History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

Literature on the History of South East Asia
Malaysia Indonesia
First posted on December 10th 2011, last revised on December 13th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

1898-1916 . 1916-1935 . 1935-1941 . 1941-1946
for earlier history, see Philippines under Spanish rule, 1565-1898
for later history, see Philippines independent, since 1946
see also Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultanate of Sulu


1898-1916
In 1898 Emilio Aguinaldo returned from his brief exile and he again took the lead of a rebellion. Spain faced another rebellion simultaneously on Cuba, and soon the Spanish-American War broke out. The Filipino rebels controlled most of the Philippines; in 1898, Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Republic of the Philippines. On Dec. 10th 1898, in the Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded her claims to the Philippines to the US. Spain further sold the Caroline and Mariana Islands except Guam (U.S.) to Germany in 1899.
The United States did not recognize the Aguinaldo administration and sent troops to 'pacify' the islands. The US forces, with superior arms, were victorious; after two years (1899-1901), the forces loyal to Aguinaldo weree defeated. Resistance lasted longest in the Sulu Islands (until 1906).
The US administration quickly implemented a number of administrative, judicial, educational reforms, thus terminating a several century old Spanish tradition and replacing it by modern institutions modeled after American ones. A bicameral parliament was introduced (1902), church and state were separated, church lands confiscated and later sold. In 1903, the Philippine Peso was introduced as national currency. In 1906, Spanish was replaced by English as the official language. The first parliamentary elections were held in 1907.
In the US opinions over America's colonies were divided. Conservatives, mostly Republicans, favoured a longer period of US rule in which the Philippines were to be developed economically as well as politically. Progressives, mostly Democrats, favoured an early release of the islands into independence.
Under Governor F.B. Harrison (1913-1921) a Filipinization of the Administration took place, as increasingly Filipinos were appointed to administrative positions until they outnumbered Americans by far.
The Philippines experiences a continued, sustained population growth, from c. 7.6 million in 1903 to c. 10.3 milion in 1918.
The colonial status of the Philippines resulted in access of Filipino products to the US markets, as all trade restrictions quickly were removed. There was some immigration of Chinese and Japanese workers. Unlike the established colonies in South East Asia, the Philippines did not experience the establishment of large plantation by immigrants from the mother country.
In 1901 a network of submarine telegraph cables was laid in Philippine waters. The Philippine Olympic Committee was formed in 1911 and recognized by IOC in 1929.

1916-1935
Administration . In 1916, U.S. Congress passed the Philippine Autonomy Act (Jones Law). It created a Filipino-only bicameral legislature consisting a Senate and a House. Manuel L. Quezon served as President of the Philippine Senate 1916-1935. His authority was limited by that of the U.S. Governor General of the Philippines.
Since 1907, the Philippines were represented in U.S. Congress by a Resident Commissioner.
In 1934, U.S. Congress passed the Philippine Independence Act; following a plebiscite the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in 1935.
World War I . In 1918 25,000 Filipinos served in the U.S. Army in Europe.
The Economy . In the years under US administration, the area under cultivation steadily increased (1916 : 1.2 million hectares planted with rice, in 1935 2.0 million hectares (IHS p.158)). Main agricultural products were rice, sugar cane, maize, copra, Manila hemp; main livestock held hogs, water buffalo and cattle. In 1916, the Philippines produces 0.9 million metric tons of rice, in 1935 1.8 million metric tons (IHS p.194).
In 1920, the Philippines had 8,300 passenger cars and 2,700 commercial vehicles in use; the respective numbers for 1935 were 27,000 and 16,000 (IHS pp.756-757).
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives population estimates of 9.5 million for 1916 and 14.7 million for 1935.
Cultural History . In 1917 the Adventist University of the Philippines was established in Cavite.
Manila hosted the 4th Far Eastern Games in 1919, the 7th Far Eastern Games in 1925 and the 10th Far Eastern Games in 1934.
Filipino athletes participated in the Summer Olympics of Paris 1924, Amsterdam 1928 and Los Angeles 1932. Swimmer Teofilo Ildefonso won bronze medals in 1928 and 1932.



1935-1941
Status . In 1934, the US Congress passed the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which foresaw Filipino independence after a 10-year period of transition. In a 1935 plebiscite, the Filipino electorate approved a new republican constitution; independence was foreseen for 1944. The Commonwealth of the Philippines were largely autonomous; the US administration was set to withdraw.
Administration . A constitution was adopted in 1935, and, following presidential elections, Manuel L. Quezon became the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1944).
Since 1907, the Philippines were represented in U.S. Congress by a Resident Commissioner.
The Economy . In 1935, the Philippines produced 1.8 million metric tons of rice, in 1941 1.3 million (IHS p.194).
Social History . Jan Lahmeyer gives population estimates as 14.7 million in 1935 and 16.9 million in 1941.
Cultural History . Filipino athletes participated in the Summer Olympics at Berlin 1936. Runner Miguel White won bronze in the 400 m hurdles.

