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Literature on the History of South East Asia
History of Thailand Pattani
First posted on February 27th 2009, last revised on April 18th 2010

The Kingdom of Nakhon Si Thammarat or Kingdom of Ligor was a vassal state of the Kingdoms of Sukhothai (until 1351), then of Auytthaya (until 1767), after the fall of which it enjoyed a brief period of independence, only to be subjected to vassall status again by King Taksin (1767-1782). In the early 19th century, the Raja of Ligor was to take charge of military operations on the Malay Peninsula on behalf of the King of Siam. The vassal kingdom was abolished in the late 19th century, and the province of Nakhon Si Thammarat established in 1896.
Portuguese, V.O.C. and E.I.C. vessels frequented Ligor from the early 17th into the 18th century.

Spelling Varieties : Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nakhon Sri Thammarat, Nakornsrithammarat, Tambralinga, Lugor, Ligor, Ligore, Ligoor

List of Wars : Malayan Peninsula

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Historical J. Anderson, Political and commercial considerations relative to the Malayan peninsula and the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, 1824; on the Siamese Campaign against Kedah; numerous references regarding the actions of the Raja or Ligor
Lower Siam - Ligor, pp.95-108, in : Captain Low's History of Tenasserim, in vol.13 of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, 1837, GB
Organizations International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
Royal Institute : Academy of Moral and Political Sciences : Section of History, Discipline Thai History
Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society
Timelines Search Google News Archive for Nakhon Si Thammarat; click timeline
Accounts of History Articles Nakhon Si Thammarat Kingdom, Nakhon Si Thammarat, from Welcome to Thailand
Fukami Sumio, The Rise of Tambralinga and the South East Asian Commercial Boom in the Thirteenth Century, IEHC 2006
Peter James Begbie, Diptendra M. Banerjee, The Malayan Peninsula embracing its history, manners and customs of the Inhabitants, Politics, Natural History etc., from its earliest periods , 1834, GB ; numerous Ligore, Ligor entries
Military J. Anderson, Political and commercial considerations relative to the Malayan peninsula and the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, 1824; on the Siamese Campaign against Kedah; numerous references regarding the actions of the Raja or Ligor
Economy & Finances For the Love of Tin. The V.O.C. in Ligor, from IIAS
Ethnography Phaya Phibi Phakdi, Thailand's Southern Border Problems
Religion Angela Burr, The Relationship between Muslim Peasant Religion and Urban Religion in Songkhla (1983)
Wat Mahathat, Nakhon Sri Thammarat, from My Unseen Thailand
History of Regions Songkhla Province, from Wikipedia, Songkha, Thai Seat of Old Malay Kingdom, from Brunei Times
Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, from Wikipedia
Phatthalung Province, from Wikipedia
Local History Article : Nakhon Si Thammarat : History, from Wikipedia; on the city by that name
Institutions History of Songkhla National Museum
Culture Nakhon Si Thammarat, from UNESCO Bangkok
Others Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Documents Image Databanks
Archival Deposits Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Ligoor
Search TANAP Database of V.O.C. Documents for Ligoor
Search National Archives (UK) for Ligore
Treaties J.E. Heeres (ed.), Corpus Diplomaticum Neerlando-Indicum, Verzameling van politieke contracten en verdere Verdragen door de Nederlanders in het Oosten gesloten, van Privilegiebrieven aan hen verleend, enz., vol.1 1907, covering 1596-1650, posted on Internet Archive; search for Ligor; here English-language ToC
Treaty between the Honourable East India Company and the King of Siam, pp.616-619 (reference to Ligore), in : Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. Select committee on the East India company, Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Affairs of the East India Company, 16th August 1832, and Minutes of Evidence, 1833, GB
