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Literature on the History of South East Asia
New Spain V.O.C.
First posted on December 10th 2011

Philippines under U.S. Rule, 1898-1946 . Philippines Independent, 1946-






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

1565-1821 . 1821-1863 . 1863-1898
for later history, see Philippines under U.S. rule, 1898-1946, Philippines independent, since 1946
see also Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu



1565-1821
The first European navigator to reach the archipelago was Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese who sailed for Spain, in 1521. The line drawn by the Treaty of Zaragoza in 1525 allocated the Philippines to Portugal, but because the Philippines had been named after Spanish crown prince Philipp (who went on to become King Philipp II. of Spain), an exception was made and the islands were allocated to Spain. From 1565 to 1571 the islands were conquered by a Spanish force, and became a dependency of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico), under the name of Spanish East Indies (with the Ladrones, Carolinas, Palau Islands and temporarily the Moluccas and the Spanish settlement on Taiwan as dependencies). The Captaincy General of the Philippines was established in 1573, the Real Audiencia of the Philippines in 1584. Communication with Spain went through Mexico, and took extremely long.
The outposts on Taiwan, in the Moluccas and on Celebes (Minahasa) were lost in the mid 17th century. A brief British occupation of Manila 1762-1764 caused the Spanish authorities to introduce changes, such as direct communication with the Philippines (since 1766). When Mexico became independent in 1821, the Philippines (with dependencies) became a Spanish colony of their own.

1821-1863
Until 1821, the Philippines were administrated as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; in 1821 Mexico declared independence. The Philippines remained Spanish and now were administrated from Madrid.
The Philippines hitherto had been a remote sideland of Mexico, its main economic purpose having been to facilitate the Spanish-Mexican China trade; Manila was an important entrepot for Spanish ships sailing to Canton (China). Now a new administration had to be established for the Philippines, more elaborate than the previous one, and Spain was faced with the question of how to cover its costs.
From 1831 onward Spain gave up the policy of forbidding foreign ships to enter Filipino ports and opened the ports of Zamboanga (1831), Manila (1834), Yolilo (1855) and Cebu (1863) to international trade. This step came in recognition, that illegal trade with foreign merchants was widespread and the legal Spanish trade sluggish. In 1844 foreigners were prohibited to enter the interior.
Filipino landowners were induced by a free market to change from their traditional subsistence farming to production for the market, for export, the main products being tobacco, sugar cane, abaca (Filipino hemp). In 1839 the government granted freedom of occupation and residence to ethnic Chinese; Chinese immigrants, mainly from Fujian, soon dominated the trade in major cities such as Manila. The Spanish-Filipino Bank was established in 1856, the Manila Mint in 1857. The population of the Philippines numbered c. 2.675 million in 1840, c. 3.816 million in 1850.
Filipino society for a long time had been dominated by monks, Augustinians, Dominicans, Franciscans (the Jesuits had been expelled in 1768 and only were allowed to return in 1859), to an extent that historians have coined the expression Friarocracy. Filipinos were barred from entering religious orders; all educational institutions were run by the church; the natives were kept in ignorance of foreign languages (except Spanish), of sciences and engineering, in order to perpetuate the rule of the Spanish.
In 1841 the continued exclusion of Filipinos from priesthood and religious orders caused a revolt, lead by a monk, Apolinario de la Cruz. It was suppressed. Other rebellions had occurred in 1823, 1835 and 1854.
The first newspaper in Manila was published in 1822. In 1860 the country's first Masonic Lodge was founded. In 1863, Manila suffered severe destruction from a major Earthquake.
In the south, Moro Resistance continued. In 1851 the Spanish occupied Jolo, the main island of the Sultanate of Sulu, and fortified the town of Jolo. From 1860 onward, the Spanish authorities employed shallow-draught steel gunboats, which facilitated them to fight Moro piracy in the waters of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago more efficiently.

1863-1898
The year 1863 marks a turning point in Filipino history, not only because the earthquake of 1863 destroyed Manila Cathedral. An Educational Reform was implemented, which opened the system of higher education to Filipinos and modernized the curriculum.
Offers by King Leopold I. of Belgium to purchase the Philipines (1869-1875) were unsuccessful.
When liberal revolutionaries deposed Queen Isabel II. in Spain, a liberal governor, General Carlos Maria de la Torre, was appointed for the Philippines. He abolished censorship, introduced the right for free speech and free assembly. However, de la Torre was succeeded by a reactionary, Rafael de Izquierdo, who cancelled his predecessor's liberal reforms. In 1872 a rebellion broke out on Cavite island. In 1876 the Sultanate of Sulu was formally annexed.