1941-1946
Japanese Invasion . Hours after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese invasion of the Philippines began. The Japanese landed to the north and south of Manila, the US-Philippino forces being pinned down on Bataan Peninsula, where they found themselves under a constant air and artillery bombardment. US commander Douglas MacArthur was ordered to evacuate (with Philippino President Quezon); on leaving, he proclaimed "I shall return". Bataan fell in May, the island of Corregidor in June 1942. The soldiers were interned in P.O.W. camps; many died from harsh treatment, poor sanitary conditions, physical exhaustion or infectious disease.
Administration . In 1935 the Commonwealth of the Philippines had been established, been promised independence for 1946. Manuel Luis Quezon served as first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, since 1935. In consequence of the Japanese invasion, he moved into exile to Washington (January 3rd 1942).
A pro-Japanese administration was established in 1943, first headed by Jorge B. Vargas, President of the Executive Commission of the Philippine Council of State, and, following the general elections, since October 1943 by President Jose P. Laurel. A new constitution had been drafted in 1943.
In the course of the liberation, the administration of the Commonwealth of the Philippines returned from U.S. exile on Oct. 20th 1944 (President Sergio Osmena, 1944-1946).
Japanese Treatment of the Philippines . The Philippino population felt little sympathy for the Japanese who demanded submission, the delivery of rice, raw materials and forced Labour.
Resistance . Resistance against the Japanese was strong, and partisans controlled large areas in remote regions. Most effective were the Hukbalahap, the resistance organization formed by the CPP (Communist Party). The Filipino Chinese had a resistance organization of their own, the Huaqiao Warriors.
Liberation . In October 1944, US forces landed on Leyte, in February Manila was liberated. Fighting continued until the Japanese surrendered in Sept. 1945. MacArthur turned over government to President Osmena. Japan surrendered on August 15th 1945. Full independence was granted in 1946.

Students' Papers : Lee, Jin Hyuck, The Den Haag Peace Conference 1899-1900 as Portrayed in Punch, has reference to the Philippino-American War (2008)