Document Collections Joao Baptista Lavanha, Da Asia de Joao de Barros e de Diogo de Couto : Da Asia de Diogo de Couto. Dos Feitos, que os Portugueses Fizeram na Conquista, e Descubrimento das Terras, e Mares do Oriente. vol.2 : Decada Primeira. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.4 : Decada Segunda. Parte Segunda, 1777 ; vol.9 : Vida de Joao de Barros por Manoel Severim de Faria e Indice Geral das Quatro Decadas de sua Asia, 1778 ; search for Lugor
Historical Maps Search Atlas of Mutual Heritage for Ligoor, Songkhla, Singora
Thailand : Ethnic Groups, from PCL, UTexas
Map of SE Asia featuring Ligor as part of Siam, from Franz Aefferden, El atlas abreviado o compendiosa geographia del mundo antiguo y nuevo, 1709
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Malay Peninsula, Nakhon Si Tammarat, from EB 1911
Articles Ligor, Siam, from Pierer's Universal-Lexikon 1857-1865, in German
Religious De la Religion du Royaumes de Tenasserim, de Jor, de Pan, de Patane, de Lugor, de Jonsalem et de Bengarin, pp.279-284 in vol.3 of Nicolas Jovet, L'histoire des religions de tous les royaumes du monde, 1710, in French, GB
Economic On Ligor, pp.140-141, 167 in : P.D. Huet, Memoirs of the Dutch trade in all the states, empires, and kingdoms in the world, 1719, GB
Ligore, p.325 in vol.2 of William Milburn, Oriental commerce, 1813, GB
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Ligor, Ligore
Geographical Royaume de Patane & Lugor, pp.640-643 in P. d'Avity, Le Monde, ou la Description generale de ses quatre parties, 1643, in French, GB
Sian, pp.61-63 in : Nicholas Sanson, L'Europe [l'Asie, l'Afrique, l'Amerique] en plusieurs cartes, 1683, in French, GB; reference on Patane p.63
Ligor, p.342 in : F. Ferrari, Novum lexicon geographicum, 1697, in Latin, GB
Ligor und Patane, p.727 in J.E.B., Compendieuse Staats-Beschreibung Des Durchlauchtigen Welt-Kreises, 1721, in German, GB
Ligore, pp.159-160 in : vol.2 of Alexander Hamilton, A new account of the East Indies, 1744, GB
On Ligor, p.122 in vol.7 of T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
J.C.M.R., Korte Schets van den tegenwoordigen staat van het Half-Eiland beoosten de Ganges, pp.317-347 in : vol.4 of Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap der Kunsten en Weetenschappen, 1786 on Ligoor pp.321-322
Article : Ligore, p.447 in R. Brookes, A new universal gazetteer, 1832, GB
Article Ligor, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
Historical Lugor Regno, p.441 in Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza, Dell'Historia della China, 1590, in Italian, GB
Ligor, p.32 in vol.52 of Histoire Universelle, Depuis Le Commencement Du Monde Jusqu'a Present, 1783, in French, GB
Tour Guides, Travelogues The Misfortune that befell us at the entry into the River of Lugor, pp.42-46 in vol.3 of The voyages and adventures of Fernand Mendez Pinto, 1653, GB
Relation du voyage de Perse et des Indes orientales, traduite de l'Anglois de Thomas Herbert, avec les revolutions arrivees au Royaume de Siam l'an mil six cens quarante-sept, trafuites du Flamand de Ieremie van Vliet, 1663, in French, GB, on Ligoor pp.608-632
On Ligor, pp.xxv-xxvii in vol.7 of the The Quarterly oriental magazine, review and register, 1827, GB
Excursions in the Peninsula of Siam : Ligor, pp.84-86 in : vol.15 of the The Oriental herald, 1827, GB
Excursion in Siam : Ligor, pp.55-57 in : vol.24 of The Asiatic journal and monthly register for British and its Dependencies, 1827, GB
Ausflucht nach Siam (on Ligor), pp.257-262 in : Neue allgemeine geographische (und statistische) Ephemeriden, 1828, in German, GB
Excursions to the Eastward. Extracts from the Journal of a Political Mission to the Raja of Ligor in Siam, by Captain James Low, pp.583-608 in vol.7 pt.2 of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1838, GB
Institutions Archives
Musea Article : Nakhon Si Thammarat National Museum, from Wikipedia
Songkhla National Museum from Thailand Museum
Libraries Nakhon Si Thammarat Rajabhat University, website in Thai
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Chavalit Ungwittayatorn, Ancient Coins in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Muang Boran Journal

Bibliographies general RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on S.E. Asia / Ligor Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Online Libraries general Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Search DBNG for Ligor etc.
