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Ternate V.O.C.
First posted on January 3rd 2010, last revised on May 9th 2010

Minahasa covers the northernmost tip of the island of Sulawesi (Celebes). Its regional urban center is Manado. In the 16th century the Portuguese attempted to establish a foothold there. They were ousted in the 17th century by the V.O.C. The Dutch established an with Minahasa in 1679, and the Dutch Reformed Church found converts here. Direct Dutch rule, as a part of the Dutch East Indies, was established in 1870. In 1949 Minahasa became part of the Republic of Indonesia

Spelling alternatives : Minahasa, Minahassa, Manahassa
Spelling alternatives : Manado, Menado

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Country Profiles North Sulawesi, from NSTPB
Article : Minahasa, from Wikipedia
Great Britain, Forteign Office, Historical Section : Celebes (1919), posted on Internet Archive
Links on History Category : North Sulawesi, from Wikipedia
Categorie : Geschiedenis van Celebes, from Wikipedia
Portals Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
Historical Dictionaries Ensikloppedi Budaya Minahasa (wiki), in Bahasa Indonesia
Timelines Search Google News Archive for Minahasa, click Timeline
Timeline of Indonesian History, from Sejarah Indonesia , 11 sub-timelines, illustrated, very detailed
Accounts of History History of the Celebes Sea Adrian B. Lapian, Laut Sulawesi : The Celebes Sea, from Center to Peripheries, pp.3-16 in Moussons 7 2003
Esther Velthoen, Sailing in Dangerous Waters : Piracy and Raiding in Historical Context (Tobelo piracy), IIAS Newsletter No.36 2005
History of Celebes Current Article : Sulawesi : History, from Wikipedia
De Geschiedenis van Sulawesi, from travelmarker.nl [in Dutch, considerably more detailed than Wikipedia]; from indonesie.nl [in Dutch, illustrated]
History of Celebes Historic R. Blok, History of the Island of Celebes, trsl. from the Dutch by J. Stubenvoll, vol.1, 1817, vol.2, 1817, vol.3, 1817, GB
History of Celebes, pp.379-390 in vol.2 of J. Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago, 1820, GB
on Minahasa Current North Sulawesi : History, from NSTPB
Article : Minahasa : History, from Wikipedia
History, from theminahasa.net
History of Minahasa, Manado and Bitung, from Minahasa Raya
De Geschiedenis van Noord-Sulawesi, from travelmarker.nl, in Dutch
on Minahasa Historical N. Graafland, De Minahassa, haar verleden en haar tegenwoordige toestand, vol.1 (1867), vol.2 (1869) in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods J.S. Wigboldus, A History of Minahasa 1615-1680, Archipel 1987
The Land of Swaying Coconut Trees, from Jakarta Post, 28 2 2006 [revent administrative history]
The Dutch Make Themselves Masters of Celebes, pp.186-191 in G.Th.F. Raynal, A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade in the East and West Indies, 1804, GB
Historiography M. Schouten, Myth and Reality in Minahasan History: The Waworuntu, Archipel 1987
Administrative History F. Watuseke, Hukum and other Administrative Terms in the Languages of Minahasa, BTLV 142 1986 pp.314-324
Kirsten Marie Brown, Decentralization & Ethnic Regionalism in Indonesia: The Case of Minahasa, Diss. Hawai'i 2002
Military Andere Tijden : Celebes, deel 1, deel 2, Dutch language documentaries on the Police Action 1948-1949, from VPRO
Economy & Finances Article : Newmont Mining Corporation : Minahasa / Indonesia, from Wikipedia
Eastern Passage to China through Macassar Strait, pp.568-583, Passage from the Straits of Macassar between Mindanao and Celebes into the Pacific Ocean, pp.583-590, from James Horsburgh, The India Directory : Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, vol.2 1852, posted by Internet Archive
A.E. Dingle, Gold out of Celebes (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Ethnography Minahasa Indigenous Languages : Tonsea, Tondano, Tombulu, Tontemboan and Tonsawang, Bantik, Ratahan and Ponosakan.
Local Languages in Minahasa Raya
Minahasans, from Every Culture
OLAC Record : Tombolu, from Languages Archive
Michael Jacobsen, On the Question of Contemporary Identity in Minahasa, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia
W. Makaliwe, A Preliminary Report on Genealogy and Intermarriage in the Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, BTLV 137 1981 pp.244-258
Religion Indonesia, from Reformiert Online
Kelly A. Swazey, The differences that make us the same: Ethnicity as a framework for a multi-religious Minahasan cultural identity, froim ICRS Yogya
T.F. Viersen, Het standpunt der zending in de Minahassa en op de Sangir- en Talaoet-Eilanden, in het bijzonder inzake de overname der Inlandsche Openbare Lagere Scholen aldaar, 1911, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
Local History History, from Tomohon City Government
Article : Manado : History, from Wikipedia
Culture Amat Juhari, The Origin and Spread of the Jawi Script 2008
Cap Tikus - Traditional Drink of Minahasa, from The Amazing East
Minahasa Ancient Cultural Ceremony : Watu Pinabetengan, from Multiply
Traditional Wedding in the Minahasa, from theminahasa.net
The Kabasaran Dance, from theminahasa.net
Biographies Ruling Families, from theminahasa.net