Filipino intellectuals (some of them having studied in Spain) began agitating for Filipino self-government or independence. In 1889, the newspaper 'La Solidaridad' (solidarity) was first published. In two novels published in 1886 and 1891, Jose Rizal criticized the brutality of the Spanish colonial regime. In 1892, after returning to the Philippines from Spain, he founded the organization La Liga Filipina (the Filipino League); he was arrested the same year; in 1896 he was tried for treason and executed. A secret resistance organization, Katipunan, founded in 1892, in 1896 launched an armed insurrection; the rebels controlled part of the Philippines, the Spanish another part. Rebel leader Aguinaldo proclaimed the Republic of Biak-Na-Bato, but in negotiations agreed to take a large sum of money and leave the country.
The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, in connection with the new steam ship technology, facilitated much improved connections between the Philippines and motherland Spain; the Philippine Friarocracy was no longer isolated. A first census was held in 1878, further censi followed in 1887 and in 1898, the latter uncompleted. In 1880 Manila was connected with Hong Kong by sea cable. The first Filipino railway line was opened in 1891.
In 1887, a Philippine Exposition was held in Madrid. The Philippine population in the late 19th century was around 5-6 million and grew; figures however are contradictory.

When the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898, part of the Philippines were under the control of insurgents. The Spanish administration in Manila surrendered to the U.S., and Spain ceded the Philippines to the U.S. Guam became a separate U.S. possession; the Northern Mariana Islands and the Caroline Islands, at that time including Palau, were sold to Germany in 1899.

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Students' Papers : Lee, Hye Jin, Maritime History : The South China Sea until the later 19th Century (2012)
Students' Paper : Jeon, Hyeong Mi, Analysis of Ethnological Encyclopedias, based on the Example of the Ladrone islands (Marianas) (2010)
Students' Papers : Lee, Jiyeon, Comparative History of Empires : Cuba and the Philippines under Spanish Rule (2009)






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Article : Spanish East Indies, Captaincy General of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Historic 1565-1821 A. de Morga, The Philippine islands, Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan, and China at the close of the sixteenth century, trsl. by H.E.J. Stanley, 1868, GB; [de Morga lived 1559-1636]
P. Chirino, Relacion de las islas Filipinas i de lo que en ellas an trabaiado los padres dae la Compania de Iesus, 1604, in Spanish, GB
Th. de Comyn, Estado de las islas Filipinas en 1810, 1820, in Spanish, GB ; State of the Philippine Islands : Being an Historical, Statistical, and Descriptive Account, 1821, GB
1821-1897 L.P. Alvarez y Tejero, De las Islas Filipinas: memoria, 1842, in Spanish, GB
S. de Mas, Informe sobre el estado de las islas Filipinas en 1842, 1843, in Spanish,. GB
F.M. de Govantes, Noticias y geograf? de Filipinas: en dos partes, en forma de dialogo y lecciones, 1866, in Spanish, GB
F.J. de Moya y Jimenez, Las Islas Filipinas en 1882: Estudios hist?icos, geogr?icos, estad?ticos, 1883, in Spanish, IA
J. Rizal, The Social Cancer, 1912, Project Gutenberg (Engl. trsl. of 1887 book "Noli me tangere")
E. Polo de Lara, Estudio social y pol?ico de las Islas Filipinas 1896, IA
1898 and just after M.A. Hamm, Manila and the Philippines (1898), posted on IA
Publicola, The duty of the American people as to the Philippines (1898), IA
J. Foreman, The Philippine islands. A political, geographical, ethnographical, social and commercial history of the Philippine archipelago and its political dependencies, embracing the whole period of Spanish rule (1899), IA
The Philippine Islands ... a brief compilation of the latest information and statistics obtainable on the numbers, area, population, races and tribes, mineral resources, agriculture, exports and imports, forests, and harbors of the Philippine Islands (1900), IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; from Virtual Library Philippines; Links on Philippines (chapter on Ph. History) from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
List of Philippine-Related Topics, from Wikipedia
Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia
on History from Univ. Wien
from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Organizations Philippine National Historical Society
Philippine Historical Association
Asociacion Espanola de Estudios del Pac?ico
International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Historical Dictionary Wikipilipinas
M. Buzeta, Diccionario geografico, estadistico, historico de las islas Filipinas , 1831, in Spanish, GB
Category : Spanish East Indies, Spanish Colonial Period in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Category : Historia de Filipinas, from Wikipedia Spanish edition
Category : Philippine History, from WikiPilipinas
Timelines from BBC News, from timelines.ws; from Garments Asia; from NYZ Company, very detailed
