History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

Literature on the History of South East Asia
Malaysia Indonesia
First posted on May 11th 2002, last revised on December 13th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

1946-1954 . 1954-1965 . 1965-1986 . 1986-2001 . since 2001
for earlier history, see Philippines under Spanish rule, 1565-1898, Philippines under U.S. rule, 1898-1946
see also Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu


1946-1954
Status and Foreign Policy . In October 1944, US forces landed on Leyte, in February Manila was liberated. Fighting continued until the Japanese surrendered in Sept. 1945. MacArthur turned over government to President Osmena. Full independence was granted in 1946. The Philippines joined the United Nations in October 1945. In 1950 the Philippines sent troops in response for the UN call to member states to come to the aid of South Korea (Korean War); they stayed until 1955.
In 1951, a peace treaty with Japan was signed. In 1954, the Philippines were founding member of SEATO.
Administration . Manila was liberated on February 27th 1945; President Osmena assumed the civil functions of government, on March 8th established a cabinet. The Filipino Congress was reconvened on June 9th. "Of the 98 representatives elected in 1941, 70 were present, 11 had lost their lives during the war and the remainder were detained under the suspicion of collaboration. Of the 24 senators, 2 had died and 7 were under detention." (BBY 1946)
General elections were held in 1946, 1947, 1949, 1951 and 1953. from 1944 to 1946, Sergio Osmena (Nationalist Party) served as president, succeeded by Manuel Roxas y Acuna 1946-1948 (Liberal Party), Elpidio Quirino y Rivera 1948-1953 (Liberal Party) and Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957, Nationalist Party).
The Hukbalahap Insurrection 1946-1954 . The term 'Hukbalahap' originally stands for resistance fighters against Japanese occupation. Many of them were hostile to landowners which they regarded as collaborators during the occupation. In 1946 Huks began an insurrection against the new regime. In 1948 the CPP (Communist Party) decided to support the Huks. The assassination of Aurora Quezon, widow of former president Manuel Quezon, by Huks in 1949 resulted in condemnation, domestic and abroad. In 1950 the Huks reorganized themselves as People's Liberation Army; in 1950 the Philippine Army took on the Huk problem, hitherto dealt with by the police. The climax of Huk activity was between 1949 and 1951. In 1954, Huk leader Luis Taruc surrendered.
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the population estimates for the Philippines in 1945 as 18.4 million, in 1954 as 22.8 million.
Cultural History . Philippine Athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of London 1948 and Helsinki 1952. Manila hosted the 2nd Asian Games in 1954.

1954-1965
Administration . General elections were held in 1955, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963 and 1965. From 1953 to 1957, Ramon Magsaysay (Nationalist Party) served as president, followed by Carlos Polestico Garcia (Nationalist Party 1957-1961), and Diosdado Macapagal (Liberal Party, 1961-1965).
Foreign Policy . In 1959 a Philippine legation was established in Kuala Lumpur, Federation of Malaya, and elevated to the status of an embassy in 1961. Upon the establishment of Malaysia in 1963, the Philippines proposed the formation of MaPhilIndo, a federation of the Malay states of Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia. From 1963 to 1966 MaPhilIndo meetings were held.
On Sept. 24th 1963, the Philippine government closed her embassy in Kuala Lumpur, as Malaysia refused to accept the Philippines' claim on Sabah. Diplomatic relations were restored on consulate level in 1964, on embassy level in 1966.
Diplomatic relations were established with Israel in 1957.
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the population estimates for the Philippines in 1954 as 22.8 million, in 1965 as 31.7 million.

1965-1986
Administration . Ferdinand Marcos won the presidency in elections of 1965 and was reelected in 1969. Following massive student protests and a Communist terrorist campaign launched by the Maoist NPA (New People's Army), in 1972 President Marcos proclaimed martial law. In 1973 a new constitution was adopted. Parliament was reshaped; from 1976 to 1978 Batasang Bayan (Temporary Legislative Body), from 1978 to 1984 Interim Batasang Pambansa (Interim National Assembly), from 1984 to 1986 Batasang Pambansa (Regular National Assembly). Elections were held in 1978, martial law lifted in 1981. In 1981, again elections were held. In 1986, President Marcos was ousted by the EADS Revolution (People's Power).
