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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Malaya before 1895
First posted on December 18th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Prehistory . Early History . 1200s-1500s . 1500s-1800s . Colonialism, 1826-1948 . since 1948

historical South East Asian Mainland polities Annam, Arakan, Champa, Champassak, Cochinchina, Lanxang, Luang Prabang, Tonkin, Viangchan, Vietnam 1802-1885
colonial era entities : Burma, Cambodia, French Annam, French Cochinchina, French Indochina, French Tonkin, Laos
modern South East Asian Mainland polities Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, Thailand (Siam), Vietnam

The Neolithic lasted from c.9000 BC to c.2100 BC, the Bronze Age from 2100 BC (Ban Chiang, Thailand) to c.500 BC, when the Iron Age began (Dong Son, Vietnam). Rice was to become the staple food for the civilizations dwelling in the plains.

Early History
Early polities in the territory of modern Cambodia include Funan (1st century to 550) and Chenla (6th century-802); the latter was succeeded by the Khmer Empire (802-1431), which also included most of modern Thailand and Laos. Tonkin long had been under Chinese rule and only in 938 achieved independence as Dai Viet. Much of the territory of modern Vietnam was covered by the Kingdom of Champa. Early polities in Burma include the Pyu City States on the Irawaddy (2nd century BCE to 1050), the Pagan Dynasty (Upper Burma 849-1297) and the Mon Kingdom of Thaton (9th century to 1050). Dvaravati in Thailand (6th to 13th century) was also of importance.
Foreign religious respectively philosophical concepts gained followers among the population of Southeast Asia, most notably Hinduism and Buddhism, and, limited to Dai Viet, Confucianism. As a consequence, Writing was introduced to the region. In early Southeast Asia, a synchretic form of Hinduism emerged in which Buddha was treated as just another god in the Hindu pantheon. In the Khmer Empire and Champa, the dominant form of Buddhism was Mahayana (and would be replaced by Theravada in the 13th century); in the Pyu States and Dvaravati, the absence of signs of such a religious revolution seems to indicate that the Theravada school of Buddhism had been more acceptable to the regional priesthood. In Dai Viet, the Confucian state examination system was introduced in 1075.

The Political Landscape : The central position was held by the Khmer Empire, which stretched over modern Cambodia, much of modern Thailand and Laos and part of Vietnam (the Mekong Delta). Its rivals included Champa, Ayutthaya (est. 1351), Sukhothai (est. 1238). Burma was ruled by the Pagan Dynasty (849-1297), while Arakan and Hanthawaddy (Pegu) were still independent.
The emergence and growth of the Mongol Empire had a strong impact on Southeast Asia. Thai historiography has the Thai polities of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya descend from The Kingdom of Nanzhao (also Kingdom of Dali, conquered by the Mongols in 1253). Burma suffered Mongol invasions 1277-1301, which caused the fall of the Pagan Dynasty and the disintegration of the country into smaller polities (out of which the Ava Dynasty 1364-1555 was the most important). Only Dai Viet was able to defeat three successive Mongol invasions in 1257-1258, 1284-1285 and 1287-1288. In the 15th century, Champa lost much of its territory to Dai Viet; Dai Viet disintegrated (Tonkin, Annam); the Khmer Empire ended, much of her territory having seceded (Kingdom of Lanxang est. 1354, Kingdom of Ayutthaya est. 1351) or having been conquered by Ayutthaya 1431; the remainder formed the Kingdom of Cambodia.
The Religious Landscape : Khmer ruler Jayavarman VII (1181-1215) attempted to make Mahayana Buddhism the religion of the Khmer. In the 13th century, monks who had studied in Sri Lanka spread Theravada Buddhism, which became dominant in the Khmer Empire and became the dominant school of Buddhism in Champa, at the expense of Mahayana.
Following the establishment of Muslim rule in Bengal (1203), a Muslim community gradually grew in adjacent Arakan.