Timeline Spanish-Cuban-American War, Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, from The Spanish American War 1898 at DSU
Timelines from DaLyn's Gateway to the Philippines : 1851-1899
Timeline of the History of Cebu, from Point Cebu
Accounts of History Modern History of the Philippines, Pearl of the Orient Seas, by Virginia Mitchell & Fraser Weir, 16 chapters; History of the Philippines, from DaLyn's Gateway to the Philippines; History of the Philippines, from Delapaz Education and Welfare Fund; Philippine History 101, by Todd Mazur
Article History of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Historical, Malay Archipelago J. Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago vol.1, 1820, vol.2, 1820, vol.3, 1820, GB
H.S.R. St. John, The Indian archipelago, its history and present state, vol.1, 1853, vol.2, 1853, GB
Historical, Philippines Captain Cope, A Brief Narrative of the First Discovery of the Philippine Islands , pp.1-33 in the same, A new history of the East-Indies: With brief observations on the religion, customs, manners and trade of the inhabitants 1754, GB (title misleading, covers period until 1754, also description of the country)
J.M. de Zuniga, An Historical View of the Philippine Islands, vol.1, vol.2, 1814, GB
R.D. Arenas, Memorias historicas y estadisticas de Filipinas y particularmente de la grande isla de Luzon, 1830, in Spanish, GB
F.X. Baranera, Compendio de la historia de Filipinas, 1884, in Spanish, IA
Montero y Vidal, Jose, El Archipilago Filipino y las islas Marianas, Carolinas y Palaos su historia, geografia y estadistica, 1886, in Spanish, SBB
J. de Alcazar, Historia de los dominios espa?les en Ocean?: Filipinas, 1897, IA
M. Halstead, The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions,: Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico The Eldorado of the Orient (1898), IA
A. Knapp, The story of the Philippines for use in the schools of the Philippine Islands (1902), IA
P.F. Jernegan, A Short History of the Philippines: For Use in Philippine Schools (1905), IA
D.P. Barrows, A History of the Phillipines (1905), posted on IA
J. Foreman, The Philippine Islands. A Political, Geographical, Ethographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, Embracing the Whole Period of Spanish Rule 1906, Project Gutenberg
A. de Morga, History of the Philippine Islands, vol.1 1907, Project Gutenberg [de Morga lived 1559-1636]
D.C. Worcester, The Philippines Past and Present (1914) vol.1, vol.2, IA
Ch.B. Elliott, The Philippines to the End of the Military Regime: America Overseas (1916), IA
The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, 55 vols., vol.6 : 1583-1588, 1903, IA, vol.7 : 1588-1591, 1903, IA, vol.8 : 1591-1593, 1903, IA, vol.9 : 1593-1597, 1903, IA, vol.10 : 1597-1599, 1903, IA, vol.11 : 1599-1603, 1903, IA
Specific Periods P.P. de la Gironiere, Twenty years in the Philippines [1819-1839] (1854), IA
A history of Asiatic cholera in the Philippine Islands (1909), posted on Internet Archive
A. Craig, A thousand years of Philippine history before the coming of the Spaniards (1914), posted on Internet Archive
J.L. Phelan, The Hispanization of the Philippines Spanish Aims and Filipino Responses 1565-1700 (1959), posted on Internet Archive
Ch.H. Cunningham, The audiencia in the Spanish colonies as illustrated by the audiencia of Malina (1583-1800) (1919), posted on Internet Archive
Bartolome Leonardo de Argensola, Histoire de la conquete des Isles Moluques par les Espagnols vol.2, 1706, vol.3, 1706, in French, GB; Engl. trsl. by John Stevens, The discovery and conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands, 1708, GB
F. Rodao, Departure from Asia. Spain in the Philippines and East Asia in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
Spanish Colony 1565 - 1898, Nationalist Movement and Katipunan Rebellion 1834 - 1897, from A Centennial History of Philippine Independence, 1898-1998 by Fraser Weir
Historiography Philippine Perspective Reynaldo C. Ileto, On the Historiography of Southeast Asia and the Philippines : The "Golden Age" of Southeast Asian Studies - Experiences and Reflections 2002;; click here for discussion
Portia Reyes, The "Treasonous" History of Filipino Historiography : The Life and Times of Pedro Paterno, 1858-1911, abstract 2003
On Philippine Perspective
Other Perspective M.C. Cano Garcia, The "Spanish colonial past" in the construction of modern Philippine history: A critical inquiry into the (mis)use of Spanish sources, thesis NUS 2006
Administration Institutions Articles : Governor General of the Philippines, Captaincy General of the Philippines, Royal Audience of Manila, from Wikipedia
The Royal Audiencia during the Spanish Regime, from Philippine Almanac
R.F. Pettigrew, Government of the Philippines (1900), posted on IA
Decretos Creando y Organizando El Cuerpo de Administracion Civil De Filipinas, 1870, in Spanish, GB
Jurisdiction The Spanish Civil code in force in Spain, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines (1899), IA
M. Santos-Ong, Philippine Legal Research, from GlobaLex; scroll down for Spanish Period (1521-1898)
Other D. Cubeiro Rodriguez, Comunicacions i desenvolupament a Filipines: De l'administració espanyola a la nord-americana (1875-1935), thesis Barcelona 2011
