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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Straits Settlements Siam (Thailand)
First posted on December 16th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

200-1400 . 1400-1511 . 1511-1642 . 1642-1786 . 1786-1909

for regional history up to 1895, see History of Johor, History of Kedah, History of Kelantan, History of Negeri Sembilan, History of Pahang, History of Perak, History of Perlis, History of Selangor, Straits Settlements, History of Trengganu
see also History of Nakhon Si Thammarat (Ligore), History of Pattani, History of Phuket (Junk Ceylon)
for later history, see Straits Settlements, Federated Malay States, Unfederated Malay States, History of Malaya, History of Malaysia

Oldest trace of human presence on the Malaya Peninsula dates to 75,000 BC (Lenggong, Perak). Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) lasted until 12,000 BC; Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) lasted from 12,000 BC to 8,500 BC; New Stone Age (Neolithic) lasted from 8,500 BC to 300 BC. [Malaysia Factbook]. A number of megaliths are reported; yet the term Megalithic is not applied for Peninsular Malaya.

Unlike in other parts of the world, Malaysia did not experience a Bronze Age because there was no copper in Malaysia for use with tin to make bronze; and Iron Age lasted from 300 BC to 1400 AD[Malaysia Factbook]
Geographer Ptolemy (Alexandria, c.90-168 AD) refered to the Malay Peninsula as the "Golden Chersonese". The role of the Malay Archipelago as transit region for interregional trade grew. With trade, foreign (Indian) religions entered the region, notably Hinduism and Buddhism. The most famous polity of this period was Srivijaya (7th to 13th century). Its capital, believed to be modern Palembang on Sumatra, was a center of Buddhist study. At its height, Srivijaya controlled Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. In the 11th century, Srivijaya was conquered and briefly held by Chola invaders from South India.
Important historical sources on Srivijaya are inscriptions written in Kawi script.

The Sultanate of Malacca was established in 1400; its establishment marks the beginning of Islam as the dominant religion in the region. Malacca was visited by Chinese navigator Zheng He.

In 1511 the Portuguese conquered the city of Malacca. The Sultan of Malacca established his court at Johor (hence Sultanate of Johor).

In 1641 the V.O.C., in alliance with the Sultanate of Johor, ousted the Portuguese from Malacca and took over the city. Siam claimed suzerainty over the Malay peninsula, and on occasion enforced this claim.

Expansion of British Influence, 1786-1909
In 1786 to 1824 the E.I.C. / Britain acquired Penang, Singapore and Malacca, which were formed into the Straits Settlements in 1826. Britain, while recognizing the sovereignty of Siam over the northern Malay States (Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Terengganu), used its influence to assure that British economic interest on the Malay peninsula, after the Kedah War, would no longer be threatened by Siamese military campaigns.
In 1885 Johor, by treaty became a British protectorate, but did not join the Federated Malay States when this federation was established in 1895.
In the Treaty of Bangkok 1909 Siam ceded Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu to Britain.

Historical Atlas, Malaya Page (1786-1963), Straits Settlements Page (1826-1946), Malaysia Page (since 1963)

