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V.O.C. Bone
First posted on January 11th 2010, last revised on May 9th 2010






Sultanate Makassar-Gowa. Seat of a settlement of Portuguese merchants; the main Portuguese trade entrepot from the fall of Malacca to the V.O.C. in 1641 to the ultimate expulsion of the Portuguese, in response to Dutch pressure, in 1669. From 1667 onward the V.O.C. held Fort Rotterdam in the port of Makassar.
Dutch protectorate over the Sultanate of Gowa declared in 1669; Sultanate abolished in 1906 & its territory annexed into the Dutch East Indies, Sultanate restored in 1936. In 1949 integrated into the Republic of Indonesia

Successor states : Sultanate of Bima, Sultanate of Kutai
Former territories : Sumba

Alternative spellings : Macassar, Makassar, Macaçar, Mancaçar
Alternative spellings : Goa, Gowa (not to be confused with Goa, the capital of Portuguese India)






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current Article : Makassar, from Wikipedia
Historical Great Britain, Forteign Office, Historical Section : Celebes (1919), posted on Internet Archive
N. Gervaise, Description historique du royaume de Macaçar, 1688, in French, GB
Links on History Category : Makassar, from Wikipedia
Categorie : Geschiedenis van Celebes, from Wikipedia
Organizations
Portals Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines Search Google News Archive for Makassar, click Timeline
Timeline of Indonesian History, from Sejarah Indonesia , 11 sub-timelines, illustrated, very detailed
History of Celebes Current Article : Sulawesi : History, from Wikipedia
De Geschiedenis van Sulawesi, from travelmarker.nl [in Dutch, considerably more detailed than Wikipedia]; from indonesie.nl [in Dutch, illustrated]
History of Celebes Historic R. Blok, History of the Island of Celebes, trsl. from the Dutch by J. Stubenvoll, vol.1, 1817, vol.2, 1817, vol.3, 1817, GB
History of Celebes, pp.379-390 in vol.2 of J. Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago, 1820, GB
History of Makassar South Sulawesi History, from etm.ptx
Makassar - History and Cultural Relations, from Every Culture
Gowa-Bone, from Berts Geschiedenissite
Specific Periods Andi Zainal Abidin, The Emergence of Early Kingdoms in South Sulawesi, A Preliminary Remark on Governmental Contracts from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century, Southeast Asian Studies 20 1983
Marco Ramerini, Makassar and the Portuguese, from Colonial Voyage
Historiography A.A. Cense, Old Buginese and Macassarese Diaries, BTLV 122 1966 pp.416-428
Administrative History
Military Andere Tijden : Celebes, deel 1, deel 2, Dutch language documentaries on the Police Action 1948-1949, from VPRO
Fort Rotterdam, Makassar, from Asia for Visitors
De Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie voert oorlog tegen Makassar (1666-1668), Exhibition Library Univ. Leiden
Economy & Finances Gewest Makassar, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum
V.O.C. Handelsposten : Makassar, from De V.O.C. Site, in Dutch
Roderich Prak, Der Handel zwischen Macau und Makassar, 1640 - 1667, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 139 1989 pp.208-226
De handelsrelaties van het Makassaarse rijk volgens de notitie van Cornelis Speelman uit 1670, uitgegeven door J. Noorduyn, Nederlanse Historische Bronnen, in Dutch
Eastern Passage to China through Macassar Strait, pp.568-583, Islands, Bays etc. near the south-east part of Celebes pp.628-636, from James Horsburgh, The India Directory : Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, vol.2 1852, posted by Internet Archive
A.E. Dingle, Gold out of Celebes (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Ethnography F. David Bulbeck, The Politics of Marriage and the Marriage of Polities in Gowa, South Sula Wesi, During the 16th and 17th Centuries , ch.13 in : Origins, Ancestry and Alliance: Explorations in Austronesian Ethnography
J. Noorduyn, The Wajorese merchants community in Makassar, BTLV 156 2000 pp.473-498
K.G. Anderson, The open door: early modern Wajorese statecraft and diaspora, 2003
V. Korn, Problemen der Makassaars-Boeginese Samenleving, BTLV 108 1952 pp.17-35
Religion J. Noorduyn, De Islamisering van Makasar, BTLV 112 1956 pp.247-266, J. Noorduyn, Makasar and the Islamization of Bima, BTLV 143 1987 pp.312-342
Local History From Makassar to Ujung Padang, by D. Teeuwen
De geschiedenis van Makassar, from Travel Marker, in Dutch
Article Makassar, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Institutions
Culture Julianto Sumalyo, Dutch Colonial Architecture and City Development of Makassar, Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur 30 2002 pp.46-53
Biographies
Others A. Reid, Pluralism and Progress in seventeenth-century Makassar, BTLV 156 2000 pp.433-449