Military Filipino Weapons & History, from Filhistory
Bartolome Leonardo de Argensola, Histoire de la conquete des Isles Moluques par les Espagnols vol.2, 1706, vol.3, 1706, in French, GB; Engl. trsl. by John Stevens, The discovery and conquest of the Molucco and Philippine Islands, 1708, GB
Caro y Mora, Juan, Ataque de Li-Ma-Hong a Manila en 1574 resena historica de aquella memorabile jornada, 1898, in Spanish, SBB
Monteverde y Sedano, Federico, Campana de Filipinas la division Lachambre 1897, 1898, in Spanish, SBB
E. Bernaldez, Resena historica de la guerra al sur de Filipinas sostenida por las armas espanolas contra los piratas de aquel archipielago: desde la conquista hasta nuestros dias, 1857, in Spanish, GB
The Rebellion in the Philippines (The North-China Daily News, Impartial not Neutral, Shanghai, 23rd October, 1896), posted by Austrian-Phlippine Website
V. Barrantes, Guerras piraticas de Filipinas contra mindanaos y joloanos 1878, in Spanish, IA
E. Bernaldez, Resena historica de la guerra al Sur de Filipinas 1857, in Spanish, IA
F.M. Reyez et al., The Filipino way of war: irregular warfare through the centuries, thesis Calhoun 2012
Economy & Finances Descr. of Nat'l Economy Economy during the Spanish Colonial Period, from Tagalog Lang
R.D. Arenas, Memoria sobre el comercio y navegacion de las islas Filipinas, 1838, in Spanish, GB
Nopitsch, Wilhelm Hermann, Kaufmännische Berichte, gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Welt mit der Kriegs-Corvette Galathea (Mercantile Reports, collected on a Journey on the War-Corvette Galathea in the Years 1845, 1846 and 1847), in den Jahren 1845, 1846 und 1847, Hamburg : Besser & Mauke 1849, in German, posted by DTBSWS, Manila pp.78-96
Minas de Cobre del Distrito de Lepanto. Filipinas, 1862, in Spanish, GB
C. de Grau y Figueras, Memoria sobre la poblacion y riqueza de las islas Filipinas, 1855, in Spanish, GB
Handelsberichte der kaufmännischen Begleiter der Ostindischen Expedition (Mercantile Reports by Traders Accompanying the Prussian East Asian Expedition), Berlin : Königliche Geheime Ober-Druckerei 1861, in German, posted by DTBSWS : Fr. Wolff : Manila, pp.60-74, C. Jacob, Manila, pp.157-170
Sancianco Goson, Gregorio, El progreso de Filipinas estudios economicos, administrativos y politicos, parte economica, 1881, in Spanish, SBB
H.H. Miller, Commercial geography. The materials of commerce for the Philippines (1911), IA
A. Craig, Philippine progress prior to 1898, 1916, IA
Money & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Philippines; Article Philippine Peso, from Wikipedia
Ch.A. Conant, Currency in the Philippines (1902), posted on Internet Archive
History of Department of Finance, Bureau of Customs, Philippines
R. Occhietti, La Junte des Philippines de Goya (1815) : regard sur le pouvoir colonial espagnol et le capitalisme financier, thesis Montreal 2012
A. Lumba, Monetary Authorities: Market Knowledge and Imperial Government in the Colonial Philippines, 1892-1942, thesis Univ. of Washington 2013
Trade An Account of the Commerce carried on between the City of Manila on the Island of Luconia, and the Port of Acapulco on the Coast of Mexico, pp.51-69 in vol.2 of G. Anson, A voyage round the world, in the years 1740-44, 1781, GB
Galleon Trade, from Philippine History
Article : Manila Galleon, from Wikipedia
Cebu-Acapulco Galleon Trade, from Philippine History
The Manila Galleon Trade (1565-1815), from Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
Article : Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade, from WikiPilipinas
Article : Real Compania de Filipinas, from WikiPilipinas
M. de Azcarraga y Palmero, La libertad de comercio en las Islas Filipinas 1872, in Spanish, IA
B. Paslazuelos Mazars, Acapulco et le Galion de Manille, la realité quotidienne au XVIIe siecle , thesis Sorbonne 2012
Manufacture Article : Philippine Textile Weaving, from WikiPilipinas
Tribal Textiles, Philippines Bibliography
Arts and Crafts : Burnay Industry (Pottery), from Vigan City, Philippines
SeaPots : Philippines
Article : Philippine Pottery, from WikiPilipinas
Mining Mines and Communities : Philippines
Agriculture Larkin, John A. Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
SRA Historical Background, from Sugar Regulatory Authority, Philippines
TED Case Studies : Philippine Sugar and the Environment
History of Rice in the Philippines, from Living Cebu Forums
Article : Manila Hemp (Abaca), from Wikipedia; from WikiPilipinas
Abaca, or Manila Hemp (Scherzer 1861), from Austrian-Philippine Website
Article : Tobacco Monopoly, from WikiPilipinas
History of Tobacco Making in the Philippines, from Traveler on Foot
K.J. Pelzer, The Spanish Tobacco Monopoly in the Philippines, 1782-1883 and the Dutch Forced Cultivation System in Indonesia, 1834-1870, Archipel Annee 1974 Volume 8 pp.147-153, Persee
R. Jordana y Morera, Memoria sobre el comercio de maderas en Filipinas 1894, in Spanish, IA
Social History General A. Guerrero, Philippine Society and Revolution (1970), Excerpts : ch.1a, ch.1b, ch.1c, Marxist; part of a not yet completely posted work as many cross-links do not work; part on social history under the Spanish complete; Full Text : here