The Political Landscape : Major regional powers were Burma (Toungoo Dynasty 1510-1752, Konbaung Dynasty 1752-1885), Siam (Ayutthaya Kingdom 1351-1767, Thonburi Kingdom 1768-1782, Rattanakosin Kingdom 1782-1932), Annam (Nguyen Dynasty, 1558-1777, Tay Son Dynasty 1778-1802) and Tonkin (Later Le Dynasty, 1428-1788). Champa in 1471 had lost much of its territory to Dai Viet, the predecessor of Annam and Tonkin, and in 1832 finally was annexed by Annam (which had annexed Tonkin in 1802). In 1431 the Khmer Empire after a disastrous defeat at the hands of Ayutthaya, was terminated; its successor Cambodia entered the Cambodian Dark Ages (-1859), having to pay tribute to both Siam and Annam. The Ayutthaya Kingdom annexed Sukhothai in 1448, Chiengmai in 1774. On the Upper Mekong, the Lanxang (1354-1707) disintegrated in 1707 into the Kingdoms of Champassak (1713-1946), Luang Prabang (1707-1949) and Viangchan (Vientiane, 1707-1828, when it was annexed by Siam).
Burma had annexed the Kingdom of Hanthawaddy (Pegu) in 1539, Arakan in 1785.
The Religious Landscape : In Burma, Siam, Chiangmai, the Laotian states (Lanxang, Champassak (1713-1946), Luang Prabang, Viangchan and Cambodia, Theravada was dominant since the 1200s. In Arakan, Annam, Tonkin it was influential.
Hinduism was influential in Arakan and Champa, but lost ground to Islam in both areas in the 16th to 17th century. Hindu sculptures were still produced in the early 16th century in what is now Thailand.
Islam spread in Arakan and Champa, mainly at the expense of Hinduism.
Christian missionaries made an impact in the Vietnamese kingdoms of Cochinchina and Annam.
The Economy : Agriculture was dominant; crafts and trade were of some importance. In a feudal economy, production of certain items was often organized as a monopoly owned by a royal relative. European merchants visited, established trading factories.

Colonialism, 1826-1948
The East India Company (Bengal Presidency) annexed Arakan and Tenasserim from Burma in 1826, Lower Burma (Pegu) in 1852. In 1859/1863 France declared protectorates over Cochinchina and Cambodia. In 1883-1885 France extended her rule over Annam and Tonkin. In 1886 Britain, which in 1858 had taken over from the East India Company, completed the conquest and annexation of Burma. In 1893 France declared a protectorate over Laos; in the same year, Britain and France agreed over Siam being a buffer state. In 1907 respectively 1909, France and Britain coerced Siam to make territorial concessions.
Colonialism in mainland Southeast Asia was more intense in some areas than in others; British influence within (an administratively reunited) Burma was strongest around important seaports, in the Irawaddy valley And at places of economic importance, such as plantations and mines; it was comparatively weak in economically less significant mountain regions. French influence was strongest in the lowland regions of Cochinchina, French Annam and Tonkin, much less felt in Cambodia, Laos and the mountainous areas of Cochinchina, French Annam and Tonkin.
Siam, nominally independent, pursued a policy of modernization, often employing Westerners as administrators, and at times implementing political reforms "suggested" by foreign, often British diplomats. Historians regard Siam during the years 1893 to 1932 part of the British Informal Empire.

Postcolonial Era, since 1948
For Thailand, modern history began with the coup of 1932 and the subsequently implemented reforms. Burma was released into independence in 1948, Cambodia and Laos in 1953, North and South Vietnam in 1954, following the French military defeat in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.
During the Cold War, North Vietnam sided with the USSR and pursued a policy aiming at the destabilization of South Vietnam and the reunification of Vietnam, which was achieved in 1975. Burma pursued a policy of isolation, while Thailand, while staying out of the Vietnam War, pursued a policy of modernization; Thailand is a founder-member of ASEAN (1967).