Opponents claimed that the elections of 1969 were fraudulent; from 1972 to 1986 the Philippines were a dictatorship, a camouflage democracy.
Domestic Events . In 1968 the Maoist CPP-M split from the CPP (Communist Party of the Philippines) which had been founded in 1930 and by 1965 had been rather insignificant. In 1969 the New People's Army (NPA), affiliated to the CPP-M, began a terrorist campaign aiming at overthrowing the political system. The NPA struggle peaked in the early 1980es.
In 1967 Ferdinand Marcos had the Jabidah Unit, consisting of Muslim recruits from Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, formed, which was intended to destabilize Malaysian control of recently annexed Sabah (Operation Merdeka), historically a dependency of the Sultanate of Sulu (which now formd part of the Philippines). When ASEAN was formed later in 1967, the Jabidah Unit, not yet operational, became a liability; on March 18th 1968 the 200 recruits were massacred outside their barracks on Corregidor (Jabidah Massacre; Whitman). In response, the MNLF (Moro National Liberation Front) was established, which began a militant campaign for political independence of a Moro Nation; in 1976 negotiations between the Filipino government and the MNLF were held. Iin 1981 the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, intent to continue the armed struggle, split from the former
Following the lifting of the martial law in 1981, Filipino Senator Benigno Aquino, an opponent of President Marcos living in exile in the U.S. since 1980, decided to return. Upon arrival at Manila International Airport on Aug. 21st 1983 he was assassinated. The assassination was widely blamed on the Marcos regime, and triggered a mass movement People's Power, led by Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, which in 1986 ousted President Marcos.
Foreign Policy . Under President Marcos, the Philippines was a loyal ally of the United States, which supported Marcos in his attempt to suppress the Communist NPA terror campaign.
In 1967 President Marcos briefly planned to contest Malaysia's control of Sabah. Also in 1967 did the Philippines join ASEAN as one of its founder nations.
In 1975, the Philippines severed diplomatic ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan) and established diplomatic relations with the PR China. Diplomatic Relations with the USSR were established in 1976. Following the unification of Vietnam in 1975, the Philippines and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam established diplomatic relatiions in 1976.
The Economy . President Marcos began with an ambitious development plan, focussed in improving the country's infrastructure (roads, bridges, power stations) and even utilized the army in order to accomplish his goals. The introduction of a hybrid rice resulted in the expansion of rice production (1965 4.0 million metric tons, 1986 9.2 million metric tons, IHS p.202); in 1968 the Philippines achieved self-sufficiency in rice production.
The Philippines was affected by the closure of the Suez Canal in 1967, as merchant vessels to or from had to take the route around Africa or through the Panama Canal, and by the Oil Crisis of 1973-1981.
In 1973, the Filipino National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) was created. Four Year Development Plans 1974-1977, Five Year Development Plans 1978-1982, 1983-1987.
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives the population estimates for the Philippines in 1965 as 31.7 million, in 1986 as 55.8 million.
Cultural History . Philippine Athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Mexico City 1968, Munich 1972, Montreal 1976 and Los Angeles 1984. The Philippines boycotted the Summer Olympics held in Moscow 1980. Manila hosted the 11th Southeast Asian Games in 1981.



1986-2001
Administration . In 1986, dictator Ferdinand Marcos was ousted by the EDSA Revolution (People Power). Since 1986 the Philippines is a functioning democracy. In 1987 a new constitution was adopted. General elections were held in 1986, 1987, 1992, 1995, 1998, 2001. An attempted military coup d'etat was foiled in 1989. Corazon Aquino served as president from 1986 to 1992, Fidel Ramos from 1992 to 1998, Joseph Ejercito Estrada from 1998 to 2001. In 2001 President Estrada was arrested because of embezzlement.
Foreign Policy . In 1991 the US returned Clark Air Base.
Domestic Policy . In 1996 a peace deal was reached with the MNLF. In 2000 and 2001 Abu Sayyaf, an MNLF splinter, conducted several abductions of foreign nationals.
The Economy . Five Year Development Plans 1983-1987, 1988-1992, Six Year Development Plans 1993-1998, 1999-2004.