Class Structure The Social Classes in the History of the Philippines, from Philippine Almanac
Article : Principalia, from Wikipedia
Marriage, Women The Law of Marriage in the Philippines around 1900 (Report of the Philippine Commission to the President. Vol. I. 1901, pp. 138-141), posted on Austrian-Philippine Website
Article : Women in the Philippines : Hispanic Philippines, from Wikipedia
Education Article : Education in the Philippines during Spanish rule, from Wikipedia
V. Barrantes y Moreno, La Instruccion Primaria en Filipinas desde 1596 hasta 1868, 1869, in Spanish, GB
H. Santos, Literacy in the Pre-Hispanic Philippines
D. Grifol y Aliaga, La instruccion primaria en Filipinas 1894, in Spanish, IA
M.U. Lively, Philippine education prior to Magellan, thesis Louisville 1925
Corvee Labour Article : Corvee : The Philippines, from Wikipedia; Article : Polo y servicio, from WikiPilipinas
B.S. Macaranas, Feudal Work Systems and Poverty : the Philippine Experience
Slavery Book Advertisement : W.H. Scott, Slavery In The Spanish Philippines
D.C. Worcester, Slavery and peonage in the Philippine Islands, 1913, IA
Crime Article History of the Philippines, from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Health Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Philippines
S.M. Pintado, History and Evolution, Pharmacy In the Philippines
Ethnography General Languages of the Philippines (172), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Philippines - Igorots, Moros
Article Languages of the Philippines, fromWikipedia; Category : Languages of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Article Demographics of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Article Ethnic Groups in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
History of the Philippine Statistical System, by Katsumi Nozawa
Alyson Slack, Separatism in Mindanao (2003), ICE Case Studies
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Philippines
A.R. Kroeber, Peoples of the Philippines (1919), posted on IA
F.H.R. Sawyer, The inhabitants of the Philippines (1900), posted on IA
Blumentritt, Ferdinand, P. Castano's Nachrichten über Bikols, Cimarronen und Agtas, 1896, in German, SBB
F. Blumentritt, Ethnographic Map of the Philippines 1890, posted by Austrian-Philippine Website
Philippines, pp.603-605 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Z.V. Villanueva, Cultural Encounters and Transformation of Early Historical Polities on Lubang Island, the Philippines, ca. A.D. 1200-1800, thesis Univ. of Arizona 2009
M.D. Shouse, Foreign occupation and the development of Filipino nationalism , thesis Univ. of Missouri 2010
Chinese Minority Blumentritt, Ferdinand, Die Chinesen auf den Philippinen, eine historische Skizze, 1879, in German, SBB
Jordana y Morera, Ramon, La Inmigracion China en Filipinas, 1888, in Spanish, SBB; also from IA
Article : Chinese Filipino, from Wikipedia
Religion Catholicism Dioceses Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Philippines, from Kirken i Norge
Catholic Church in Republic of the Philippines, from GCatholic
F. Moreno, Historia de la Santa Iglesia Metropolitana de Filipinas, 1877, in Spanish, IA
Orders Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Philippinae
P. Chirino, Relacion de las islas Filipinas i de lo que en ellas an trabaiado los padres dae la Compania de Iesus, 1604, in Spanish, GB
F. Colin, Labor evangelica, ministerios apostolicos de los obreros de la Compania de Iesus, fundacion y progressos de su provincia en las islas Filipinas, 1663, in Spanish, GB
D. de Aduarte, Historia de la Provincia del Santo Rosario de Filipinas, Japon y China, de la sagrada orden de Predicadores 1693, in Spanish, GB
J. Ferrando, J. Fonseca, Historia de los PP. Dominicos en las Islas Filipinas y en sus misiones del Japam, China, Tung-Kin y Formosa 1870, in Spanish, GB
F. Villacorta, Sucinta relacion de los progresos de Misiones de los Igorrotes y Tinguianes en la Isla de Luzon, una de las llamadas Filipinas, 1833, in Spanish, GB
F. Villacorta, Administracion espiritual de los Padres Agustinos calzados de la Provincia del Dulce Nombre de Jesus de las Islas Filipinas, 1833, in Spanish, GB
E. Zamora, Las corporaciones religiosas en Filipinas, 1901, in Spanish, IA
Other Issues Secularization of Priests During the Spanish Period, from Philippine History
F. Tarrida del Marmol, Les inquisiteurs d'Espagne: Montjuich, Cuba, Philippines 1897, in French, IA
J.T. Medina, El tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisicion en las islas Filipinas 1899, in Spanish, IA
Inquisition in the Spanish Colonies : Philippine Islands, from Encyclopaedia Judaica
Sinibaldo de Mas on the character and influence of the clergy in the Philippines, 1843, from The Philippine History Net
Buzeta and Bravo on the ecclesiastical estate of the Philippines, 1850, from The philippine History Net
Feodor Jagor on the character and influence of the clergy in the Philippines, 1873, from The Philippine History Net
Islam Article : Islam in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
J. Torrubia, Disertacion historico-politica, en que se trata de la extension de el Mahometismo en las Islas Filipinas, 1736, in Spanish, GB
