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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Celebes Lesser Sunda Islands
First posted on December 22nd 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . Early History . Precolonial History . 1500-1800s . The Moluccas within the Dutch East Indies . The Moluccas within Indonesia

see also V.O.C., Dutch East Indies, 1795-1949, Indonesia


Introduction
The Molucca Islands (Maluku in Bahasa Indonesia) are located between Celebes and New Guinea. The most important islands are Halmahera (Jailolo, Gilolo), Ternate, Tidore, Bacan, Macian, Ambon, Ceram (Seram), Buru.

Prehistory
The earliest pleistocene settlement took place before 30.000 BP; the first usage of domesticated plants 13.000 BP. Animals from other islands were introduced to the Moluccas during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The spice trade began before 3600 BC, as a clove has been found at an archaeological excavation in Syria; pottery and metal objects were used on the Moluccas at least since 2000 BC (Spriggs).

Early History
The Moluccas attracted foreign traders from an early time, and with them it is believed that Hinduism reached the islands.

Precolonial History
The Kingdom of Gapi (predecessor of Ternate) was established in the 13th century; conversion to Islam took place in the late 15th century. Indonesia's oldest mosque, the Wapauwe mosque on Ambon, was built in 1414.

1500-1800s
Contrary to public perception, Magellan did not intend to circumnavigate the globe; he wanted to find a "Spanish" route to the Moluccas. Moluccan spices (cloves, nutmeg, mace) were highly sought after and could generate huge profit when sold in Europe. The Portuguese, from their stronghold in Malacca (since 1511) and the Spanish, from Mexico, later from the Philippines (since 1565) tried to establish footholds on the islands. They also tried to convert the local population to Christianity. Soon after its establishment in 1602, the V.O.C., in alliance with locals, took on the Portuguese and Spanish, and established a monopoly on the Moluccan spice trade; the regional V.O.C. headquarters were Ambon and Ternate. The V.O.C. took only small areas under their control; local politices, most notably the Sultanates of Ternate and Tidore, continued to exist; their influence spread beyond the Moluccas, with Ternate exercising sovereignty over significant parts of Celebes, and the Sultanate of Buton, and Tidore exercising sovereignty over parts of New Guinea. From 1683 the Dutch exercised indirect control.

The Moluccas within the Dutch East Indies
During the British occupation (1811-1816) the Moluccan monopoly on clove production was broken; the British would introduce them to Zanzibar.
The Dutch East Indies continued to apply a combination of direct and indirect rule. In the 19th century, missionaries were permitted to establish missions and schools. A significant Protestant community emerged on the Moluccas. The mission schools produced graduates who would serve in positions in the lower administration all over the Dutch East Indies. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), there was active resistance on the Moluccas.

The Moluccas within Indonesia
Following World War II, several independence movements emerged in various parts of Indonesia. In 1947-1949 the Dutch tried to reestablish control (as the Dutch believed, revenue extracted from the colony was necessary to finance reconstruction in the Netherlands). Numerous Moluccans served in the new Dutch administration and in the armed forces. When the Netherlands recognized Indonesian independence in 1949, the new Indonesian authorities regarded the Moluccans as collaborators (while the Moluccans regarded the new Indonesian administration as consisting of men who had collaborated with the Japanese during the war). On the Moluccans, distrust of the Javanese was wide-spread; an independent South Moluccan Republic was proclaimed. It was conquered by Indonesian forces in 1950. About 12500 Moluccans were transferred to the Netherlands, where South Moluccan Exile Government was maintained.
Since 1950 the Moluccas are a province of Indonesia. In 1999 they witnessed an outbreak of violence between the regional Christian and Muslim communities.