The Philippines joined WTO in 1995. The Philippines were affected by the 1997 East Asian Financial Crisis.
Social History . According to the microcensus held in 2000, the Philippines had a population of 76.4 million (Lahmeyer). The Philippine Merchant Marine Academy has gained importance far beyond the country's borders, as Filipino sailors are found on vessels sailing under many flags.
Cultural History In 1991, Manila hosted the Southeast Asian Games.

since 2001
Administration . Since 1986 the Philippines is a functioning democracy. A military mutiny in 2003 was ended after negotiations. In 2001, President Estrada was impeached; he resigned and later was arrested, for corruption. He was succeeded by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2004-2010) and Benigno Aquino (since 2010). General elections were held in 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013.
The Economy . Six Year Development Plans 1999-2004, 2005-2010.
Real GDP grew by 4.3 % in 2002, by 4.3 % in 2003 (StYB 2006) and by 5.4 % in 2006 (Wikipedia : Ec. of the Ph.).
Domestic Events . In 2006 the death penalty was abolished.
Social History . The microcensus of 2000 counted 76.4 million Filipinos.
Cultural History . In 2005, Manila, together with other cities in the Philippines, hosted the 23rd Southeast Asian Games.

Students' Papers : Sim, Chi Kyu : A Comparison of the Economic Development of the Republic of Korea and the Philippines since Independence (2008)






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Wikipedia; from Index Mundi; from CIA World Factbook Country : Philippines
Library of Congress Country Studies : The Philippines
Historic A. Ravenholt, The Philippines, a Young Republic on the Move (1962), IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; from Virtual Library Philippines; Links on Philippines (chapter on Ph. History) from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
List of Philippine-Related Topics, from Wikipedia
Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia
on History from Virtual Library LabourHistory (IISG); from Virtual Library Economic and Business History; from Virtual Library Women's History; from Univ. Wien
from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Historical Dictionary Wikipilipinas
Organizations International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
Philippine National Historical Society
Philippine Historical Association
Timelines from BBC News, from timelines.ws; from Garments Asia; from NYZ Company, very detailed
Timelines from DaLyn's Gateway to the Philippines : 1940-1949, 1950-1974
Timeline of the History of Cebu, from Point Cebu
Accounts of History General History of the Philippines, Pearl of the Orient Seas, by Virginia Mitchell & Fraser Weir, 16 chapters; History of the Philippines, from DaLyn's Gateway to the Philippines; History of the Philippines, from Delapaz Education and Welfare Fund; Philippine History 101, by Todd Mazur
Article History of the Philippines, from Wikipedia; from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
D.C. Worcester, The Philippines Past and Present (1914) vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
P.F. Jernegan, A Short History of the Philippines: For Use in Philippine Schools (1905), posted on Internet Archive
M. Halstead, The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions,: Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico The Eldorado of the Orient (1898), IA
A. Knapp, The story of the Philippines for use in the schools of the Philippine Islands (1902), posted on Internet Archive
Ch.B. Elliott, The Philippines to the End of the Military Regime: America Overseas (1916), posted on Internet Archive
D.P. Barrows, A History of the Phillipines (1905), posted on IA
J.M. de Zuniga, An Historical View of the Philippine Islands, vol.1, vol.2, 1814, GB
Montero y Vidal, Jose, El Archipi?ago Filipino y las islas Marianas, Carolinas y Palaos su historia, geograf? y estad?tica, 1886, in Spanish, SBB
Specific Periods N. Cu-Unjieng, Ferdinand Marcos: Apotheosis of the Philippine Historical Tradition, Orator vol.6 2011 pp.1-103
Historiography Philippine Perspective Reynaldo C. Ileto, On the Historiography of Southeast Asia and the Philippines : The "Golden Age" of Southeast Asian Studies - Experiences and Reflections 2002;; click here for discussion
On Philippine Perspective
Other Perspective
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Philippines; Governments on the WWW : The Philippines
General Article : Politics of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Government of the Philippines Website
Philippines UN Mission Website
Philippines Profile, from International Crisis Group
Institutions Brief History of the Philippine Congress, from House of Representatives
Political Parties, Movements Category : Political Parties in the Philippines