F.B. Winslow, The Islamization of the Philippines, thesis McGill 1968
Judaism Article : History of the Jews in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Philippines, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Traditional Belief T. Maghirang, Kulam
Article : Babaylan, from Wikipedia
History of Regions General Provinces of the Philippines, Municipalities of the Philippines, from www.statoids.com
Article Regions of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Islands Mindanao J.N. Aguilar, Mindanao, su Historia y Geografia, 1894, posted by Project Gutenberg
Dependencies Caroline Islands Article : Caroline Islands, from Wikipedia
Ladrones (Marianas) Article : Mariana Islands, from Wikipedia
Minahasa Spanish control from 1570s to 1650s; see Minahasa at this site
Article : Menado : History, from Wikipedia
Moluccas Spanish presence in the Moluccas 1606-1663. See Ternate, Tidore at this site
Articles : Tidore : History, Ternate : History, from Wikipedia
Taiwan Article : Spanish Formosa, from Wikipedia
Palau Islands Article : Palau, from Wikipedia
Claimed Territories Sulu
Local History Articles Cebu : History, Davao : History, Iloilo : History; History of Manila; Quezon City : History, Zamboanga : History, from Wikipedia
Tannert, Karl Arthur, Manila Skizze, 1898, in German, SBB
Institutions History of the Philippine Statistical System, by Katsumi Nozawa
Culture
Biographies List of Filipinos, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Disaster History by Country : Philippines, fromRelief Web, History of Disaster Management in the Philippines, from National Disaster Coordinating Council, Republic of the Philippines; Category : Disasters in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
M. Saderra Maso, Catalogue of Violent and Destructive Earthquakes in the Philippines: With an Appendix: Earthquakes in the Marianas Islands 1599-1909 1910, IA
Others The Legacy of Freemasons in the Philippines, by Rodel J. Ramos
Article : Freemasonry in the Philippines, from WikiPilipinas
F.E. Vergara, La Masoneria en Filipinas: Estudio de actualidad; apuntes para la historia de la colonizacion 1896, in Spanish, IA
On the colonial ambitions of King Leopold I. of Belgium, by Elke Schellekens; in Dutch
N.P. Weston, Scientific Authority, Nationalism, and Colonial Entanglements between Germany, Spain, and the Philippines, 1850 to 1900, thesis Univ. of Washington 2012

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops/Bishops of Manila, Cebu, (Nueva) Caceres, from Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls U.S. Consuls in the Philippines, from Political Graveyard
Statistical Data Population Figures The Philippines, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Philippines, from City Population
Census of the Philippine Islands 1903 vol.1, Geography, History and Population, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, 1905, GB
Documents Historical Newspapers
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender
Philippines
International, Philippines Entries
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Image Databank : South East Asian Images & Texts, from University of Wisconsin Digital Collection (on Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia)
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Philippines, from Images of Asia
Archival Deposits Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Filipijnen" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 6 entries; sources posted in Dutch language
U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, search for the Philippines
Search Janus for the Philippines
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for the Philippines
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for the Philippines
Guide to the Records of the U.S. Senate at the National Archives, The Journey of the Philippine Archives Collection, Chapter 12. Records of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs and Predecessor Committees, 1816-1968
Laws secular, general Recopilacion de las Leyes de Indias, 1680, posted by Archivo Digital de la Legislacion en el Peru, in Spanish
Recopilacion de las Leyes de Indias, vol.1 1681, vol.3 1681, vol.4 1681, index 1681, in Spanish, GB
Recopilacion de las Leyes de Indias, vol.1 1756, vol.4 1756, in Spanish, GB
Recopilacion de las Leyes de Indias, vol.1, 1774, vol.2, 1774, vol.3, 1774, in Spanish, GB
Recopilacion de las Leyes de Indias vol.1, 1791, vol.2, 1791, vol.3, 1791, in Spanish, GB
J. Rodriguez San Pedro, Legislaci? ultramarina, 1868, in Spanish, GB
Biblioteca de legislaci? ultramarina en forma de diccionario alfab?ico, 1844, in Spanish, GB
secular, special Real ordenanza para el establecimiento e instruccion de intendentes de exercito y provincia en el Reino de la Nueva Espana, 1786, in Spanish, GB
Constituciones, y ordenanzas, para el regimen, y govierno del Hospital Real, y General de los Indios de esta Nueva Espana, 1778, in Spanish, GB
Arancel de los derechos parroquiales en las Islas Filipinas publicado con su traduccion tagala, 1890, in Spanish and Tagalog, SBB
The ordinances of the mines of New Spain, 1825, in Spanish, GB
Reales ordenanzas para la direccion, regimen y gobierno del importante cuerpo de la mineria, 1783, in Spanish, GB; also from Biblioteca Universia