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Indonesia : Princely States : Gowa, from World Statesmen
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten - historisch, from startpagina.nl Dutch language site
Search Archief Leeuwarder Courant (1752-) in Dutch
Search Digitaal Krantenarchief at Regionaal Archief Leiden, in Dutch
Search Papers Past (New Zealand Newspapers 1839-1920)
Search Newspapers SG (Singapore Newspapers 1831-2006)
Historic Australian Newspapers 1803-1954
Image Databanks Geheugen van Nederland; site in Dutch; Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam; Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden; Maritiem Digitaal (Dutch Maritime Musea); Leiden University Digital Sources (mostly images); Category : Minahasa, from Wikimedia Commons; Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Koleksi Foto, from Indonesian National Library, site in Bahasa Indonesia
Archival Deposits online Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
Archival Deposits index online Search ARCHIEVEN.NL
Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS, search in Archives, Manuscripts and Photographs); has numerous items on Celebes
Inventory of the Oriental Manuscripts of the Library of the University of Leiden vol.12
Memories van Overgave, from IDC Publishers; pdf file contains table of contents which lists Makassar
Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
KITLV Library, Manuscripts and Archives
ING, Repertorium van Zendings- en Missiearchieven, Circa 1800-1960 2007, search for Makassar
E. Schwidder, E. Vermeij, Guide to the Asian Collections at the International Institute of Social History (IISG 2007) [400 page file]
Individual Documents Nick Habermehl, List of V.O.C. Shipwrecks, from Treasure Net
J. Noorduyn (ed.), De handelsrelaties van het Makassaarse rijk volgens de Notitie van Cornelis Speelman uit 1670 Nederlandsche Historische Bronnen 3, posted by DBNL; in Dutch
Historical Maps Atlas of Mutual Heritage, search for Makassar
Mapas Imperiales; scroll down for Imperio de Makassar 1631-1667
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Macassar, pp.8-11 in vol.27 of F.B. de Felice, Encyclopedie ou Dictionnaire universel raisonne des connoissances humaines, 1773, in French, GB
Articles : Macassar, p.357 in vol. 10 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB
Articles : Macassar, p.292 in vol.12 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1823, GB
Article : Celebes, in vol.5 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1833, GB ; p.288 on Macassar Residency
Article : Celebes, from EB 1911
Religious Celebes or Macassar, p.128 in B.B. Edwards, The Missionary Gazetteer, 1832, GB
Economic Macassar, p.354 in J.A. de Serionne, Le Commerce De La Hollande , 1768, in French, GB
Of the Great Molucca Isles, pp.679-680 in W. Beawes, Lex Mercatoria Rediviva : or, The Merchant's Directory, 1773, GB ; Celebes regarded one of the Molucca Islands; reference to Macassar
Macassar, p.248 in vol.2 of W. Beawes, Lex Mercatoria : or, A Complete Code of Commercial Law, 1813, GB
Geographical Article : Macassar, p.79 in The Edinburgh Gazetteer, or Geographical Dictionary, 1822, GB
Article : Macassar, in : R. Brookes, The General Gazetteer : or, Compendious Geographical Dictionary, unpaginated, 1827, GB
Celebes, pp.339- in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography : or a Description of All Parts of the World,l 1827, GB ; numerous references to the Goa Macassarese
Articles : Macassar, pp.328-329 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Het Koninkrijk Goa, pp.117-118 in Ph.P. Roorda van Eysinga, Aardrijksbeschrijving van Nederlandsch Indië, 1838, in Dutch, GB
Article : Goa, p.891 in vol.4 of A.J. van der Aa, Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek der Nederlanden, 1843, GB
Article : Makassar, pp.603-606 in vol.7 of A.J. van der Aa, Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek der Nederlanden, 1848, in Dutch, GB
Article : Macassar (p.231), from John Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, posted on Internet Archive
Historical Treats of the Island of Celebes, or Macassar pp.111-116 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of All Nations, 1744, GB
City and Fortress of Macassar, pp.463-464 in vol.10 of The Modern Part of an Universal History, 1759, GB
Lt.Col. Dennis Herbert Dalton, pp.348-354 in vol.2 of The East India Military Calendar (on his service as commander of Macassar 1815), 1824, GB
Macassar, British Occupation of, p.333 in E.P. Brenton, The Naval History of Great Britain : from the Year MDCCLXXXIII to MDCCCXXII, 1825, GB
Article : Macassar, p.764 in Ch.F. Partingdon, The British Cyclopedia of Literature, History, Geography, Law, and Politics, 1836, GB
Parliamentary Debates Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Hansard (British Parliament)
Historical Travelogues S.N. Hickson, A naturalist in north Celebes : a narrative of travels in Minahassa, the Sangir and Talaut Islands (1889), posated on Internet Archive
Pieter Bleeker, Reis door de Minahassa en den Molukschen archipel, vol.1, vol.2, 1856, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Musea
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Macassar-Gowa, from Zeno

PRINTED REFERENCE
Bibliographies General ISBN Database
of former Colonial Powers Bibliopolis
RHS Bibliography
Nederlandse Bibliografie
KITLV Library
on SE Asia Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
National Library of Australia, Indonesian Resources from the Dutch Period
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Philippines ELibrary
DBNG
Collections of Theses Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands)
Online Journals Cakalele CAKALELE is a journal devoted exclusively to publishing the results of research in and about Maluku, as well as the Maluku communities scattered through Indonesia and the Netherlands.
Archipel, use Persee (French search engine)
BTLV 1853-1908, 1950-2009
Moussons. Recherche en sciences humaines sur l'Asie du Sud-Est
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
On Indonesia, Dutch East Indies, Celebes Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.213-245 Article Indonesia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.21
Steven Drakeley, The History of Indonesia, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.8 0763h
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Yearbook Entries