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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Java Celebes
First posted on December 28th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . Early History . Precolonial History . 1400-1800s . Celebes within the Dutch East Indies . Celebes within Indonesia

see also V.O.C., Dutch East Indies, 1795-1949, Indonesia


Introduction
The larger of the lesser Sunda Islands are, from West to east, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores and Timor. Today, the region is administratively divided in the Indonesian provinces of Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur and the independent Republic of Timor L'Este (East Timor). Regional volcanoes, such as Mount Rinjani on Lombok (major eruption 1257 or 1258) and Mount Tambora on Sumbawa (major eruption 1815), had a significant impact on world climate.

Prehistory
The island chain has been settled in the Pleistocene. Australian archaeologists found evidence for deep sea fishing in a cave on Timor for 42,000 BP. Bronze Age items found on Bali date from 600 BCE to 800 CE and show influence of the Dong Son culture (Vietnam).
The Neolithic Revolution (the introduction of farming), new metalworking techniques (bronze, iron) seem to have had little impact on the islands east of Sumbawa. Lombok and Sumbawa have been sites of catastrophic volcanic eruptions, and much historical evidence may still be buried under a layer of Voilcanic ash. On the island of Sumba, Megalithic stoneworking methods are applied up to the present day.

Early History
Hinduism arrived on Bali about 200 BCE. The oldest written sources from Bali are Buddhist inscriptions from about 800 CE. Both Hinduism and Buddhism coexisted on Bali for many centuries; Hinduism came to dominate. The Indian religions did find followers on Lombok. They seem not to have had an impact on Sumba, Flores and Timor; on Sumba, headhunting (which would have been suppressed by Hindu priests and Buddhist monks) continued into recent time.

1000-1500
Scientists in 2013 established a major eruption of Mount Rinjani on Lombok in 1257 or 1258 as the likely cause for worldwide climate change (the end of the Medieval Warm Period and the beginning of the Little Ice Age).
Bali was a unified Kingdom From the 10th century to its conquest by Majapahit in 1343 (Majapahit influence even extended to Lombok and Western Sumbawa).

1500-1800
The Portuguese arrived in the early 16th century; Dominicans began to proselytize on Solor and Timor. In the 16th century, a resurgent Hindu Kingdom of Bali ruled Blambangan (on Java, until 1580) and Lombok. Then Bali disintegrated into a number of rival polities. The Kingdom of Bima on Sumbawa, a regional trade center, converted to Islam and became the Sultanate of Bima in 1620 (influenced by Gowa/Makassar, Celebes). Islam became the dominant religion on Lombok. The V.O.C. showed little interest in the Lesser Sunda Islands, other than pusuing the policy of limiting Portuguese influence. Flores, Timor and Sumba were politically divided into numerous statelets.

1800-1949
At the beginning of the 19th century, the Lesser Sunda Islands were divided in a larger Dutch and a smaller Portuguese sphere of influence (which was to develop into Portuguese East Timor; for information specific to it, see History of Timor L'Este. The V.O.C. had declared bankrupcy in 1795 and was succeeded by the Dutch state. Its possessions in the Malay Archipelago, the Dutch East Indies, from 1811 to 1816 came under British occupation. During this occupation, Mount Tambora erupted in 1815, the largest volcanic eruption in recorded history, causing "the year without a summer" in Europe in 1816.
In 1846 and 1849 the Dutch East Indies terminated certain states on Bali and established direct rule; in 1901-1912 the Dutch "pacified" the remaining areas on the Lesser Sunda Islands, except for Portuguese East Timor, the borders of which had been agreed upon in 1859.
In the early 20th century, Bali became a tourist destination.

since 1949
In 1949 Indonesia became independent; the Lesser Sunda Islands (except for East Timor) became the administrative region of Nusa Tenggara. Following the Velvet Revolution in Portugal in 1974, East Timor declared independence in 1975. In the same year, Indonesian troops occupied East Timor; Indonesia annexed East Timor. In the 1990s East Timorese demands for political independence gained worldswide attention. In a 1999 referendum, the East Timorese opted for independence.