ecclesiastical Estatutos, y ordenaciones de la Santa Provincia de San Gregorio de Religiosos Descalzos de la regular, y mas estrecha observancia de N.S.P.S. Francisco de Philipinas: dispuestas, y ordenadas por el compromisso de el Discretorio, y Diffinitorio en el Capitulo Provincial celebrado en nuestro convento de Nuestra Se?ra de los Angeles de la ciudad de Manila el dia 8 del mes de Iunio del a? de 1726 : Y mandadas dar ?estampa por el Ministro Provincial, y Venerable Difinitorio el a? de 1730, 1730, in Spanish, GB
Estatutos de la Santa y apost?ica Provincia de San Gregorio Magno de Filipinas de religiosos menores descalzos de la regular y mas estrecha observancia de nuestro padre S. Francisco: dispuestas y ordenadas en virtud de breves apost?icos y derechos can?ico y regular, 1870, in Spanish, GB
Treaties U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, Philippine Islands: Acts of Congress and Treaties Pertaining to the Philippine Islands in Force .. (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Consular Reports Report on the Commercial Relations of the United States with All Foreign Nations Philippine Islands : Manila, pp.156-160, Ponce pp.154-156 in 1857, GB
Historiography
Document Collections Coleccion de documentos ineditos relativos al descubrimiento, conquista y organizacion de las antiguas posesiones Espanoles vol.2, 1862, vol.3, 1863, vol.5, 1865, vol.6, 1866, vol.8, 1867, GB
Coleccion de autos acordados de la Real audiencia chancilleria de Filipinas: Y de soberanas y superiores disposiciones que afectan al ramo de justicia o conviene tengan presentes los jueces que reunen a la vez el caracter de gobernadores de provincia. Publicada por dicho superior tribunal, vols.1-2, 1865, GB
Documentos para la historia de la administracion de filipinas, 1891, in Spanish, GB
Cartas de los padres de la compana de Jesus de la Mision de Filipinas, 1895, IA
Individual Documents Real Cedula de ereccion de la Compania de Filipinas de 10 de marzo de 1785, GB
Historical Maps Maps of the Philippines, from PCL, UTexas
Map : Languages of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Atlas of the Philippines, from Wikimedia Commons
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
F. Blumentritt, Ethnographic Map of the Philippines 1890, posted by Austrian-Philippine Website
Map Manila 1851, from PCL, UTexas
Map Manila and Suburbs 1898, from PCL, UTexas
Map Manila 1898, provided by Emerson Kent
J. Algue, Atlas of the Philippine Islands, 1900, IA
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Philippine Islands, pp.475-477 in vol.14 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1797, GB
Article Philippine Islands, pp.275-276 in vol.16 of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1823, GB
Articles Philippinen, Cebu, Luzon, Manila, Mindanao, Palawan, Sulu, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Article Philippine Islands, Cebu, Jaro (Iloilo), Manila, Palawan, Zamboanga, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Ostindien, pp.677-696 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic Philippine Islands, pp.426-433 in vol.2 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Entry : Philippinische Inseln, pp.587-588 in vol.3 of Leipziger Handwörterbuch der Handlungs-, Comptoir- und Waarenkunde, 1819, in German, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Manila, posted by DTBSWS
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Das vormals Spanische Amerika : Philippinen, vol.4 1844 pp.89-91, posted by DTBSWS
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Philippines
Political The Philippine Islands, pp.25-35 in vol.8 of T.G. Smollett, The present state of all nations, 1769, GB
Geographical Article : Philippines, pp.285-294 in vol.6 of A.A. Bruzen de la Martiniere, Le grand dictionnaire geographique et critique, 1736, in French, GB
The Philippine Islands, pp.350-354 in vol.3 of R. Beatson, Naval and military memoirs of Great Britain, from 1727 to 1783, 1804, GB; report probably from 1762
Of the Philippine Islands, pp.29-32 in J. Carver, The new universal traveller: containing a full and distinct account of all the empires, kingdoms, and states, in the known world 1779, GB
Of the Caroline, Bashee, Philippine and Pelew Islands, pp.141-162 in vol.1 of J. Payne, Universal geography formed into a new and entire system 1794, GB
De Philipijnsche Eilanden, pp.450-463 in vol.3 of J.H. Tuckey, Aardrijkskunde voor den Koophandel, 1819, in Dutch, GB
The Phillipine Islands, pp.79-83 in J.H. Moor, Notices of the Indian archipelago & adjacent countries, 1837, GB
The Philippines, pp.243-273 in vol.14 of E. Reclus, Universal Geography, n.d. [1876-1894], IA
The Philippine Islands pp.294-295 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnological Manilla, Mindanao pp.200-202 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
The Philippine Natives pp.220-222 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Historical The Present State of the Oriental Islands, pp.92-112 in vol.1 of Th. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB; The Present State of Mexico : Trade with the Philippines, pp.216-217, in vol.3 of Th. Salmon, Modern History or the Present State of all Nations, 1746, GB