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern
Historical
Links Virtual Library History : Indonesia
Organizations The Islamic Manuscript Association (TIMA)
Ternate Heritage Society [despite English language title, in Bahasa Indonesia]
Museum Maluku, Utrecht, NL; homepage in Dutch/Bahasa Indonesia
Landelijke Steunpunt Educatie Molukkers (LSEM)
Siwalima (Site of Moluccan exile organization)
Historical Dictionary J. Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
Timelines
Accounts of History History of the Celebes Sea Adrian B. Lapian, Laut Sulawesi : The Celebes Sea, from Center to Peripheries, pp.3-16 in Moussons 7 2003
Esther Velthoen, Sailing in Dangerous Waters : Piracy and Raiding in Historical Context (Tobelo piracy), IIAS Newsletter No.36 2005
Moluccas, General Article : Maluku Islands : History, Wikipedia
Pan-Tribal Confederacy of Indigenous Tribal Nations, Brief History of Maluku
Vensters Molukse Geschiedenis, Het Land van de Islam op de Molukken , despite the reference of Islam in the title, a general history of the region
Specific Periods
Prehistory R. Blench, Was there an Austroasiatic Presence in Island Southeast Asia Prior to the Austronesian Expansion ?, Indo Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 30, 2010 pp.133-144
G. Barker, Footsteps and marks: transitions to farming in the rainforests of Island Southeast Asia, Program in Agrarian Studies, Yale, Colloquium Series no.3, n.d.
P. Bellwood, Special Report: Ancient Seafarers, Archaeology vol.50 no.2, March/April 1997
J.A. Wilder et al., Genetic continuity across a deeply divergent linguistic contact zone in North Maluku, Indonesia, Genetics 2011, 12:100
1450-1750 M. Ramerini, The Portuguese in the Moluccas : Ternate and Tidore
M. Ramerini, The Spanish Presence in the Moluccas : Ternate and Tidore
Bartolome Leonardo de Argensola, Histoire de la conquete des Isles Moluques par les Espagnols vol.2, 1706, vol.3, 1706, in French, GB; Engl. trsl. by John Stevens, The discovery and conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands, 1708, GB
M. Lobato, The Moluccan Archipelago and Eastern Indonesia in the Second Half of the 16th Century in the Light of Portuguese and Spanish Accounts
A. van Wickeren, De Molukken onder Portugees bestuur, De Molukken in de jaren 1540-1558, De eilanden Banda, Ambon en Saragani, De Molukken, Banda, Ambon en Sarangani 1560-1640
A. V. Williams Jackson, History of India, 1907; Chapter 3 - The Struggle between the English and the Dutch for the Eastern Archipelago, 1601-1623, The End of the Struggle: The Tragedy of Amboyna 1623
De VOC Site : Handelsposten : Molukken, Amboina, Banda Eilanden
D. Henley, A Superabundance of Centers: Ternate and the Contest for North Sulawesi, Cakalele vol.4 (1993) pp.39-60
K. Klock, The Dutch Conquest Of The Band[a] Islands in Indonesia (1599-1621)
V.C. Loth, Pioneers and Perkeniers: The Banda Islands in the 17th Century, Cakalele, vol.6 (1995) pp.13-35
Hendrik Niemeijer, A Feigned Peace ? Maritime Power and Ritual Diplomacy in the Relations Between the Sultanate of Ternate and the Dutch East India Company, 1700-1750, Abstract AAS Meeting 2000, Interarea Sessions, Session 195
Chelsie Vandaveer, How did the Dutch Control the Spice Islands ? , from Killer Plants
1750-1914 M.S. Widjojo, Cross-Cultural Alliance-Making and Local Resistance in Maluku during the Revolt of Prince Nuku, c. 1780-1810, thesis Leiden 2007
Moluccas International Campaign for Human Rights, History before Independence
since 1914 Moluccas International Campaign for Human Rights, Forming the Republic of the South Moluccas
Republic Maluku Selatan, 60 years of unfreedom and oppression, tendentious site