R.J. Ramones, Philippine Nationalism: An Analysis of the development of Philippine National Identity, thesis Rutgers 2008
C.C. Weng, The Second People's Power Revolution in the Philippines: The Re-emergence of Oligarchy, thesis NSYSU 2005, in Chinese
P.C. Woods, Bombs, Bureaucrats, and Rosary Beads: The United States, the Philippines, and the Making of Global Anti-Communism, 1945-1960, thesis Univ. of Michigan 2012
J.A. Yellen, The Two Pacific Wars: Visions of Order and Independence in Japan, Burma, and the Philippines, 1940-1945, thesis Harvard 2013
Political Movements and Indigenous Peoples' Struggles in the Philippines (Mindanao & Luzon) by David Hyndman & Levy Duhaylungsod (1996)
Foreign Relations Philippines-Malaysia Relations : an Overview, from Philippine Embassy, Malaysia
Philippines-Korea Diplomatic Relations, from Philippine Trivia
Benito Lim, The Political Economy of Philippines-China Relations
A Brief History of Philippine-Netherlands Relations, from Philippine Embassy, Den Haag
Philippines-France Diplomatic Relations, from Philippine Trivia
Overview of Sino-Philippine Relations, from Embassy of the P.R. China in the Philippines
Military Wars of the Philippines, from ACED
History of the Philippine Army, from Philippine Army
Orders, Decorations and Medals from the Philippines, from ODM
A.R. Luga, Muslim Insurgency in Mindanao, Philippines, thesis U.S. Army Command and General Staff College 2002
J.T. Osleson, Protracted people's war in the Philippines a persistent communist insurgency , thesis Calhoun 2007
CASCON Case PHH : Philippines (Huks) 1946-1954, by L.F. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
Huk Rebellion, from Global Security
Corregidor Massacre 1968, by Paul F. Whitman (= Jabidah Massacre)
Moro Islamic Liberation Front, from Global Security
The Philippines and Terrorism (ADL), from ADL
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Philippines; Article Economy of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Article Philippine Peso, from Wikipedia
Article Philippine Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
The Philippines, from Technological Independence - The Asian Experience, by S. Chamarik and S. Goonatilake
Mines and Communities : Philippines
Search Company History, Funding Universe : Company Histories for Philippines
Company Histories : Petron Corporation, Bank of the Philippine Islands, Manila Electric Company, San Miguel Corporation, Philippine Airlines, Mercury Drug Corporation, Benguet Corporation, from Funding Universe
Global Integrity : Philippines 2004, Philippines 2006, Philippines 2007
Category : Enterprise Philippines, from Economy Point
Larkin, John A. Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Lewis, Martin W. Wagering the Land: Ritual, Capital, and Environmental Degradation in the Cordillera of Northern Luzon, 1900-1986. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
K.H.P. Cheung, The Philippine sugar industry: strucutral transformation and persistent poverty thesis Hong Kong 1980
Social History Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Philippines
Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Philippines
B.J. Kerkvliet, The Huk rebellion: a study of peasant revolt in the Philippines, 1977, GB
N. Fuwa, Politics and Economics of Land Reform in the Philippines: a survey, 2000
B.P.C. Libed, Dekada '70 and activist mothers: a new look at mothering, militarism, and Philippine martial law, thesis San Diego State 2010
R. Bahramitash, The role of women in economic development : case studies of Taiwan, Indonesia and the Philippines, thesis McGill 2000
Ethnography Languages of the Philippines (172), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Philippines - Igorots, Moros
Country Report : Philippines, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (Reports 1998-2004)
Migration Information Source : Philippines
Article Languages of the Philippines, fromWikipedia; Category : Languages of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Article Demographics of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Article Ethnic Groups in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Philippines, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
History of the Philippine Statistical System, by Katsumi Nozawa
Alyson Slack, Separatism in Mindanao (2003), ICE Case Studies
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Philippines
M.D. Shouse, Foreign occupation and the development of Filipino nationalism , thesis Univ. of Missouri 2010
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Philippines, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Articles History of the Jews in the Philippines, Islam in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Philippines, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Catholic Church in Republic of the Philippines, from GCatholic
Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Philippinae
D.B. Fowler, The Moro problem: an historical perspective, thesis Calhoun 1985
History of Regions see History of Sulu at this site
Provinces of the Philippines, Municipalities of the Philippines, from www.statoids.com
Article Regions of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
J.N. Aguilar, Mindanao, su Historia y Geografia, 1894, posted by Project Gutenberg
Entry Alitao, Biaknabato Republic, Negros Republic, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Local History Articles Cebu : History, Davao : History, Iloilo : History; Manila : History; Quezon City : History, Zamboanga : History, from Wikipedia
Tannert, Karl Arthur, Manila Skizze, 1898, in German, SBB
Institutions Article Philippine Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
History, from University of the Philippines Manila
Article Ninoy Manila International Airport, from Wikipedia; Philippines, from Airline History
History of Broadcasting in the Philippines, from The Broadcast Archive
Structurae : Philippines; Search Lighthouse Depot for the Philippines
Culture Article Philippines at the Olympics, Category Sport in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Filipinos, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Philippines, fromRelief Web, History of Disaster Management in the Philippines, from National Disaster Coordinating Council, Republic of the Philippines; Category : Disasters in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Others The Legacy of Freemasons in the Philippines, by Rodel J. Ramos
Article Foreign Relations of the Philippines, from Wikipedia; History of Embassy of the Philippines in the Russian Federation; The Political Economy of Philippines-China Relations, by Benito Lim
Philippines : History of the Third Sector, Philippines : History of Philanthropy, from Philanthropy and the Third Sector in Asia and the Pacific
Philippine Directory, from Peace Corps Online

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Article President of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops/Bishops of Manila, Cebu, (Nueva) Caceres, from Wikipedia
Lists of Ambassadors Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Manila (Philippinen), from Wikipedia German edition; List of French Ambassadors to the Philippines, from Ambafrance; U.S. Ambassadors to the Philippines, from NNDB; Heads of Post, Philippines, from MOFA, Canada, Embajadores de Mexico en Filipinas, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
Chinese Ambassadors to the Philippines, from PRC MOFA
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Statistics Office, Philippines
Population Figures The Philippines, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Philippines, from City Population
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Election Results from Psephos (since 1992); from IFES Election Guide (since 1999)
Elections and Electoral Systems : Philippines
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Official Gazette : Wikipedia article; Official Gazette
Hemerotheques Wikipedia : List of Online Newspaper Archives : Philippines
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender
Philippines
International, Philippines Entries
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on the Philippines
Image Databank : South East Asian Images & Texts, from University of Wisconsin Digital Collection (on Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia)
Trolleys in the Philippines : Corregidor, Manila, from Tram Views of Asia
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Philippines, from Images of Asia
Southeast Asia Digital Library, Historical Archives and Photographs : Cebuanos Studios Centre, Philippines
Universal Collections
Items on the Philippines
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from Passports of the World
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Airline Timetable Images : Philippines
Archival Deposits Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Filipijnen" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 6 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, search for the Philippines
Search Janus for the Philippines
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for the Philippines
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for the Philippines
Search CIA Released Documents for the Philippines
Guide to the Records of the U.S. Senate at the National Archives, The Journey of the Philippine Archives Collection, Chapter 12. Records of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs and Predecessor Committees, 1816-1968
Constitutions 1987 Constitution, from Chan Robles Virtual Law Library
Laws Acts of the Philippines 1900- , from AsianLII