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern Article : Lesser Sunda Islands, Wikipedia
Historical
Links Virtual Library History : Indonesia
Organizations The Islamic Manuscript Association (TIMA)
Institute of Indonesia Tenggara Timur (Institute of NTT Developmentr Studies)
Historical Dictionary J. Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
Different Bali Indonesia Encyclopedia
Timelines Bali Geschiedenis Tijdlijn, from Astaga, detailed, in Dutch
Accounts of History General Geschiedenis van de kleine Sunda eilanden, from Travel Marker
Specific Periods Prehistory
P. Bellwood, Special Report: Ancient Seafarers, Archaeology vol.50 no.2, March/April 1997
R.A. Bawono et al., Mesolithic and Neolithic Cultures of the Karst Landscape at Jimbaran, Southern Bali, Indonesia, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 28, 2008 pp.117-119
T.M. Karafet et al., Balinese Y-Chromosome Perspective on the Peopling of Indonesia: Genetic Contributions from Pre-Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers, Austronesian Farmers, and Indian Traders, Human Biology, February 2005 vol.77 no.1 pp.93-113
T. Jacob, Racial Identification of the Bronze Age Human Dentitions from Bali, Indonesia, Journal of Dental Research; Sep. 1967, vol.46 no.5, p.903
History of Ubud (Bali) : Megalithic Culture
I.M. Suastika, Traces of Human Life Style from the Palaeolithic Era to the Beginning of the First Century AD 2008; on archaeological research on North Bali
600 BCE-600 CE
Early Hindu Colonisation in Sumatra, pp.116-125 in R.C. Majumdar, Ancient Indian Colonies In The Far East, Vol II Suvarnadvipa Part I Political History, 1937, IA
J.S. Lansing et al., An Indian Trader in Ancient Bali ?, Antiquity 2004 pp.287-293
600-1450
S.O. Robson, The Ancient Capital of Bali, Archipel 1978 vol.16 pp.75-89; Kingdom of Bali, 10th century-1343
The Majapahit Past in Bali, from Rasa Bali
J.B. de Casparis, Some Notes on Ancient Bima , Archipel 56 1998 pp.465-468
J.H.F.S. Gelpke, The Majapahit Dependency Udama Katraya, BTLV 148 2 1992 pp.240-246
1450-1750
H. Hägerdal, Bali in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, BTLV 151 1995 pp.101-124
1750-1914
Brigitta Hauser-Schäblin, The Precolonial Balinese State Reconsidered , A Critical Evaluation of Theory Construction on the Relationship between Irrigation, the State, and Ritual, Current Anthropology 2003
Since 1914
Historiography R. Tatu, I Gusti Putu Jelantik's Babad Buleleng Placed within Historical Context, Explorations in Southeast Asian Studies 2 1999
H. Creese, Balinese babad as historical Sources : a reinterpretation of the fall of Gelgel, BTLV 147 1991 pp.236-260
H. Chambert-Loir, Les sources malaises de l'histoire de Bima, Archipel 20 1980 pp.269-280
H. Chambert-Loir, S.W.R. Mulyadi et al. : Katalogus Naskah Melayu Bima ("Catalogue des manuscrits malais de Bima ") , review in Bulletin d'Ecole Française d'Extreme Orient 79 1992 pp.315-317
M. Adams, History in a Sumba Myth, n.d. late 1960s ?
Administration
Military Articles : Dutch Intervention in Northern Bali (1846), Dutch Intervention in Northern Bali (1848), Dutch Intervention in Bali (1849), Dutch Intervention in Bali (1906), Dutch Intervention in Bali (1908), from Wikipedia
A.W.Ph. Weitzel, De derde militaire expeditie naar het eiland Bali, in 1849 , 1859, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
De geschiedenis van Bali, de pacificatie van Bali door Nederland, from Arcengel's Homepage, in Dutch
Article Pacificatie van Lombok, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
David Mitchell, Tragedy in Sumba, from Inside Indonesia
Economy & Finances Chinese Coins in Balinese Life, from Bali Around
Cynthia Fowler, Why is Maize a Sacred Plant ? Social History and Agrarian Change on Sumba, abstract of 2005 article posted on Bio One
H. Chambert-Loir, Etat, Cite, Commerce - le cas de Bima, Archipel 37 1989 pp.83-105