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Organizations Southeast Asian Royal Institute : Academy of Moral and Political Sciences : Section of History, Discipline Thai History
Ministry of Education, Fine Arts Department : Glorious Ancient Thailand
SEAMEO Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts (SEAMEO SPAFA), Thailand
SIAM Society
Siamese Heritage Trust
Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences, Royal Academy of Cambodia (RAC), from Cultural Profiles : Cambodia
Apsara (authority responsible for archaeology in Cambodia)
Foreign Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
Association of Myanmar Archaeologists
Ecole Français d'Extreme Orient, Vientiane Center, Pnom Penh Centre, Hanoi Centre, Ho Chi Minh City Centre
Center for Lao Studies
Center for Khmer Studies
Center for Burma Studies, Northern Illinois University
Hmong Studies Internet Research Center
AEFEK - Association d'Echanges et de Formation pour les Etudes Khmeres
Article : Burma Research Society, from Wikipedia
Burma Studies Group
Vietnamese Studies Group
Vietnam Center and Archive, at TTU
Historical Dictionary Siampedia
Accounts of History General Article : History of Southeast Asia, Wikipedia
Specific Periods P. Ronaldson, The use of Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing in a study of the protohistory of Southeast Asia, thesis Univ. of Western Sydney 2006
C.T. Flessen, Bellwood and Solheim: Models of Neolithic movements of people in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 2006
C. Higham et al., Cutting a Gordian Knot: the Bronze Age of Southeast Asia: origins, timing and impact, Antiquity vol.85 no.328 2011 pp.583-598
J. Miksic, The Buddhist-Hindu Divide in Premodern Southeast Asia, 2010
H.C. Clifford, Further India; being the story of exploration from the earliest times in Burma, Malaya, Siam and Indo-China 1904, IA
Historiography H. Xiaorong, The Present Echoes of the Ancient Bronze Drum : Nationalism and Archeology in Modern Vietnam and China, Explorations in Southeast Asian Studies 2 2 1998
M.A. Aung Thwin, Origins and Development of the Field of Prehistory in Burma?, Asian Perspectives 40 (1) 2001 pp.6-34
G. Wade, Postgraduate Thesis: The Ming Shi-lu (veritable records of the Ming Dynasty) as a source for Southeast Asian history, 14th to 17th centuries, thesis Hong Kong 1994
Intercultural Relations J.A. Anderson, Frontier management and tribute relations along the Empire's southern border: China and Vietnam in the 10th and 11th centuries, thesis Univ. of Washington 1999
W. Khanittanan, Ancient links between Thai and Vietnam: Evidence from cognates, Sukhothai inscriptions, and traditional calendrical terms for animals, SEALS 2013
H. Goonatilake, Sri Lanka-Cambodia Relations with Special Reference to the Period 14th-20th Centuries, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, New Series, vol.XLVIII, 2003
Economy Economic History P. Boomgaard, Labour, Land, and Capital in Pre-Modern and Early-Modern Southeast Asia
Vietnamica : Vietnam's Economic History: The Feudalism System 2011
Trade The Traditional Caravan Trade between Yunnan and North Thailand, from CPA Media
G. Dean, The Importance and Consequences of Trade in Southeast Asia till 1870 1999
J. Guy, Indian Textiles for the Thai Market : A Royal Prerogative ?
Article : Ancient Tea Route, Wikipedia
M. Frey, Eurasian Interactions: Siam and the Dutch East India Company during the Seventeenth century?
N. Moeller, The Private Kingdom, thesis Leiden 2012 (on trade in medieval Cambodia, based on archaeological sources)
Agriculture D. Fuller, The impact of evolving of rice systems from China to Southeast Asia, project description, UCL Institute of Archaeology
S. Weber et al., Rice or Millets. Early Farming Strategies in Prehistoric Central Thailand
P. Charoenwangsa, Agrarian Economy in Prehistoric Thailand
L. Vanna, Rice Remains in the Prehistoric Pottery Tempers of the Shell Midden Site of Samrong Sen: Implications for Early Rice Cultivation in Central Cambodia, Aseanie 2002 vol.9 no.9 pp.13-34, Persee
Technology Ceramics South East Asia Pottery
Ceramics in Mainland Southeast Asia
P.E. McGovern et al., Ceramic Technology at Prehistoric Ban Chiang, Thailand : Physiochemical Analysis, 2010
H.V. Tan, Prehistoric Pottery in Viet Nam and its Relationships with Southeast Asia, Asian Perspectives 26 (1) 1984-1985
Metallurgy, Metalworking T.O. Price, Prehistoric copper production and technological reproduction in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley of central Thailand, thesis UCL 2009 (1450 BCE-300 CE)
P. Sørensen, Prehistoric Iron Implements from Thailand, Asian Perspect£ves, XVI(2); 1973
V. Pigott et al., The Origins of Metallurgy in Prehistoric Southeast Asia: The View from Thailand, in : S. la Niece et al. (eds.), Metals and Mines. Studies in Archaeometallurgy. 2007, pp 76-88
D.N. Wang et al., The Archaeometallurgical Analysis of Copper-base Artifacts from Prehistoric Nil Kham Haeng, Central Thailand: A Preliminary Report, n.d.