Historiography J.D.M. Platenkamp, Tobelo, Moro, Ternate : The Cosmological Valorization of Historical Events, Cakalele 4 1993 pp.61-89
Ch.7 : Knowing Your Place : Representing Relations of Precedence and Origin on the Buru Landscape, by Barbara Dix Grimes
Charles H. Zuber, Islands of the Imagination. Representations of the Spice Islands from Pre-Colonial to Post-Colonial Times, Diss. Griffith Univ. 2005
Leonard Y. Andaya, Centers and Peripheries in Maluku, Cakalele 4 1993 pp.1-23
Administration
Military Heritage of Portuguese Influence : Fort of Our Lady of the Annunciation, Kota Ambon, Fort of Saint John the Baptist, Ternate, Fort of the Magi, Tidore, Fort Tafasoho, Makian, Forts, Halmahera, Fort, Ceram
Article : Fort Amsterdam, Ambon, Fort Belgica, Banda Neira, Wikipedia
Spice Island Forts : The Banda's, The Clove Twins - Ternate, The Clove Twins - Tidore, Ambon Manise, Other Islands
S.G. Grant, "Spice Island" Forts, Colonial Monuments: A Photo Essay from Ternate Island, Maluku, Explorations vol.7 no.2 2006
Article : Amboyna Massacre (1623), Wikipedia
G.J. Knaap, Crisis and Failure: War and Revolt in the Ambon Islands, 1636-1637 Cakalele, 3, pp.1-26
M.S. Widjojo, Papuan Raiding Enterprise in the Moluccan Waters of the 18th Century , 2003
P.J.M. Noldus, The Pattimura Revolt of 1817. Its Causes, Course and Consequences, thesis Canterbury (NZ) 1984
Netherlands East Indies : Molucca Island Insurrection 1817, from ACED
CNWS / MHM : Ethnic Soldiering and its Impact 1995
Australian War Memorial : Australian prisoners of war: Second World War - Prisoners of the Japanese, Ambon
Smith Alhadar, The Forgotten War in North Maluku, Inside Indonesia 1999
Economy & Finances Economic History M. Vanhaverbeke, De VOC op Ambon in 1732: een socio-economische analyse, thesis Gent 2006
T.J. Willer, J.P. Cornets de Groot van Kraaijenburg, Het eiland Boeroe: zijne exploitatie en halfoersche instellingen (1858, in Dutch), IA
Trade R. Ptak, The Northern Trade Route to the Spice Islands : South China Sea - Sulu Zone - North Moluccas (14th to early 16th century), Archipel 1992 vol.43 no.43 pp.27-56, Persee
Leonard Y. Andaya, Local Trade Networks in Maluku in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries, Cakalele 2/2 1991 pp.71-96
Spices T.J. Zumbroich, From mouth fresheners to erotic perfumes : The evolving socio-cultural significance of nutmeg, mace and cloves in South Asia, eJournal of Indian Medicine Volume 5 (2012), pp.37-97
Cynthia Gladen, Cloves
Otto Warburg, Die Muskatnuss ihre Geschichte, Botanik, Kultur, Handel und Verwerthung sowie ihre Verfälschungen und Surrogate. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Kulturgeschichte der Banda-Inseln, 1897, posted on Internet Archive, in German, has chapter on islands history
Social History J, Adam, Communal Violence, Forced Migration & Social Change on the Island of Ambon, Indonesia, thesis Gent 2009
C. de Jong, The Life and Work of Bernard Nikolas Johann Roskott (1811-1873) on the Island of Ambon, Indonesia; he established schools
R. Chauvel, Republik Maluku Selatan and Social Change in Ambonese Society During the Late Colonial Period Cakalele, 1(1-2) 1990, pp.13-26
Ethnography Muturzikin, Linguistic Map of Maluku and New Guinea
Jennifer Leith, Resettlement and Restless Tree Spirits : Shifting Identities and Resource-based Livelihoods in North Halmahera, Cakalele vol.10 pp.62-76
Ternatan/Tidorese - History and Cultural Relations, from Every Culture
Kees Groeneboer, The Dutch Language in Maluku under the V.O.C., Cakalele 5 1994 pp.1-10
J. Collins, Language Death in Maluku. The Impact of the V.O.C., BTLV 159 (2003) pp.247-289
Religion General D. Bartels, The Evolution of God in the Spice Islands: The Converging and Diverging of Protestant Christianity and Islam in the Colonial and Post-Colonial Periods, n.d.