Online Journals Guides Electronic Journals Online
modern, on SE Asia South East Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Journal of Southeast Asian History 1960-1969, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 2009-, from Cambridge Journals Online (require registration)
ASEAS (Austrian Journal of South East Asian Studies), open access, 2008-
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
historic, on Asia The Quarterly Oriental Magazine, Review and Register (Calcutta) 1824 Mar.-Jun., 1825 Jan.-Jun., 1825 Jul.-Dec., 1826 Jan.-Jun., 1826 Jul.-Dec., 1827 Jan.-Jun., 1827 Jul.-Dec., GB
Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany for British India and its Dependencies (London) vol.1 1816 Jan.-Jun., vol.2 1816 Jul.-Dec., vol.3 1817 Jan.-Jun., vol.4 1817 Jul.-Dec., vol.5 1818 Jan.-Jun., vol.6 1818 Jul.-Dec., vol.7 1819 Jan.-Jun., vol.8 1819 Jul.-Dec., vol.9 1820 Jan.-Jun., vol.10 1820 Jul.-Dec., vol.11 1821 Jan.-Jun., vol.12 1821 Jul.-Dec., vol.13 1822 Jan.-Jun., vol.14 1822 Jul.-Dec., vol.15 1823 Jan.-Jun., vol.16 1823 Jul.-Dec., vol.17 1824 Jan.-Jun., vol.18 1824 Jul.-Dec., vol.19 1825 Jan.-Jun., vol.20 1825 Jul.-Dec., vol.21 1826 Jan.-Jun., vol.22 1826 Jul.-Dec., vol.23 1827 Jan.-Jun., vol.24 1827 Jul.-Dec., vol.25 1828 Jan.-Jun., vol.26 1828 Jul.-Dec., vol.27 1829 Jan.-Jun., vol.28 1829 Jul.-Dec., The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China and Australasia (London), vol.1 1830 Jan.-Apr., vol.2 1830 May-Aug., vol.3 1830 Sep.-Dec., vol.4 1831 Jan.-Apr., vol.5 1831 May-Aug., vol.6 1831 Sep.-Dec., vol.7 1832 Jan.-Apr., vol.8 1832 May-Aug., vol.9 1832 Sep.-Dec., vol.10 1833 Jan.-Apr., vol.11 1833 May-Aug., vol.12 1833 Sep.-Dec., vol.13 1834 Jan.-Apr., vol.14 1834 May-Aug., vol.15 1834 Sep.-Dec., vol.16 1835 Jan.-Apr., vol.17 1835 May-Aug., vol.18 1835 Sep.-Dec., vol.19 1836 Jan.-Apr., vol.20 1836 May-Aug., vol.21 1836 Sep.-Dec., vol.22 1837 Jan.-Apr., vol.23 1837 May-Aug., vol.24 1837 Sep.-Dec., vol.25 1838 Jan.-Apr., vol.26 1838 May-Aug., vol.27 1838 Sep.-Dec., vol.28 1839 Jan.-Apr., vol.29 1839 May-Aug., vol.31 1840 Jan.-Apr., vol.32 1840 May-Aug., vol.33 1840 Sep.-Dec., vol.34 1841 Jan.-Apr., vol.35 1841 May-Aug., vol.36 1841 Sep.-Dec., vol.37 1842 Jan.-Apr., vol.38 1842 May-Aug., vol.39 1843 Sep.-Dec., vol.40 1843 Jan.-Apr., The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany, vol.1 1843 May-Oct., vol.2 1843 Nov.-1844 Apr., vol.3 1844 May-Oct., vol.4 1844 Nov.-1845 Apr., GB
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (London), vol.1, 1834, vol.2, 1835, vol.3, 1836, vol.4, 1837, vol.5, 1839, vol.6, 1841, vol.7, 1843, vol.8, 1846, vol.9, 1848, vol.10, 1847, vol.12, 1850, vol.13, 1852, vol.14 pt.1, 1851, vol.15, 1855, vol.16, 1856, vol.17, 1860, vol.18, 1861, vol.19, 1864, vol.20, 1863, New Series, vol.1, 1865, vol.2, 1866, vol.3, 1868, vol.4, 1870, 1904, 1935, GB