R.W. Hamilton, Local Textile Trading Systems in Indonesia. An Example From Flores Island
Social History John C. Schoenfelder, The Co-evolution of Agricultural and Sociopolitical Systems in Bali 1998
R. Needham, Circulating Connubium in Eastern Sumatra. A literary analysis BTLV 113 1957 pp.168-178
Y.A. Twikromo, The local elite and the appropriation of modernity a case in East Sumba, Indonesia, thesis Nijmegen 2008
I. Gerdin, The unknown Balinese : land, labour and inequality in Lombok, thesis Göteborg 1982
J. Vel et al., Access in Land Disputes Arising in the Context of the Commercialization of Agriculture in Sumba (Nusa Tenggara Timur), 2009
J. Vel et al., Access to Agrarian Justice in Sumba, Eastern Indonesia, 2010
Ethnography Muturzikin, Linguistic Map of East Timor, Sulawesi and Nusa Tengara
Balinese - History and Cultural Relations, from Every Culture
J. Hooykaas, The Changeling in Balinese Folklore and Religion, BTLV 116 1960 pp.424-436
Cynthia Fowler, Why is Maize a Sacred Plant ? Social History and Agrarian Change on Sumba, abstract of 2005 article posted on Bio One
J.S. Lansing, Coevolution of languages and genes on the island of Sumba, eastern Indonesia, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2007
J. Watkins, Statistics Case Studies: Coretention of Words and Genes on the Island of Sumba, Eastern Indonesia, 2009
M.J. Adams, Symbols of the Organized Community in East Sumba, Indonesia, BTLV 1974
Y.A. Twikromo, The Local Elite and the Appropriation of Modernity. A Case in East Sumba, Indonesia, thesis Nijmegen 2008
Michael Hitchcock, Basket Makes of the Highlands. The Dou Wawo of Bima, Sumatra Penn Museum
Bima Language, pp.198-201 in vol.10 of Asiatick Researches, 1811, GB
R.L. Adams, The megalithic tradition of West Sumba, Indonesia: an ethnoarchaeological investigation of megalith construction, thesis Simon Fraser Univ. 2007
J. Hoskins, The Heritage of Headhunting: History, Ideology, and Violence on Sumba, 1890-1990 1996
Religion Balinese Religion, from Bali Vision
H. Kraemer, De strijd over Bali en de zending : een studie en een appel 1933 in Dutch, IA
Tyler Keeley, Sumba : History and Religion, posted by Gado Gado International
Cynthia Fowler, Why is Maize a Sacred Plant ? Social History and Agrarian Change on Sumba, abstract of 2005 article posted on Bio One
Nederlands Gereformeerd zendingswerk op het eiland Soemba, Evangelieverkondiging op Oost-Soemba
J. Noorduyn, Makasar and the Islamization of Bima, BTLV 143 1987 pp.312-342
S. Cederroth, The spell of the ancestors and the power of Mekkah : a Sasak community on Lombok, thesis Göteborg 1981
Indisch filmarchief: 'De tabakscultuur op Midden Java' en 'Java-Soemba film' Films van cameraman I.A. Ochse from VPRO, in Dutch; Java-Soemba (1928) on mission
Early Hindu Colonisation in Sumatra, pp.116-125 in R.C. Majumdar, Ancient Indian Colonies In The Far East, Vol II Suvarnadvipa Part I Political History, 1937, IA
S. Dhammika, Buddhism in Bali
University of Agder, Studytour Indonesia 2012, Buddhists in North Lombok
History of Regions Geographic Units : Islands
Bali History of Bali, from Bali Online
Article : Bali, from Wikipedia
Article : History of Bali, from Wikipedia
Lombok History of Lombok, from Asia Rooms
Article : Lombok : History, from Wikipedia
De geschiedenis van Lombok, from Travel Marker, in Dutch
Sumba Article : Sumba, from Wikipedia
History of Sumba Island, from Indonesia Tourism
K. Rutgers, Sumbanese History
Het eiland Sumba : geschiedenis, from Anak Sumba
Article : Soemba : Geschiedenis, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Sumbawa Article : Sumbawa, from Wikipedia
Bernice de Jong Boers, Hans Hagerdal, History of Sumbawa until 1667, 1667-1815, from Sumbawa News
Sumbawa Island Travel Guide, from Lombok Marine
Komodo Article : Komodo, from Wikipedia
Flores Article : Flores, from Wikipedia