The Philippines, pp.394-403 in A General history of the several nations of the world , 1751, GB
Les Philippines, pp.118-133 in J.J. Vaissette, Geographie historique, ecclesiastique et civile, 1755, in French, GB
Philippine Islands, pp.235-237 in vol.64 of G. Sale, An Universal history, from the earliest account of time 1765, GB
F. Sonnerat, Of the Philippines and Moluccas 1782, posted by Austrian-Philippine Website
Philippine Islands, p.387 in vol.2 of S. Maulder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Exhibition Catalogues E. Taviel de Andrade, Historia de la exposici? de las Islas Filipinas en Madrid el ano de 1887, 1887, in Spanish, GB
Tariffs Manilla (and back, from the U.K.) - 420 days, p.148 in : Ellis' British Tariff for 1832-1833, 1835, GB
Tour Guides
Travelogues C.L.F.F. Renouard Sainte-Croix, Voyage commercial et politique aux Indes Orientales, aux iles Philippines, a la Chine, avec des notions sur la Cochinchine et le Tonquin pendant les annees 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806 et 1807, 1810, in French, GB
M. de Poterat, Journal d'un voyage au Cap de Horn, au Chili, au Perou, aux iles Philippines, et a la cote de Nouvelle Espagne, 1815, in French, GB
Bowring, John, A visit to the Philippine Islands, 1859, SBB
LeGras, Alexandre, Description des iles et des passages, compris entre la partie nord de l'ile Luçon et des iles du Japon, 1857, in French, SBB
A. Marche, Luçon et Palaouan: six annees de voyages aux Philippines , 1887, in French, IA
A. Craig, The former Philippines thru foreign eyes, 1917, IA
Residence Memoirs R.M. Micking, Recollections of Manilla and the Philippines during 1848, 1849, And 1850 (1851), IA
P.P. de la Gironiere, Twenty Years in the Philippines, 1854, IA (1819-1839)
Institutions Archives The National Archives, from WikiPilipinas
Musea National Museum of the Philippines
Monuments Tentative List : Philippines, World Heritage List, scroll down for the Philippines; from UNESCO World Heritage
The Philippines Index, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library of the Philippines; Article : National Library of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Libraries in the Philippines, from LibDex, 23 entries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Coins of Spanish Philippines, from Oriental Coins Database
Stamps Rare Philippines Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Philippines stamps issue 1852-1882, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on the Philippines Modern Philippine Bibliography, from Library of Congress
Philippines, from The Online Books Page
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
Books on the Philippines, from Orchid Press
South East Asia Dissertations, click South East Asia, Philippines
Historical Retana, Wenceslao Emilio, Bibliografia de Mindanao, 1894, SBB
J.T. Medina, Bibliograf? espanola de las Islas Filipinas (1523-1810) 1897, IA
A.G.S. Josephson, Bibliographies of the Philippine Islands, 1899, IA
Biblioteca Filipina : o sea catalogo razonado de todos los impresos, tanto insulares como extranjeros, relativos a la historia, la etnograf?, la linguistica, la botanica, la fauna, la flora, la geologia, la hidrografia, la geografia, la legislacion, etc., de las Islas Filipinas, de Jolo y Marianas, 1903, in Spanish, IA
A. Prentice, Bibliography of the Philippine Islands 1903, IA
J.A. Robertson, Bibliography of the Philippine Islands 1908, IA
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on the Philippines Philippine ELib; National Library of the Philippines : Online Public Access Catalog
Search DBNG .
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
South East Asia Digital Library (project)
South East Asia Visions, at Cornell
Search Leiden University Repository (NL, Open Access)
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories, Philippines
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for the Philippines
Online Bookstores Kabayan Central
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Search Electronic Journals Online; Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly 1971- for Philippines
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Philippine Studies 1953-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
AEEP, Revista del Pacifico, 1991-, in Spanish
General Accounts on South East Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
on the Philippines Stanley Karnow, In Our Image. America's Empire in the Philippines, Ballantine 1990, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.9 K18i
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.25, pp.537-549 Article Philippines KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.25
Specific Topics Cesar Adib Majul, Muslims in the Philippines, University of the Philippines Press 1999 [G]
James Francis Warren, The Sulu Zone 1768-1898, Quezon City : New Day (1981) 1985 [G]
Sources William Henry Scott, Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History, Quezon City : New Day (1984) 2000
Historical Dictionaries Ester G. and Joel M. Maring, Historical Dictionary of the Philippines, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
Yearbook Entries