Supreme Court of the Philippines, 1901- , from AsianLII
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by the Philippines, from ILO, 30 docs. since 1948
International Law Library : Philippines;
Treaties Environmental Treaties : Philippines, from Pop Planet
Documents : Australian Treaty Series, Bilateral Treaties - The Philippines
List of multilateral treaties deposited with the Secretary General of the UN which the Philippines has signed, from Philippines UN Mission
Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Philippines, from United States Institute of Peace
Consular Reports
Historiography
Document Surveys British Library, Guide to Current South Asian Official Publications; scroll down for the Philippines
Document Collections Primary Sources on Philippine History
Links, from UWashington Library
Documents : the Philippines, from CEAS, at UCLA; scroll down for the Philippines
Documents : The United States, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area 1950 -1999, from Avalon Project at Yale Law School
Documents on the History of the Catholic Church in the Philippines since 1940, from CBCP Online
Truth Commissions : Philippines, from United States Institute of Peace
Individual Documents
Historical Maps responsible institutions National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA), Philippines
collections Search David Rumsey Map Collection for the Philippines
Maps of the Philippines, from PCL, UTexas
Atlas of the Philippines, from Wikimedia Commons
Historical Maps Archive : Historical Maps of the Philippines
The World of 1898 : Maps of the Philippines (reference list)
About the Philippines, Historical Maps of the Philippines from 1700 to 1965
PRINT : J.M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Philippines, Modern Map : Languages of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Philippines, Contemporary Philippine Islands and New Guinea 1898, Philippine Islands 1906, 1922, 1932, 1938, from Probert Encyclopedia
Detail, Modern
Detail, Contemporary U.S. Army Map Service, Philippines 1:250,000, 1954- , PCL, UTexas
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious
Economic W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Philippine Islands p.145
Political
Geographical
Ethnological
Historical
Other
Parliamentary Debates Congress of the Philippines, Downloads Center 2005-
Travelogues
Residence Memoirs
Institutions Archives National Archives of the Philippines
The National Archives, from WikiPilipinas
Musea National Museum of the Philippines
Monuments Tentative List : Philippines, World Heritage List, scroll down for the Philippines; from UNESCO World Heritage
The Philippines Index, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library of the Philippines; Article : National Library of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Libraries in the Philippines, from LibDex, 23 entries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the Philippines, from Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from Zeno
Coins of Modern Philippines, from Oriental Coins Database

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
on Philippines survey of bibliographies (Philippine) National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Philippine Bibliography
bibliographic database
general bibliographies Philippine Bibliography, from Library of Congress
Philippines, from The Online Books Page
Biblioteca Filipina; o sea, Catalogo razonado de todos los impresos, tanto insulares como extranjeros, relativos a la historia, la etnografia, la linguistica, la botanica, la fauna, la flora, la geologia, la hidrografia, la geografia, la legislacion, etc., de las islas Filipinas 1903, IA
A list of books (with references to periodicals) on the Philippine Islands in the Library of Congress 1903, IA
Bibliography, pp.455-582 in A.R. Guillermo, Historical Dictionary of the Philippines, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2005 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Retana, Wenceslao Emilio, Bibliografia de Mindanao, 1894, SBB
Tribal Textiles : Philippines Bibliography
The Philippines at the Turn of the XVI. Century, Bibliography
serial publications Books on Philippine History, from Kabayan Central
New Asia Books : Philippines
general bibliographies
Philippines entries
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for the Philippines
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for the Philippines
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
South East Asia Dissertations, click South East Asia, Philippines
booksellers Books on the Philippines, from Orchid Press
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
International Boundary Studies
on the Philippines Philippine ELib; National Library of the Philippines : Online Public Access Catalog
Search DBNG .