Article : Dong Son Drums, Wikipedia
N. Wongpongkam, A Study of Isan and Lao Indigenous Knowledge in Making Bronze and Brass Products for Commercial Purpose, The Social Sciences 2009 vol.4 no.2 pp.191-195
X. Wang, Early Development of Bronze Technology in Eastern Eurasia, Sino-Platonic Papers 213, 2011; earliest find at Ban Chiang, 2100/1700 BCE
Textiles C. Bautze-Pricon, Textiles from Bengal in Pagan (Myanmar) from late eleventh century and onwards, 2010
Article : Hmong Textile Art, Wikipedia
Social History C.L. King, Social Organisation and the Rise of Civilisation in the Mun River Valley, Thailand, thesis Durham 2013
A.L. Clark, Human Sexual Dimorphism and Health During the Intensification of Agriculture in Prehistoric Thailand, thesis Otago 2013
K.M. Domett, The Prehistoric People of Ban Lum Khao, Central Thailand, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 22 2002
R.A. Bentley et al., Matrilocality during the prehistoric transition to agriculture in Thailand ?, Antiquity., 79 (306). pp.865-881
H.Y.H. Lee, Some Remarks on Reconstructing the Prehistoric Linguistic Relationships of the Tai-Kadai Language Family and Its Putative Linguistic Affiliations with Other Language Families: A Review Article, International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities vol.2 no.1 (2011), pp.163-175
M. Oxenham, Biological Responses to Change in Prehistoric Viet Nam, Asian Perspectives, Vol. 45, No.2 2006
N.W. Bower et al., Preliminary Reconstruction of Diet at a Neolithic Site in Vietnam Using Stable Isotope and BA/SR Analyses, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 26, 2006 pp.79-85
Ethnography H. Baudesson, Indo-China and its primitive people, IA
Article : History of Indian Influence on Southeast Asia, Wikipedia
Religion Pagan P. Jotisakultratana, Mothers of all peoples. Goddesses of Thailand from prehistory until the present, thesis California Inst. of Integral Studies 2013
Hinduism Article : Hinduism in Southeast Asia, Wikipedia
Sacred Texts : Hinduism in Vietnam [1967]
P. Nguonphan, Computer Modeling, Analysis and Visualization of Angkor Wat Style Temples in Cambodia, thesis Heidelberg 2009
K. Puseman et al., AMS Radiocarbon Dating of the Carbon and Clay Cores from a Bronze Brahmanic Sculpture of Vishnu, Thailand, and from a Bronze Sitting Buddha Statue, Bhutan, 2010, These pieces are noted to have been produced from the 1300s until the first quarter of the 1500s
J. Miksic, The Buddhist-Hindu Divide in Premodern Southeast Asia, 2010
Buddhism K.L. Hazra, History of Theravada Buddhism in South-East Asia with special reference to India and Ceylon, 1982
P. Skilling, The Advent of Theravada Buddhism to Mainland South-east Asia, Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 20 1 1997 pp.93-109, discusses inscriptions 5th to 8th century
Anandajoti, The Ascendency of Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia, book review 2012
P. Skilling, Theravada in History, Pacific World. Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies 11 2009 pp.61-93
M.C.H.K. Lan, A Study of Theravada Buddhism in Vietnam, thesis Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya Univ. 2010
A. Roxas-Lim, Buddhism in Early Southeast Asia : A Contribution to the Study of Culture Change, Asian Studies Journal 1973 pp.75-97
E. Guthrie, A Study of the History and Cult of the Buddhist Earth Deity in Mainland Southeast Asia vol.1 : thesis, Univ. of Canterbury (NZ) 2004
Article : History of Buddhism in Cambodia, Wikipedia
Monastic Asia, an attempt to establish a catalogue of Buddhist monasteries pre-1200; work in progress
J. Miksic, The Buddhist-Hindu Divide in Premodern Southeast Asia, 2010
Islam Peter Hourdequin, Muslim influences in seventeenth century Ayutthaya , Diss. Univ. of Hawai'i 2007
History of Regions by modern state for general overviews see under the individual country : Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Laos, Thailand (Siam), Vietnam; here only sites refering to premodern history are listed.