History of Flores, from Satoshi, from Flores-Komodo
Timor Article : Timor, Wikipedia
Timor Society, History of Timor
A Brief History of Timor, ch.2 in : J. Braithwaite et al., Networked Governance of Freedom and Tyranny: Peace in Timor-Leste 2012
H. Hägerdal, Serviao and Belu: Colonial Conceptions and the Geographical Partition of Timor, Studies on Asia Ser.III no.1 2004
S.G. Farram, From 'Timor Koepang' TO 'Timor NTT': A Political History of West Timor, 1901-1967, thesis Northern Territory University n.d.
Historical States Articles : Regencies (former kingdoms) : Buleleng (on Bali), Badung (on Bali), Bangli (on Bali), Gianyar (on Bali), Jembrana (on Bali), Karangasem (on Bali), Klungkung (on Bali), Tabanan (on Bali), from Wikipedia
History Page, from the Wanukaka Website (on Sunda)
Bima, a Brief History, from Sumbawa News
J.G. de Casparis, Some Notes on Ancient Bima, Archipel 56 1998 pp.465-468
Article : Bima, from Wikipedia
Bima, Islamic Heart of East Sumbawa, from Indahnesia
K.G. Anderson, The open door: early modern Wajorese statecraft and diaspora , thesis Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa 2003
Local History Articles : Cities : Denpasar, from Wikipedia
Graeme S. MacRae, Economy, ritual and history in a Balinese tourist town, Theses Univ. of Auckland 1997
Institutions History, from Komodo National Park
Culture S.O. Robson, The Kawi Classics in Bali, BTLV 128 1972 pp.308-329
H. Creese, Pieces In The Puzzle : The Dating of Several Kakawin from Bali and Lombok , Archipel 52 1996 pp.143-171
History of Balinese Dances, from Bali Vision
J. Schenker, An Introduction to the Traditional Music of Sumba (1995), from Pacific Review of Ethnomusicology 13 2008
Sumbanese Arts, from Home in Sumba
M. Hitchcock, The Bimanese Kris : Aesthetics and Social Value, from BTLV 143 1987 pp.125-140
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Tube Zither (Sesando or Sasandu), late 19th century Indonesia, Nusa Tenggara, Timor Island
Biographies
Environmental History Ecozones Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
WWR Ecoregions : Tropical and Subtropical Dryleaf Forests : Southeastern Asia : Lesser Sunda Islands, Island of Sumba, Islands of Timor and Wetar, WWR Ecoregions : Tropical and Subtropical Broadleaf Forests : Southeastern Asia : Islands of Java and Bali,
Environmental History Environmental History of the Island of Sumbawa, from Sumbawa News
Volcanoes, Earthquakes Mount Tabora in 1815. A Volcanic Eruption in Indonesia and its Aftermath
Tambora, from vulkanen.nl, in Dutch
Sumbawa : Pompeii van het Oosten, from NeoWeb, in Dutch
Article Mount Tambora, from Wikipedia
F. Lavigne et al., Source of the great A.D. 1257 mystery eruption unveiled, Samalas volcano, Rinjani Volcanic Complex, Indonesia, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 2013
Volcano Discovery, Lesser Sunda Islands
Archaeology The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
ABIA South and Southeast Asian Art and Archaeology Index, Project at IGNCA, New Delhi; ABIA Website
Tambora Archaeological Observations, from Travel 4 Pros
Article : Tambora Culture, Wikipedia
S. O'Connor et al., Direct dating of shell beads from Lene Hara Cave, East Timor, Australian Archaeology 55 2002 pp.18-21
P. Veth et al., Continuity in Tropical Cave Use: Examples from East Timor and the Aru Islands, Maluku, Asian Perspectives vol.44 no.1 2005 pp.180-192
Mahirta, Stone Technology and the Chronology of Human Occupation on Rote, Sawu and Timor, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 29, 2009: pp.101-108
K.L. Baab, Homo floresiensis: Making Sense of the Small-Bodied Hominin Fossils from Flores Nature Education Knowledge 3(9) 2012 : 4
A. Brumm, Fire-Making Using a Stone 'Strike a Light' in the Soa Basin of Flores, Indonesia, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 26, 2006, pp.168-170
Others Colin McPhee, A House in Bali (1944) IA