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles
Links on History from Virtual Library Malaysia; from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Historical Dictionaries N.B. Dennys, A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya 1894, IA
Organizations on Asian History International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
on SE Asian History Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
on Malaysia History Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Perak Heritage Society
Timelines from BBC News, from timelines.ws; from geographia.com; another one from Malaysia Stall
Accounts of History Modern Sejarah Melayu. A History of the Malay Peninsula, from malaya.org.uk
Article History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Historical J. Kennedy, A history of Malaya, A.D. 1400-1959 1962, IA
Specific Periods Prehistory
P. Bellwood, Cultural and Biological Differentiation in Peninsular Malaysia: The Last 10)000 Years, Asian Perspectives, vol.32 no.1 1993
P. Bellwood, Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago , 1985
Malaysia Factbook, Prehistoric Malaysia
Malaysian Explorer, Palaeolithic Malaysia
Article : Prehistoric Malaysia, Wikipedia
M. Carvalho, The Enigmatic Megaliths of Melaka, 2012
M.W.F. Tweedie, The Malayan Neolithic, Journal of the Polynesian Society vol.58 1949 no.1 pp.19-35
Pamela Sodhy, The "International Relations" of the Malay Peninsula from the Seventh to the Fourteenth Century, Akademica 23 1983 pp.21-36
Before 1400
Sejarah Melayu, Early Malay Kingdoms, Buddhist Empires, China's Southern Sea
Global Security : Malaysia History : Early Indianized States , Tambralinga 100-1290, Langka 100-1377
Early Hindu Colonisation in Malay Peninsula, pp.65-91 in R.C. Majumdar, Ancient Indian Colonies In The Far East Vol II Suvarnadvipa Part I Political History, 1937, IA
Sejarah Melayu, The Coming of Islam, Parameswara, The Melaka Empire
Sejarah Melayu, Portuguese Conquistadores, The Johor Empire
Sejarah Melayu, Dutch East India, The Johor Empire
Sejarah Melayu, The Kedah Blockade, The Selangor Civil War, The Perak War
F.A. Swettenham, British Malaya; an account of the origin and progress of British influence in Malaya, 1907, IA
F. Sumio, The Rise of Tambralinga and the Southeast Asian Commercial Boom in the Thirteenth Century, 2006
Historiography Article : Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa (Kedah Annals), Wikipedia
Article : Malay Annals (Sejarah Melayu), Wikipedia
Article : Hikayat Hang Tuah, Wikipedia
Administration Tracing the Development of the Legal System : Early Malaya, pp.1-19 in A. bt Ahmad, Legal Systems in ASEAN : Malaysia; scroll down for Unfederated Malay States
P. Borschberg, The Johor-VOC Alliance and The Twelve Years' Truce: Factionalism, Intrigue and International Diplomacy 1606-13, 2009
Military Wars of Malaysia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Article Military History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Malaysia
Economic History of Malaysia, from Economic History Encyclopedia
Category Economic History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Tin Mining in Malaysia - Present and Future, from TED Case Studies; Tin Tales from the Past, from Malaysia up Close
Nanhai Marine Archaeology LLC, Malaysia, Ming Wrecks
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Malaysia (141), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Malaysia - Chinese, East Indians
S.L. Manickam, Ideas of nation and Malayness in Malaya 1809-1942: A history of inclusion and exclusion, thesis Singapore 2005
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Malaysia, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Article History of the Jews in Malaysia, from Wikipedia; Malaysia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Catholic Church in Malaysia, from GCatholic
J. Roxborogh, An outline history of Christianity in Malaysia
C.R. Yeoh, Malaysia, Truly Asia ? Religious Pluralism in Malaysia
Nalanda, Buddhism in Malaysia
Malaysia Hindudharma Mamandram, Hinduism in Malaysia
History of Regions
Local History
Culture Online books on History of Malaysian architecture, from ArchNet
The Passage of Malay Scripts : The Sacred Knowledge of Writing, Scripts of the Malay Archipelago, The Coming of Islam, Colonial Encounters
South East Asia Pottery
Biographies List of Malaysians, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Archaeology The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Sejarah Melayu Gallery
Malaysia Design Archive
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits National Archives (UK) Catalogue
Digital Library Malaysia
Historiography J.R. Logan, A Translation of the Keddah Annals &c , The Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia 3: pp.1-23, 90-101, 162-181, 253-270, 314-336, 467-488
Malay Annals, trsl. J. Leyden (1821), from SG e-Books; from Sabrizain on the 15th and 16th century
Digital Library of Malay Manuscripts, Diceritakan di Istana Sultan Kelantan mengenai satu peperangan di antara syaitan
Document Surveys British Library, Help for Researchers, Indonesian Studies
N. Heer, A List of Malay Manuscript Catalogues, 2010
Malay Concordance Project
Document Collections
Historical Maps Maps, from Sejarah Melayu Gallery
click WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Malaya Page, Malaysia Page
Encyclopedia Entries
Economic Malay Peninsula, pp.295-324 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Geographical Peninsula of Malacca, pp.122-127 in vol.7 : Asia of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of All Nations, 1769, GB
Peninsula of Malacca, or Malaya, pp.389-393 in vol.3 : India and Oceania, of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
Peninsula of Malacca pp.487-500 in vol.8 India and Indo-China, of Elisee Reclus, The Universal Geography, The Earth and its Inhabitants, n.d. [1876-1894], IA
Ethnographical Entry : La penisula di Malacca, pp.277-, in vol.4 of D. G. Ferrario, Il Costume Antico e Moderno di Tutti i Popoli, 1824, in Italian, GB
The Malay Peninsula, pp.525-527 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
British Empire in Asia : Malay States, pp.865-888 in vol.2A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Travelogues J. Hale, The adventures of John Smith in Malaya, 1600-1605 1909, IA
H. Malcolm, Travels in south-eastern Asia: embracing Hindustan, Malaya, Siam and China ... vol.1, 1839, vol.2, 1839, IA
S. Osborn, Quedah, A cruise in Japanese waters, The fight on the Peiho 1865, IA
Institutions Archives National Archives of Malaysia
Musea Lists, Links Museums in Malaysia
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments Tentative Lists : Malaysia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Malaysia, from UNESCO World Heritage
Malaysia Index, from Showcaves
Libraries Libraries in Malaysia, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Malaysia Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Malaysia Women's Studies Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
NNDB Bibliography Malaysia
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Malaysia
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for Malaysia
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
Books on Malaysia, from Orchid Press
South East Asia Dissertations, click Malaysia
Malaysia, from The Online Books Page
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies, search for Malaysia
on Malaysia Sejarah Melayu Library
Digital Library Malaysia
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Malaysia
Malaysian Theses Online
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Electronic Journals Online
Journal of Southeast Asian History 1960-1969, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 2009-, from Cambridge Journals Online (require registration)
ASEAS (Austrian Journal of South East Asian Studies), open access, 2008-
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
Bulletin of the Society for East Asian Archaeology (BSEAA) 2007-
Historiography Article : Malay Historical Writing, by E.U. Kraatz, pp.585-589, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts on SE Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
on Malaysia Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard V. Andaya, A History of Malaysia, Honolulu : Univ. of Hawai'i Press 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.5 A 543h
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.745-755 Article Southeast Asia : Malaysia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Specific Topics British Malaya, in : Lilian Charlotte, Economic History of Asia and Africa, New Delhi (c. 1926) reprint 1998, pp.469-485 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Amarjit Kaur, Historical Dictionary of Malaysia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow, 2nd edition 2001
Historical Atlas HASEA : Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Siam, the Malay States and Britain, 15th to 20th Centuries, pp.247-253 in : G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville, Historical Atlas of Islam, NY : Continuum (1991) 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries

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