M. Hazarika, Prehistoric Cultural Affinities Between Southeast Asia, East Asia and Northeast India: An Exploration, ch.2 of ?
Article : Migration Period of Ancient Burma, Wikipedia
Article : Prehistory of Burma, Wikipedia
Article : Prehistoric Thailand, Wikipedia
Article : Early History of Cambodia, Wikipedia
T.Q. Vuong et al., Hanoi University, Museum Anthropology, Prehistory and Protohistory Archaeology in Vietnam - Outline
by historical polity B. Hudson, The Origins of Bagan: The archaeological landscape of Upper Burma to AD 1300, thesis Sydney 2005; (First Millenium BCE-1300/1400 CE)
Article : Pagan Kingdom, Wikipedia
A. Naono, The Buddhist Kings of Chiengmai and Pegu, The Purification of the Sangha, and the Mahabodhi Replicas in the Late Fifteenth Century, thesis Univ. of Michigan 1996
I. Glover, The Dvaravati Gap - Linking Prehistory and History in Early Thailand, Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 30 2010
Article : Pyu City States, Wikipedia
Article : Mon Kingdoms, Wikipedia
Article : Myinsaing Kingdom, Wikipedia
Article : Pinya Kingdom, Wikipedia
Article : Sagaing Kingdom, Wikipedia
Article : Ava Kingdom, Wikipedia
Article : Prome Kingdom, Wikipedia
Article : Hanthawaddy Kingdom, Wikipedia
Article : Toungoo Dynasty, Wikipedia
Article : Sukhothai Kingdom, Wikipedia
Article : Ayutthaya Kingdom, Wikipedia
Article : Dvaravati, Wikipedia
A. Barram, Dating Dvaravati, Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 23 2003
P. Pongkasetkan, Buddhism in Upper Chao Phraya Basin: An Intersection of Dvaravati Culture between the Khorat Plateau and the Tha Chin Valley, 2011
P. Kanjanajuntorn, Tracing Post-Dvaravati Culture from Space: applying remote sensing techniques in west-central Thailand, abstract 2011
by culture Article : Dong Son Culture, Bac Son Culture, Da But Culture, Dong Dau Culture, Go Mun Culture, Hoabinhian, Quynh Van Culture, Sa Hyunh Culture, Son Vi Culture, Wikipedia
Asia Society : Arts of Ancient Vietnam : Early Cultures: Dong Son and Sa Huynh, 2009
Local History J.J. Boeles, A Note on the Ancient City of Lavapura, Journal of the Siam Society 1961 pp.113-115
Culture L. Delaporte, Voyage au Cambodge; l'architecture khmer 1880, IA
E. Schiller et al., The World's Writing Systems: Khmer Writing 1996, IA
A.K.C., Khmer Sculpture, Museum of Fine Arts Bulletin 18, 1920, IA
E.C. de Crosier, L'Art khmer: etude historique sur les monuments de l'ancien Cambodge 1875, IA
Heilbrunn Timeline of Southeast Asia History : 8000-2000 B.C., 2000-1000 BC, 1000-1 BC, 1-500 AD, 500-1000 AD, 1000-1400, 1400-1600, 1600-1800, 1800-1900, 1900-present
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thematic Essays : The Mon-Dvaravati Tradition of North-Central Thailand, Pre-Angkor Traditions : The Mekong Delta and Peninsular Thailand
Anne-Marie Schweyer, Ancient Vietnam : History and Archaeology, 2005 [G]
R.M. Cooler, The Art and Culture of Burma
C.K. Galloway, Burmese Buddhist Imagery of the Early Bagan Period (1044 - 1113), 2 volume thesis, Australian Nat'l Univ. 2006
DASTA, "Luk Kampat - the Beads" art of Dvaravati Period, the Pride of Uthong
Muayboran, The History and Development of Muay
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
S. Kurz, Preliminary report on the forest and other vegetation of Pegu 1875, IA
C. Higham et al., Ban Chian and Northeast Thailand: Paleoenvironment and Economy, Journal of Archaeological Science. 6 (3) 1979 pp.211-233
T. Hutangkura, Pollen Analysis: An Effective Tool for Investigating Phytogeographical History and Human Settlement of the Lower Central Plain, Thailand, 2011
Archaeology The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
ABIA South and Southeast Asian Art and Archaeology Index, Project at IGNCA, New Delhi; ABIA Website
T. Lertcharnrit, Late Prehistoric and Early Historic Archaeology in Thailand: Recent Evidence from the Central Highland, Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities and Arts 5 2005
J.C. White, Archaeological investigations in northern Laos: new contributions to Southeast Asian prehistory, Antiquity vol.083 no.319 March 2009