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Governors of Bali, since 1945, from World Statesmen
Rulers of Bali, from World Statesmen, scroll down
List of Monarchs of Bali, from Wikipedia
Indonesia : Princely States : Sumbawa, from World Statesmen
Population Figures Indonesia : historical demographical data of the administrative divisions, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht; has population data for Bali ( since 1849
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Belangrijke Bijzonderheden, omtrent de Plaats gehad hebbende uitbarsting van den berg Tambora, in April 1815 in : Vaderlandse letter-oefeningen vol.2 1817 pp.11-18, in Dutch, GB
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Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Bali, from EB 1911
Article : Sumbawa, in vol.34 of The Cyclopaedia, 1819, GB
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Flores, Dutch East Indies, from EB 1911
Religious
Economic Bally Strait, Lombock Strait, p.392 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, or, The East India Trader's Complete Guide, 1825, GB
Sumba, p.394 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, or, The East India trader's Complete Guide, 1825, GB
Alass Strait, Sapy Strait, pp.384-385 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
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Lesser Sunda Islands Bali-Timor pp.178-180 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Bali-Timor pp.135-140 in vol.2 of A. Hamilton, A New Account of the East Indies, 1744 GB Bali pp.474-476, Timor to Lombok, pp.520-525 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
Bali-Timor pp.196-216 in vol.14 of E. Reclus, The universal geography : earth and its inhabitants [1876-1894], IA
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Article : Bali p.259 in vol.1 1821, of Algemeen Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek, in Dutch, GB
Article : Bali, pp.392-393 in vol.1 of in G.N. Wright, A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer, 1834, GB
Bali pp.287-291, Lombok pp.292-294 in Ph.P. Roorda van Eysinga, drijksbeschrijving van Nederlandsch Indië, 1838, in Dutch, GB
Articles : Bali pp.54-63 in vol.2 1840, Bali-Badoeng p.63 in vol.2 1840, Boleleng pp.545-546 in vol.2 1840, Giandjar, pp.558-559 in vol.4 1842, Kaloongkong, pp.237-238 in vol.6 1845, Karang-Asam, p.309 in vol.6 1845, Mangoewi, p.632 in vol.7 1846, Tabanan, pp.2-3 in vol.11 1848, Taman-Bangki, p.16 in vol.11 1848, of A.J. van der Aa, Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek der Nederlanden, in Dutch, GB
Articles : Bali (pp.28-30), Baliling (p.30), Karang-asam (pp.195-196), Klongkong (p.198), Tabanan (p.425), Bangli (p.36), Mangiri, Giyanjar, Badong (p.26), Lomboc pp.219-221, from John Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
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Sumba R. Williams, Remarks on Sandalwood Island, pp.577-578 in J. Huddart, The Oriental Navigator, or, New Directions for Sailing to and from the East, 1801, GB
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Article : Sumbawa, p.601 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
John Lee Comstock, Outlines of Geology, pp.103-104, 1836 GB
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Article : Sumbawa (pp.420-421), from John Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
Article : Bima, p.499 in The Edinburgh Gazetteer, or Geographical Dictionary , 1822, GB
Article : Sumbawa, p.601 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Bima, p.299 in Ph.P. Roorda van Eysinga, Aardrijksbeschrijving van Nederlandsch Indië, 1838, in Dutch, GB
Articles : Bima, pp.444-445 in vol.2 of A.J. van der Aa, Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek der Nederlanden, 1839, in Dutch, GB
Article : Bima (p.53), from John Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
Flores
Timor
Historical
Parliamentary Debates Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues J. Splinter Stavorinus, Voyages to the East-Indies, vol.2, 1798, several Sumbawea entries
A. Duncan, The mariner's chronicle, 1806, GB; pp.24-25 on Sumbawa
Bima, p.246 in vol.2 of J. Splinter Stavorinus, Voyages to the East-Indies, 1798, GB
Bik, J. Th., Aanteekeningen nopens eene reis naar Bima, Timor, de Moluksche eilanden, Menado en Oost-Java, gedaan in 1821 en 1822 met den Hoogleeraar C. G. C. Reinwardt, 1822, in Dutch, SBB
Resident Memoirs
Institutions Musea
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Bali (under Dutch rule), from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
DBNG
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Sejarah Melayu Library
Institute of NTT Development Studies, Working Papers, mostly in Bahasa Indonesia
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Indonesia
Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands)
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Archipel, use Persee (French search engine)
Archipel 1971-2004 (French search engine)
BTLV 1853-1908, 1950-2009
Institute of the Malay World and Civilization, Sari 1999-2009, partly in English, partly in Bahasa Malaysia
Tribal Arts 1994-2004
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Moussons. Recherche en sciences humaines sur l'Asie du Sud-Est
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
On Indonesia Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.213-245 Article Indonesia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.21
Steven Drakeley, The History of Indonesia, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.8 0763h
Specific Topics
Historiography Article : Balinese Historiography, by Helen Creese, pp.68-69 in vol.1 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Encyclopedia Entries Articles Bali, Baliers, Balineesch, from : T.T. Bezemer, Beknopte Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië, 1921, pp.29-35 [G]
Article : Bali, from : G.E.E. Gonggryp, Geïllustreerde Encyclopaedie van Nederlandsch-Indië (1934) 1992 pp.70-71 [G]
Yearbook Entries