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta), vol.1, 1832 Jan.-Dec., vol.3, 1834 Jan.-Dec., vol.4, 1835 Jan.-Dec., vol.5, 1836 Jan.-Dec., vol.6 pt.1 1837 Jan.-Jun., vol.6 pt.2 1837 Jul.-Dec., vol.7 pt.1 1838 Jan.-Jun., vol.7 pt.2 1838 Jul.-Dec., vol.9 pt.2 1840 Jul.-Dec., vol.10 pt.1 1841 Jan.-Jun., vol.10 pt.2 1841 Jul.-Dec., vol.11 pt.1 1842 Jan.-Jun., vol.11 pt.2 1842 Jul.-Dec., vol.12 pt.1 1843 Jan.-Jun., vol.12 pt.2 1843 Jul.-Dec., vol.13 pt.1 1844 Jan.-Jun., vol.13 pt.2 1844 Jul.-Dec., vol.14 pt.1 1845 Jan.-Jun., vol.14 pt.2 1845 Jul.-Dec., vol.15 1846, vol.16 pt.1 1847 Jan.-Jun., vol.17 pt.1 1848 Jan.-Jun., vol.17 pt.2 1848 Jul.-Dec., vol.18 pt.1 1849 Jan.-Jun., vol.18 pt.2 1849 Jul.-Dec., vol.19 1850, vol.20 1851, vol.21 1852, vol.22 1853, vol.23 issues 1-4 1854, vol.23 issues 5-7 1854, vol.26 1857, vol.27 1858, vol.28 1859, vol.29 1860, vol.31 1862, vol.32 1863, vol.33 1864, vol.36 1867, vol.37 1868, vol.38 1869, GB
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Dissertations and Miscellaneous Pieces Relating to the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia (London) vol.1 1801, vol.2 1801, vol.3 1796, vol.4 1798, Asiatick Researches; or Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal for Inquiring into the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia, vol.5 1799, vol.6 1801, vol.7 1803, vol.8 1808, vol.9 1809, vol.10 1811, vol.11 1812, vol.12 1818, vol.13 1820, vol.14 1822, vol.15 1825, vol.16 1828, vol.17 1832, vol.20 1836, GB
The Oriental Herald and Colonial Review (London) vol.1 1824 Jan.-Apr., vol.2 1824 May-Aug., The Oriental Herald and Journal of General Literature (London) vol.4 1825 Jan.-Mar., vol.6 1825 Jul.-Sep., vol.7 1825 Oct.-Dec., vol.8 1826 Jan.-Mar., vol.9 1826 Apr.-Jun., vol.10 1826 Jul.-Sep., vol.11 1826 Oct.-Dec., vol.12 1827 Jan.-Mar., vol.13 1827 Apr.-Jun., vol.14 1827 Jul.-Sep., vol.15 1827 Oct.-Dec., vol.16 1828 Jan.-Mar., vol.17 1828 Apr.-Jun., vol.18 1828 Jul.-Sep., vol.19 1828 Oct.-Dec., vol.21 1829 Apr.-Jun., vol.22 1829 Jul.-Sep., vol.23 1829 Oct.-Dec., GB
The Asiatic Annual Register or a View of the History of Hindustan and of the Politics, Commerce and Literature of Asia, vol.1 1799, vol.2 1800, vol.3 1801, vol.4 1802, vol.5 1803, vol.6 1804, vol.7 1805, vol.8 1806 pt.2, vol.9 1807, vol.10 1808, vol.11 1809, vol.12 1810-1811, GB
Journal Asiatique 1822-1937, posted by Gallica, in French
historic, on Siam The Siam repository: containing a summary of Asiatic intelligence vol.2, 1870, IA
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
On the Isthm of Kra David K. Wyatt, Thailand - A Short History, New Haven : Yale Univ. Press (1982) 1986
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.769-779 Article Southeast Asia : Thailand KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Specific Topics A.F. Steuart, A Short Sketch of the Lives of Francis and William Light, the Founders of Penang and Adelaide (1901), posted on Internet Archive

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