D. Bartels, Politicians and Magicians: Power, Adaptive Strategies, and Syncretism in the Central Moluccas, n.d.
J. Bertrand, Legacies of the Authoritarian Past: Religious Violence in Indonesia's Moluccan Islands, Pacific Affairs 2011
B. Sholeh, The Dynamics of Muslim and Christian Relations in Ambon, Eastern Indonesia, International Journal of Business and Social Science, vol.4 no.3 March 2013
F.A. Risakotta, Politics, Ritual and Identity in Indonesia. A Moluccan History of Religion and Social Conflict, thesis Nijmegen 2005
Islam Melayu Online, The Wapauwe Mosque in Ambon Island of 1414
C. van Fraassen, Islam in de Molukken 2003
Christianity Mission Studies : Malaya, mainly on the Moluccas
P. Spyer, Blind Faith. Painting Christianity in Postconflict Ambon, Social Text 96 vol.26 no.3 Fall 2008
Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Zending en Overzeese Kerken Banda 1795-1923, Midden-Molukken 1803-1854, Midden-Molukken 1854-1900
Geredja Indjili Maluku (Moluccan Protestant Church); text in Dutch
History of Regions Bacan (Batjan) Article : Bacan
Banda Islands Vriendschapsboot, Geschiedenis van Banda
Article : Banda Islands
De Banda eilanden, from De V.O.C. Site, in Dutch
Gewest Banda, from V.O.C. Kenniscentrum, in Dutch
H.O. van der Linden, Banda en zijne verwoners (1873, in Dutch), posted on Internet Archive
The Banda Islands, a Brief History, from Dive the World
Banda, in het verleden, in het tegenwoordige en in de toekomst met een woord over de wenschelijkheid eener reorganisatie der Molukken, 1870, in Dutch, SBB
Otto Warburg, Die Muskatnuss ihre Geschichte, Botanik, Kultur, Handel und Verwerthung sowie ihre Verfälschungen und Surrogate. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Kulturgeschichte der Banda-Inseln, 1897, posted on Internet Archive, in German, has chapter on islands history
Article : V.O.C. op de Banda Eilanden, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
Jan Pieterszn Coen and the extinction of the population of the Banda Islands, from Arcengel
Buru Article : Buru : History, from Wikipedia
Ceram Article : Ceram : History, from Wikipedia
Halmahera Halmahera.com : History of Halmahera
Article : Halmahera : History, from Wikipedia
Morokai Article : Morokai : History, from Wikipedia
Ternate Ternate, The Residency and its Sultanate, trsl. of the 1890 Dutch text, Smithsonian; Dutch original : Bijdragen tot de kennis der residentie Ternate (1890, in Dutch), IA
H.O. van der Linden, Banda en zijne verwoners (1873, in Dutch), IA
Article : Ternate Sultanate, Wikipedia
Christopher Buyers, Ternate
Melayu Online, Sultanate of Ternate
Tidore Das Sultanat Tidore auf den Molukken, from Indonesien-Portal, in German
Tidore Sultanate, from Melayu Online
Moluccan Dependencies Papua : Historical Developments, from Indonesian Embassy Canberra
Article : Minahasa : History, from Wikipedia
Netherlands New Guinea : Early Administration and the War, from Papua Web
Local History G.J. Knaap, A City of Migrants: Kota Ambon at the End of the Seventeenth Century
G.J. Knaap, Headhunting, Carnage and Armed Peace in mboina, 1500-1700 JESHO 46.2 2003
C.G.F. de Jong, Kerk, adat en theologie. Een korte geschiedenis van Amahai, een christelijke negorij op Ceram
Institutions
Culture Traditional Dance : Maluku, from Petra Christian University
Amat Juhari, The Origin and Spread of the Jawi Script 2008
Kees Groeneboer, The Dutch Language in Maluku under the V.O.C., Cakalele 5 1994 pp.1-10
J. Collins, Language Death in Maluku. The Impact of the V.O.C., BTLV 159 (2003) pp.247-289
P. Winn, Sovereign violence moral authority and the Maluku cakalele
Nederlandse Koloniale Architectuur in de Wereld, from Skyscraper City, scroll down for Banda
Biographies Troostenburg de Bruijn, Caspar Adam Laurens, Biographisch woordenboek van Oost-Indische predikanten, 1893, in Dutch, SBB
Article : Andres Urdaneta, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Pirate Encyclopedia by Arne Zuidhoek