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Historic M.A. Hamm, Manila and the Philippines (1898), posted on IA
Publicola, The duty of the American people as to the Philippines (1898), IA
J. Foreman, The Philippine islands. A political, geographical, ethnographical, social and commercial history of the Philippine archipelago and its political dependencies, embracing the whole period of Spanish rule (1899), IA
The Philippine Islands ... a brief compilation of the latest information and statistics obtainable on the numbers, area, population, races and tribes, mineral resources, agriculture, exports and imports, forests, and harbors of the Philippine Islands (1900), IA
W.G. Brantley, What is to be done with the Philippines (1900), vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
H.M. Teller, The Problem in the Philippines (1902), posted on IA
W.H. Taft, The Philippines (1902), posted on Internet Archive
A.J. Brown, The new era in the Philippines (1903), posted on IA
H.M. Wright, A handbook of the Philippines (1907), posted on IA
Jose Rizal, The Philippines a century hence (1912), posted on IA
Ch.W. Briggs, The Progressing Philippines (1913), posted on IA
C. Crow, America and the Philippines (1914), posted on IA
O.W. Coursey, The Philippines and Filipinos: A Treatise on the History, the Civics, and the Mathematical .. (1914), posted on IA
Facts and figures about the Philippines..(1920), posted on IA
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; from Virtual Library Philippines; Links on Philippines (chapter on Ph. History) from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
List of Philippine-Related Topics, from Wikipedia
Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia
on History from Virtual Library LabourHistory (IISG); from Virtual Library Economic and Business History; from Virtual Library Women's History; from Univ. Wien
from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Historical Dictionary Wikipilipinas
M. Buzeta, Diccionario geografico, estadistico, historico de las islas Filipinas , 1831, in Spanish, GB
Organizations International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
Philippine National Historical Society
Philippine Historical Association
Timelines from BBC News, from timelines.ws; from Garments Asia; from NYZ Company, very detailed
Timeline Spanish-Cuban-American War, Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, from The Spanish American War 1898 at DSU
Timelines from DaLyn's Gateway to the Philippines : 1851-1899; 1900-1939, 1940-1949
Timeline of the History of Cebu, from Point Cebu
Accounts of History General History of the Philippines, Pearl of the Orient Seas, by Virginia Mitchell & Fraser Weir, 16 chapters; History of the Philippines, from DaLyn's Gateway to the Philippines; History of the Philippines, from Delapaz Education and Welfare Fund; Philippine History 101, by Todd Mazur
Article History of the Philippines, from Wikipedia; from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
D.C. Worcester, The Philippines Past and Present (1914) vol.1, vol.2, posted on Internet Archive
P.F. Jernegan, A Short History of the Philippines: For Use in Philippine Schools (1905), posted on Internet Archive
M. Halstead, The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions,: Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico The Eldorado of the Orient (1898), IA
A. Knapp, The story of the Philippines for use in the schools of the Philippine Islands (1902), posted on Internet Archive
Ch.B. Elliott, The Philippines to the End of the Military Regime: America Overseas (1916), posted on Internet Archive
D.P. Barrows, A History of the Phillipines (1905), posted on IA
A. de Morga, History of the Philippine Islands, vol.1 1907, Project Gutenberg
Specific Periods J.H. Blount, The American Occupation of the Philippines, 1898-1912 (1913), IA
C. Porter, Crisis in the Philippines (1942), posted on Internet Archive
A history of Asiatic cholera in the Philippine Islands (1909), posted on Internet Archive
J. Carandang, "White Man's Burden ?" The Party Politics of American Imperialism in the Philippines 1900-1920 thesis Univ. of Central Florida 2007
L. Horner, Japanese Military Administration in Malaya and the Philippines thesis Univ. of Arizona 1973
C.A, Morrison, A world of empires : United States rule in the Philippines, 1898-1913, thesis Georgetown 2009
American Colony and Philippine Commonwealth 1901 - 1941 , from A Centennial History of Philippine Independence, 1898-1998 by Fraser Weir
World War II and Japanese Occupation, in A Centennial History of Philippine Independence, 1898-1998 by Fraser Weir
Historiography Philippine Perspective Reynaldo C. Ileto, On the Historiography of Southeast Asia and the Philippines : The "Golden Age" of Southeast Asian Studies - Experiences and Reflections 2002;; click here for discussion
Portia Reyes, The "Treasonous" History of Filipino Historiography : The Life and Times of Pedro Paterno, 1858-1911, abstract 2003
On Philippine Perspective T.K. Maxwell, Imperial remains : memories of the United States' occupation of the Philippines, thesis UTexas 2011
C.V. Oscar, Figures of the Unassimilable: American Empire, Filipino American Postcoloniality, and the U.S.-Philippine War of 1898-1910s, thesis Brown 1987
Other Perspective C.V. Oscar, Figures of the Unassimilable: American Empire, Filipino American Postcoloniality, and the U.S.-Philippine War of 1898-1910s, thesis Brown 1987
K.I.U.C. Chua, The stories they tell: Komik strips during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, 1942-1945, thesis NUS Singapore 2005
T. Serizawa, A Genealogy of Japanese Solidarity Discourse on Philippine History: War with America and Area Studies in the Cold War, thesis NUS Singapore 2013
Politics General The Spanish Civil code in force in Spain, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines (1899), IA
R.F. Pettigrew, Government of the Philippines (1900), posted on IA
D.O. McGowney, Civil government in the Philippines (1903), IA
W.A. Jones, Misgovernment in the Philippines and Cost to the United States of America (1913), IA
E.L. Teich, Selected Articles on Independence for the Philippines (1913), IA
M.M. Kalaw, Self-government in the Philippines (1919), IA
D. Cubeiro Rodriguez, Comunicacions i desenvolupament a Filipines: De l'administració espanyola a la nord-americana (1875-1935), thesis Barcelona 2011
Institutions Brief History of the Philippine Congress, from House of Representatives
Political Parties, Movements Category : Political Parties in the Philippines
R.J. Ramones, Philippine Nationalism: An Analysis of the development of Philippine National Identity, thesis Rutgers 2008
