, 1984 pp.246-249, 1988 pp.193-196, 1989 pp.233-239
Other