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Indonesia : Princely States : Tidore, from World Statesmen
Population Figures
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten - historisch, from startpagina.nl Dutch language site
Search Archief Leeuwarder Courant (1752-) in Dutch
Search Digitaal Krantenarchief at Regionaal Archief Leiden, in Dutch
Search Papers Past (New Zealand Newspapers 1839-1920)
Search Newspapers SG (Singapore Newspapers 1831-2006)
Historic Australian Newspapers 1803-1954
Image Databanks Geheugen van Nederland; site in Dutch; Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam; Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden; Maritiem Digitaal (Dutch Maritime Musea); Leiden University Digital Sources (mostly images); Category : Minahasa, from Wikimedia Commons; Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Koleksi Foto, from Indonesian National Library, site in Bahasa Indonesia
Archival Deposits online Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
Archival Deposits index online Search ARCHIEVEN.NL
Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS, search in Archives, Manuscripts and Photographs); has numerous items on Celebes
Inventory of the Oriental Manuscripts of the Library of the University of Leiden vol.12
Memories van Overgave, from IDC Publishers; pdf file contains table of contents which lists Manado, Minahasa
Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
KITLV Library, Manuscripts and Archives
ING, Repertorium van Zendings- en Missiearchieven, Circa 1800?1960 2007, search Minahassa
E. Schwidder, E. Vermeij, Guide to the Asian Collections at the International Institute of Social History (IISG 2007) [400 page file]
Individual Documents Nick Habermehl, List of V.O.C. Shipwrecks, from Treasure Net
Stakman, Marinus Cornelis Emanuel, De Minahassa bezwaarschrift, opgemaakt naar aanleiding van het rapport nopens den staat van zaken in de Minahassa, 1893, in Dutch, SBB
Historical Maps Atlas of Mutual Heritage, search for Minahasa
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Celebes, in vol.5 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, p.289 on Minahassa; 1833, GB
Article : Celebes, from EB 1911
Religious Menado, p.230 in W. Chapin, The Missionary Gazetteer , 1825, GB
Economic Manado, p.413 in vol.2 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Manado, p.412 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, or, The East India Trader's Complete Guide, 1825, GB
Geographical Menado, Prov., p.109 in Ph.P. Roorda van Eysinga, Aardrijksbeschrijving van Nederlandsch Indië, 1838, in Dutch, GB
Article : Manahassa, p.625, Menado pp.819-821, in vol.7 of A.J. van der Aa, Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek der Nederlanden, 1848, in Dutch, GB
Article : Minahasa (pp.276f), from John Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, posted on Internet Archive
Historical on Manado, p.291 in F. Sacchini, Historiae societatis Jesu pars secunda, sive Lainius, 1620, in Latin, GB
Parliamentary Debates Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Hansard (British Parliament)
Historical Travelogues S.N. Hickson, A naturalist in north Celebes : a narrative of travels in Minahassa, the Sangir and Talaut Islands (1889), posated on Internet Archive
Pieter Bleeker, Reis door de Minahassa en den Molukschen archipel, vol.1, vol.2, 1856, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
Bik, J. Th., Aanteekeningen nopens eene reis naar Bima, Timor, de Moluksche eilanden, Menado en Oost-Java, gedaan in 1821 en 1822 met den Hoogleeraar C. G. C. Reinwardt, 1822, in Dutch, SBB
Institutions Musea The Museum of North Sulawesi Province, from Discover Indonesia
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes NTS Cash Orders issued in Gorontalo, Medan, Manado (indonesia)1888-1908, from ABN AMRO

Bibliographies General ISBN Database
of former Colonial Powers Bibliopolis
RHS Bibliography
Nederlandse Bibliografie
KITLV Library
on SE Asia Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
National Library of Australia, Indonesian Resources from the Dutch Period
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Philippines ELibrary
Collections of Theses Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands)
Online Journals Cakalele CAKALELE is a journal devoted exclusively to publishing the results of research in and about Maluku, as well as the Maluku communities scattered through Indonesia and the Netherlands.
Archipel, use Persee (French search engine)
BTLV 1853-1908, 1950-2009
Moussons. Recherche en sciences humaines sur l'Asie du Sud-Est
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
On Indonesia, Dutch East Indies, Celebes Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.213-245 Article Indonesia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.21
Steven Drakeley, The History of Indonesia, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.8 0763h
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]

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