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
South East Asia Digital Library (project)
South East Asia Visions, at Cornell
Search Leiden University Repository (NL, Open Access)
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories, Philippines
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for the Philippines
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Search Electronic Journals Online
Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly 1971- for Philippines
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Philippine Studies 1953-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
General Accounts on South East Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
on the Philippines Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.25, pp.537-549 Article Philippines KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.25
Regional, Local History Cesar Adib Majul, Muslims in the Philippines, University of the Philippines Press 1999 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Ester G. and Joel M. Maring, Historical Dictionary of the Philippines, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
A.R. Guillermo, Historical Dictionary of the Philippines, Lanham MD : Scarecrow 2005 [G]
Articles : Bangska Moro pp.63-65, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Article : Philippines, Commonwealth of the, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1946 pp.572-574 (on events of 1945) [G]
Article : Philippines, Republic of the, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1947 pp.594-596, 1948 pp.581-582, 1949 pp.514-515, 1950 p.540, 1951 pp.549-550, 1952 pp.553-555, 1953 p.557, 1954 pp.557-558 [G]
Article : Philippines, Republic of the, in : Americana Annual 1947 pp.555-558 [G]
Article : Philippine Islands, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1946 pp,332-334, Philippines 1952 p.331 [G]
Article : Philippines, Republic of the, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1955 pp.605-606, 1956 pp.543-544, 1957 pp.607-608, 1958 pp.541-542, 1959 pp.540-541, 1960 pp.540-541, 1961 pp.551-552, 1962 pp.540-541, 1963 pp.645-646, 1964 pp.656-657, 1965 pp.631-632 [G]
Article : Philippines, Republic of the, in : Americana Annual 1957 pp.620-621 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : Americana Annual 1961 pp.586-588, 1962 pp.594-596, 1963 pp.526-527, 1964 pp.524-525, 1965 pp.560-561 [G]
Article : Philippines, Republic of the, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1961 pp.255-256 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1966 pp.609-610, 1967 pp.618-619, 1968 pp.620-621, 1969 pp.600-601, 1970 pp.610-611, 1971 pp.586-588, 1972 pp.549-550, 1973 pp.537-538, 1974 pp.545-546, 1975 pp.547-548, 1976 pp.553-554, 1977 p.555, 1978 p.581, 1979 pp.571-572, 1980 pp.569-570, 1981 pp.570-571, 1982 pp.572-573, 1983 pp.565-566, 1984 pp.564-565, 1985 pp.518-519, 1986 pp.513, 759 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : The Statesman's Year-Book 1970-1971 pp.1233-1238, 1975-1976 pp.1238-1243, 1976-1977 pp.1235-1240, 1978-1979 pp.982-987, 1979-1980 pp.988-993, 1980-1981 pp.989-994, 1981-1982 pp.992-997, 1983-1984 pp.984-989, 1984-1985 pp.984-989, 1985-1986 pp.984-989, 1986-1987 pp.984-989 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.192-193, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.192-193, 4th ed. 1984 pp.192-193 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : Americana Annual 1967 pp.536-537, 1968 pp.531-532, 1969 pp.533-534, 1970 pp.537-538, 1971 pp.533-534, 1972 pp.533-534, 1973 pp.535-536, 1974 pp.466-467, 1976 p.448 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : Yearbook on International Communist Affairs 1976 pp.359-372 (Justus M. van der Kroef), 1980 pp.291-295 (J.M. v.d.K.) [G]
Article : Philippines, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1987 pp.482-483, 727, 1988 pp.440-441, 679, 1989 pp.440-441, 679, 1990 pp.457-458, 695, 1991 pp.439-440, 681, 1992 pp.411-412, 681, 1993 pp.415-416, 692, 1994 pp.416-417, 693, 1995 pp.457-458, 692, 1996 pp.455-456, 692, 1997 pp.461-462, 690 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : The Statesman's Year-Book 1987-1988 pp.988-993, 1988-1989 pp.990-995, 1989-1990 pp.1002-1007, 1990-1991 pp.1004-1009, 1991-1992 pp.1004-1009, 1992-1993 pp.1091-1096, 1993-1994 pp.1089-1094, 1994-1995 pp.1087-1093, 1995-1996 pp.1080-1087, 1996-1997 pp.1034-1040, 1997-1998 pp.1041-1047, 1998-1999 pp.1022-1028, 2000 pp.1269-1276, 2001 pp.1238-1244 [G]
Entry : Background Notes - Philippines pp.304-310, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2000, Supplement [G]
Article : Philippines, in : Americana Annual 1988 pp.420-423, 1989 pp.423-425, 1990 pp.421-424, 1992 pp.424-426, 1993 pp.427-429, 1994 pp.427-428, 1998 pp.404-406 [G]
Entry : Philippines, pp.826-831 in : IMF, International Financial Statistics Yearbook 2001 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : Britannica Book of the Year 2002 pp.478-479, 703 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : The Statesman's Year-Book 2002 pp.1287-1294, 2003 pp.1286-1293, 2004 pp.1292-1298, 2005 pp.1303-1309, 2006 pp.1310-1317 [G]
Entry : Republic of the Philippines, Cabinet, p.81; Background Notes, pp.1038-1044, in : Countries of the World and their Leaders Yearbook, 2003 [G]
Article : Philippines, in : Americana Annual 2006 pp.292-293 [G]