Articles : Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Pieter van den Broecke, from Wikipedia
Stamboom Lans, Dutch genealogical site
Met Indië Verbonden. Geschiedenis van de Familie van den Broecke, Dutch genealogical site
Des Alwi Hoofd Nieuw Nootmuskaatprojekt op Banda Eilanden, from Siwalima, in Dutch (site related to Moluccan exile organization)
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
WWF Panda Moluccas Moist Forests, WWF Ecoregions, Island of Buru, Islands of Halmahera, Moratai, Island of Seram, Banda Sea Islands Moist Deciduous Forests
R. Ellen, The human consequences of deforestation in the Moluccas, Civilisations 44 1997 pp.176-193
van Gorsel's List : Bibliography of the Geology of Indonesia and Surrounding Areas, Ch.VI : North Moluccas, 2013
Map : INDONESIA- Earthquakes through history - Papua, Maluku and North Maluku, from UN
Archaeology The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
Southeast Asian Archaeology Newsblog
ABIA South and Southeast Asian Art and Archaeology Index, Project at IGNCA, New Delhi; ABIA Website
K. Stark et al., The Response of Early Ambonese Foragers to the Maluku Spice Trade: The Archaeological Evidence, Cakalele, vol.7 (1996) pp.51-67
M. Spriggs, Archaeological and Ethnoarchaeological Research, Maluku 1975 and 1977: An Unfinished Story Cakalele 1990 pp.47-60
M. Spriggs, Research Questions in Maluku Archaeology, Cakalele vol.9 no.2 (1998) pp.51-64
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Indonesia : Princely States : Bacan, from World Statesmen
Indonesia : Princely States : Ternate, from World Statesmen
Indonesia : Princely States : Tidore, from World Statesmen
Others Nick Habermehl, List of V.O.C. Shipwrecks, from Treasure Net
Image Databanks Geheugen van Nederland; site in Dutch; especially collection Moluccan history and culture in pictures
Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam; Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden; Maritiem Digitaal (Dutch Maritime Musea); Leiden University Digital Sources (mostly images); Wikimedia Commons; Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Koleksi Foto, from Indonesian National Library, site in Bahasa Indonesia
Stichting Pelita, Beeldbank Virtueel Indië
Archival Deposits Indonesian Provenience
Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
Endangered Archive Program : EAP276: Documentation and preservation of Ambon manuscripts
H.M. Ambary, les Manuscrits anciens et les vestiges epigraphiques de Ternate et Tidore, Archipel 1982, in French
Dutch Provenience
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL
Universiteit Leiden, South East Asia Collections
Inventory of the Oriental Manuscripts of the Library of the University of Leiden vol.12
Memories van Overgave, from IDC Publishers; pdf file contains table of contents
E. Schwidder, E. Vermeij, Guide to the Asian Collections at the International Institute of Social History (IISG 2007) [400 page file]
British Provenience
British Library, Indonesian Manuscripts
Reconstructed Archives
East Indies Camp Archives, Moluccas i.e. Japanese P.O.W. camps
Laws Adatrechtbundels, ed. by KITLV, Serie Q : Het Ternate-Archipel, posted by Papua Web (scroll down)
Treaties J.E. Heeres (ed.), Corpus Diplomaticum Neerlando-Indicum, Verzameling van politieke contracten en verdere Verdragen door de Nederlanders in het Oosten gesloten, van Privilegiebrieven aan hen verleend, enz., vol.1 1907, covering 1596-1650, posted on Internet Archive; here English-language ToC
Treaty Adm. Hoen & King of Ternate 16 Dec 1609 (reference to King of Batsjan), pp.141-144 in vol.3 of J.A. de Serionne, Hollands Rijkdom, 1782, in Dutch, GB
Historiography Nona Mewar, The Wanderings of Sultan Hairun Jamil Tomagola, 1965 recorded foundation myth of Tidore and Ternate
Hikayat Tanah Hitu covers period 1450-1646, here fragment trsl. into Dutch 1595-1618