F. Demeter et al., Tam Hang Rockshelter: Preliminary Study of a Prehistoric Site in Northern Laos , Asian Perspectives 48 2 2009
G. Albrecht et al., Circular Earthwork Krek 52/62: Recent Research on the Prehistory of Cambodia, Asian Perspectives 39 2 2000
M. Aung Thwin, Burma Before Pagan: The Status of Archaeology Today, Asian Perspectives, xxv (2), 1982-1983
E. Moore, Bronze and Iron Age sites in Upper Myanmar: Chindwin, Samon and Pyu, SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 1, No., 1, Spring 2003
M.D. Gallon, Ideology, Identity and the Construction of Urban Communities: The Archaeology of Kamphaeng Saen, Central Thailand (c. Fifth to Ninth Centuries CE), thesis Univ. of Michigan 2013
Others Miscellaneous papers relating to Indo-China and the Indian Archipelago, reprinted for the Straits branch of the Royal Asiatic Society ser.1 vol.2 1886, ser.2 vol.1 1886, ser.2 vol.2 1886, IA

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Image Databanks Scholars Resource; images of pieces of art
Wikimedia Commons
Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Archival Deposits National Archives (UK) (for Burma)
Archives Nationales d'Outremer (France) (for Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam)
British Library, Burmese Language Collections, Cambodian Language Collections, Lao Language Collections, Thai Studies, Vietnamese Language Collections
Historiography W.H. Brereton, The truth about opium : being a refutation of the fallacies of the Anti-Opium Society and a defence of the Indo-China opium trade 1883, IA
Inscriptions Archaeological Survey of India, The Kalyani inscriptions erected by King Dhammaceti at Pegu in 1476 A.D., Text and translation 1892, IA
The Inscriptions in Thailand Database
Corpus of Khmer Inscriptions
Burma Archaeological Survey, A list of inscriptions found in Burma, 1921, IA
Corpus of the Inscriptions of Campa
Manuscripts CATALOGUES
T. Frasch, A Preliminary Survey of Burmese Manuscripts in Great Britain and Ireland, SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004
J. Igunma, Illustrated manuscripts from Thailand, 2005
Digital Library of Lao Manuscripts
Thai Manuscripts Online
EFEO, Khmer Manuscripts
British Library, Endangered Archives Project, Digitized Cham Manuscripts
Document Collections N. Pimenta et al., Jesuit Letters on Pegu in the Early Seventeenth Century, IA
Individual Documents
Historical Maps Distribution of Asian Languages, map from Muturzikin; Linguistic Maps from Titus Didactica, scroll down for Asia
Maps : Eastern Hemisphere 550 B.C., 527 BC, 500 BC, 400 BC, 335 BC, 323 BC, 300 BC, 200 BC, 100 BC, 050 BC, 050 AD, 200 AD, 300 AD, 400 AD, 450 AD, 565 AD, 600 AD, 610 AD, 900 AD, 1000 AD, 1025 AD, 1100 AD, 1200 AD, 1300 AD, 1400 AD, 1500 AD, Asia 700 AD, 800 AD, by Thomas Lessman
Map of Southeast Asia 900, 1300, 1317, 1380, 1400, 1450, Wikipedia
Map of Toungoo Empire, 1580, Wikipedia
Encyclopedia Entries
Economic Bengal to the Malay Peninsula, pp.278-294, Siam, Cochin China and Tonquin, pp.438-460 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Geographical The Present State of Tonquin pp.49-57, The Present State of Cochinchina pp.58-60, The Present State of Siam pp.61-91 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB
India beyond the Ganges, pp.81-154 in vol.7 of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of All Nations, 1769, GB
Chin-India or Indo-China pp.330-394 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
Indo-China pp.420-486 in vol.8 of E. Reclus, The universal geography : earth and its inhabitants [1876-1894], IA
Tour Guides J. Conder, Birmah, Siam, and Anam, 1826, GB
J. Conder, The Modern Traveller, vol.11 : Burmah, Siam, &c., 1830, IA
Travelogues Brief Extract from the Travels of Athanasius Nikitin, a Native of Twer, 1857, IA; Nikin traveled to Burma in the 15th century
Account of the Journey of Hieronimo di Santo Stefano, a Genovese (1495-1496), IA, Burma portion only
C. Fedrici, Account of Pegu in the 1560s, IA
G. Balbi, Voyage to Pegu, and Observations There, Circa 1583, IA
R. Fitch, An Account of Pegu in 1586-1587, IA
A. Hamilton, Account of Pegu and the Voyage to Cambodia and Siam in 1718, 1727, IA
Notes on Buraghmah [Burma] by Captain George Baker, c.1755, IA
Observations at Persaim [Bassein, Burma] and in the Journey to Ava and Back in 1755, IA
R. Lester, Proceedings of an Embassy to the King of Ava, Pegu, &C. IN 1757, IA
Sonnerat, A Voyage to Pegu (in the 1770s) (1789) IA
M. Symes, An Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava (1795), IA
J. Crawfurd et al., Journal of an embassy from the governor-general of India to the court of Ava ... 1827, 1829, IA
H. Malcolm, Travels in south-eastern Asia: Embracing Hindustan, Malaya, Siam, and China 1839, GB
H. Yule, A narrative of the mission sent by the governor-general of India to the court of Ava in 1855, with notices of the country, government, and people 1858, IA
H. Mouhot, Travels in the central parts of Indo-China (Siam), Cambodia, and Laos : during the years 1858, 1859, and 1860 vol.1 1864, vol.2 1864, IA
L. de Carne, Travels in Indo-China and the Chinese empire 1872, IA
J. Thomson, The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China, and China or, Ten years' travels, adventures, and residence abroad, 1875, IA
L. Delaporte, Voyage au Cambodge; l'architecture khmer 1880, IA
Resident Memoires W. Hunter, A Concise Account of the Kingdom of Pegu (1785) IA; on stay in 1782-1783
Institutions Archives Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art : Thailand
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
University of Hawai'i at Manoa Library, Bibliography on Buddhism in Southeast Asia
Online Libraries General Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Gallica (French national digital library; has strong collection on French Indochina)
on mainland SEA South East Asia Digital Library (project)
South East Asia Visions, at Cornell
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
National Library of Myanmar, e-Resources (Project)
Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Bibliotheque Nationale du Cambodge, Bibliotheca Khmerica
Digital Library of Lao Manuscripts
Thai Manuscripts Online
Silpakorn University, Thapra Digital Library (Thai language site; Rare Books features an online library of Thai books; Thesis Online a library of mainly Thai language theses)
National Library of Vietnam, Digital Library
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Thailand (as of Dec. 19 2013, ROAR has no entries for Burma/Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam)
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
Silpakorn University, Thapra Digital Library (Thai language site); Rare Books features an online library of Thai books; Thesis Online a library of mainly Thai language theses
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Archipel, use Persee (French search engine)
Journal Asiatique (in French) 1822-1897, 1903-1938, 1940, Gallica
Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 1991-2003
South East Asian Archaeology Newsblog
Vietnam Journals Online (mostly in Vietnamese)
The Siam repository: containing a summary of Asiatic intelligence vol.2, 1870, IA
Thai Khadi Journal 2004- (has abstracts in Thai)
Journal of the Siam Society, Archive
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association
Vietnamese Studies Newsletter, from Hmong Studies
Burma Archives Newsletter, IISG, 1998-2001
Journal for Lao Studies, 2010-
SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 2003-
Historiography Article : Thai Historiography - Chronicles, by D.K. Wyatt, pp.879-881, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Specific Topics Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th ed., Macropaedia vol.27 : Southeast Asian Art pp.795-838, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862n v.27
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Yearbook Entries

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