Bartolome Juan Leonardo de Argensola (1562-1631), Conquista de la Islas Malucas, al Rey Felipe Tercero, nuestro senor, (1891) IA
Document Surveys British Library, Help for Researchers, Indonesian Studies
N. Heer, A List of Malay Manuscript Catalogues, 2010
Malay Concordance Project
Document Collections BGNMA : Tiele, Pieter Anton; Heeres, Jan Ernst (ed.), Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis der Nederlanders in den Maleischen Archipel Pt.1, 1886 : Outer Possessions 1612-1624, posted by Internet Archive, in Dutch; here English-language ToC; Pt.2, 1890 (ONGOI 2 vol.2) : Outer Possessions 1624-1640, posted by Aceh Books, in Dutch; here English-language ToC
Heeres, J.E. (ed.), Pt.3 1895 (ONGOI 2 vol.3), Outer Possessions 1640-1649, posted by Internet Archive, here English-language ToC
Thesaurus of Indonesian Islamic Manuscripts (T2IM)
Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
Digital Library of Malay Manuscripts
RGP, Bronnen betreffende de Midden-Molukken 1900-1942
Letters by Stephen van der Haghen, 1599-1620, trsl. by P. Bakker
J.A. Gothe (ed.), Archief voor de Geschiedenis der Oude Hollandsche Zending, vol.4-6, vol.5 : Molukken 1603-1624, vol.6 : Molukken 1625-1638, IA
A remonstrance of the Bewinthebbers or directors of the Netherlands East India Company, lately exhibited to the Lords States Generall in iustification of the proceedings of their officers at Amboyna against the English there, n.d., IA
Individual Documents ANRI, Complaints lodged by the inhabitants of Hunut on the island of Ambon, 14 July 1695
Historical Maps Modern, Hindsight R. Cribb, Digital Atlas of Indonesian History : Banda under Dutch Rule, VOC civil administration in Indonesia, 1792, Administrative divisions in eastern Indonesia, 1817-1823, Administrative divisions in eastern Indonesia, 1824-1866, Administrative divisions in eastern Indonesia, 1867-1908, Maluku Wars, Maluku Administrative Divisions 2001, Maluku Administrative Divisions 2007
Museum Maluku, Atlas Maluku
Map : INDONESIA- Earthquakes through history - Papua, Maluku and North Maluku, from UN
Muturzikin, Linguistic Map of Maluku and New Guinea
Contemporary Princeton University Library, Strait Through: Magellan to Cook & the Pacific, Spice Islands (Moluccas): 250 Years of Maps (1521-1760) Spanish map of Ternate, Tidore etc. (1764), posted by Colonial Voyage
Moluccas 1906, Probert Encyclopedia
Moluccas 1935, Niehorster
Ambon (Amboina) 1941, Niehorster
U.S. Army Map Service, Molukken Islands 1:100,000, 1942-, PCL, UTexas
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Moluccas, Amboyna, Bachian, Banda Islands, Buru, Ceram, Halmahera, Ternate, Tidore EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article : Gilolo, or Halmahora, from American Cyclopaedia 1873
Religious Ostindien, pp.677-696 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic Moluques, pp.350-352 in vol.3 of J.N. Demeunier, Encyclopedie Methodique : Economie Politique et Diplomatique, 1788, GB
Die grossen und die kleinen molukischen Inseln, pp.170-181 in F.L. Langstedt, Geschichte des asiatischen Handels, 1803
Banda Islands pp.390-394, Amboyna pp.394-401, Bouro pp.401-402, Ceram, p.402, Mysol pp.403-405, Gilolo pp.405-406, Ternate p.406, Tidore pp.407-408 in vol.2 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
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Molucca and the Banda Seas pp.738-751, Passage from the Strait of Macassar between Mindanao and Celebes, into the Pacific Ocean : Moluccas pp.583-590, Gillolo Passage pp.639-649, from James Horsburgh, The India Directory : Or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, vol.2 1852, IA
Geographical On the Moluccas
Les iles Moluques, pp.693-694 in vol.3 of A. du Bois, La Geographie moderne, naturelle historique & politique, 1736, GB
Banda, Amboyna and the Molucca's, pp.116-140 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, Gb
The Moluccas, pp.36-42 in vol.8 of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of all Nations, 1769, GB
The Moluccas pp.504-520 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
The Moluccas, pp.229-252 in vol.14 of E. Reclus, The universal geography : earth and its inhabitants [1876-1894], IA
On Individual Islands
Almahera pp.10-11, Amboyna p.11, Bachian p.26, Banda pp.33-36, Boeroe pp.55-56, Ceram p.92, Ternate pp.430-431, Tidor p.431 in J. Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
Banda, pp.68-70, Batjan, pp.178-180 in vol.2 1840, Ternataansche Eilanden, pp.83-94, Tidore pp.159-161 in vol.11 1848, of A.J. van der Aa, Aardrijkskundig Woordenboek der Nederlanden, in Dutch, GB
Ethnographical The Chiefs of the Banda Islands, pp.233-234 in vol.1 of R. Philips, A General View of the Manners, Customs and Curiosities of Nations, 1813, GB
The Moluccas, pp.199-200 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
Historical The Spice Islands, pp.33-35 in A New History of the East-Indies, 1754, GB
Iles de Moluques, pp.395-496 in vol.5 of F. de Marsy, Histoire Moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens &c., 1766, in French, GB
Iles de Moluques, pp.325-346 in A.G. Contant d'Orville, Histoire des differens peuples du monde, 1770, in French, GB
The Moluccas or Spice Islands p.386, The Banda or Nutmeg Islands p.387 in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Parliamentary Debates Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues Terrenate, p.358 in Voyage of Sir Francis Drake, ed. by J. Burney, A Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea Or Pacific Ocean, 1803, GB
Pieter Bleeker, Reis door de Minahassa en den Molukschen archipel, vol.1, vol.2, 1856, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
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Resident Memoirs Frans Machielsen, Afscheid van Ternate (1949), from Veteranen Online, in Dutch
Institutions Musea Museum Maluku
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flags of the Sultanate of Batjan, from FOTW
Flags of the Sultanate of Ternate, from FOTW
Flags of the Sultanate of Tidore, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
DBNG
P. Horvatich, Maluku: The History, Societies, and Cultures of an Indonesian Province. A Bibliography of Texts in the English Language 1993
Papua Bibliographies, from Papua Web
Landelijke Steunpunt Educatie Molukkers, has numerous publications on the history of the Moluccas and of Moluccans in the Netherlands, mostly in Dutch
Gary Holton, Annotated Bibliography of Language and Language Use in North and Central Maluku 2006
Resources in and about the Ternate Language, from Languages Archive
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Sejarah Melayu Library
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Indonesia
Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands)
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Archipel, use Persee (French search engine)
Archipel 1971-2004 (French search engine)
BTLV 1853-1908, 1853-2009
Institute of the Malay World and Civilization, Sari 1999-2009, partly in English, partly in Bahasa Malaysia
Tribal Arts 1994-2004
Cakalele CAKALELE is a journal devoted exclusively to publishing the results of research in and about Maluku, as well as the Maluku communities scattered through Indonesia and the Netherlands.
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Moussons. Recherche en sciences humaines sur l'Asie du Sud-Est
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
On Borneo Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.213-245 Article Indonesia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.21
Steven Drakeley, The History of Indonesia, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.8 0763h
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Yearbook Entries