S.J. Pedler, Institutional Politics and the U.S. Government's "Philippine Problem" , thesis Bowling Green State 2011
Military Wars of the Philippines, from ACED
History of the Philippine Army, from Philippine Army
Orders, Decorations and Medals from the Philippines, from ODM
Spanish-American War 1898, Philippine Insurrection Campaign 1899-1902, World War II, from Naval Historical Center
Filipino Weapons & History, from Filhistory
M.A. Parker, The Philippine Scouts and the practice of counter-insurgency in the Philippine-American War, 1899-1913, thesis Baylor 2008
L.A. di Marco, Restoring order: the US Army experience with occupation operations, 1865-1952 , thesis Kansas State 2010
F.L. Andrews, The Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902): Development of the U.S. Army's Counterinsurgency Policy, thesis Louisiana State 2002
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Philippines; Article Economy of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Category : Economy of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Article Philippine Peso, from Wikipedia
Article Philippine Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
The Philippines, from Technological Independence - The Asian Experience, by S. Chamarik and S. Goonatilake
Mines and Communities : Philippines
Search Company History, Funding Universe : Company Histories for Philippines
Company Histories : Petron Corporation, Bank of the Philippine Islands, Manila Electric Company, San Miguel Corporation, Philippine Airlines, Mercury Drug Corporation, Benguet Corporation, from Funding Universe
Category : Enterprise Philippines, from Economy Point
Larkin, John A. Sugar and the Origins of Modern Philippine Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Lewis, Martin W. Wagering the Land: Ritual, Capital, and Environmental Degradation in the Cordillera of Northern Luzon, 1900-1986. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Ch.A. Conant, Currency in the Philippines (1902), posted on Internet Archive
H.H. Miller, Economic conditions in the Philippines (1920), posted on Internet Archive
H.H. Miller, Commercial geography. The materials of commerce for the Philippines (1911), posted on Internet Archive
F. Rodao, Influence of Spanish owned Businesses on the Philippines During the 1st half of the 20th Century
W.S. Lyon, Cacao Culture in the Philippines, 1902, IA
P.J. Wester, Citrus fruits in the Philippines, 1915, IA
J.S. Herd, Internal Taxation in the Philippines 1907, IA
A. Lumba, Monetary Authorities: Market Knowledge and Imperial Government in the Colonial Philippines, 1892-1942, thesis Univ. of Washington 2013
The Economics of the Second World War in Southeast Asia, by Greg Huff
Social History Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Philippines
Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Philippines
S.H.S. Totanes, The Changing Nature of the Bikolano Principalia, During the American Period, 1900-1946
F. Horn, Orphans of the Philippines, 1941, IA
D.C. Worcester, Slavery and peonage in the Philippine Islands, 1913, IA
F. Hsu, Colonial Articulations: English Instruction and the 'Benevolence' of U.S. Overseas Expansion in the Philippines, 1898-1916, thesis Berkeley 2013
R.S. Coloma, Empire and education: Filipino schooling under United States rule, 1900-1910, thesis Ohio State 2004
M.A. Seager, Placing Civilization: Progressive Colonialism in Health & Education From America to the Philippines, 1899-1920, thesis UC Riverside 2009
K.M. Lawson, Wartime Atrocities and the Politics of Treason in the Ruins of the Japanese Empire, 1937-1953, thesis Harvard 2012
K.I. Thomas, Lola's story: writing comfort women in World War II history of the Philippines, thesis Eastern Illinois 2008
J.A. Buyers, The Sexual Economy of War: Regulation of Sexuality and the U.S. Army, 1898-1940, thesis Duke 2012
The Thomasites Centennial Project (on US contribution to the Filipino education), from Thomasites 100 Years
The Philippines - Atrocities and the Military Comfort Women, from War Compensation Forum by Kenichi Tanagi
Ethnography Languages of the Philippines (172), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Philippines - Igorots, Moros
Country Report : Philippines, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (Reports 1998-2004)
Migration Information Source : Philippines
Article Languages of the Philippines, fromWikipedia; Category : Languages of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Article Demographics of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Article Ethnic Groups in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Philippines, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre
History of the Philippine Statistical System, by Katsumi Nozawa
Alyson Slack, Separatism in Mindanao (2003), ICE Case Studies
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Philippines
A.R. Kroeber, Peoples of the Philippines (1919), posted on IA
F.H.R. Sawyer, The inhabitants of the Philippines (1900), posted on IA
Blumentritt, Ferdinand, Die Chinesen auf den Philippinen, eine historische Skizze, 1879, in German, SBB
Blumentritt, Ferdinand, P. Castano's Nachrichten über Bikols, Cimarronen und Agtas, 1896, in German, SBB
Jordana y Morera, Ramon, La inmigracion china en Filipinas, 1888, in Spanish, SBB
R.B. Bean, The Racial Anatomy of the Philippine Islanders, 1910, IA
K.F. Kasperski, Noble Colonials Americans and Filipinos, 1901-1940, thesis Univ. of Florida 2012
M.D. Shouse, Foreign occupation and the development of Filipino nationalism , thesis Univ. of Missouri 2010
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Philippines, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Articles History of the Jews in the Philippines, Islam in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Philippines, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Catholic Church in Republic of the Philippines, from GCatholic
Ordo Fratrum Minorum, scroll down for Philippinae
History of Regions see History of Sulu at this site
Provinces of the Philippines, Municipalities of the Philippines, from www.statoids.com
Article Regions of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
J.N. Aguilar, Mindanao, su Historia y Geografia, 1894, posted by Project Gutenberg
Entry Alitao, Biaknabato Republic, Negros Republic, from Footnotes to History, by James L. Erwin
Local History Articles Cebu : History, Davao : History, Iloilo : History; Manila : History; Quezon City : History, Zamboanga : History, from Wikipedia
Tannert, Karl Arthur, Manila Skizze, 1898, in German, SBB
Institutions Article Philippine Stock Exchange, from Wikipedia
History, from University of the Philippines Manila
Article Ninoy Manila International Airport, from Wikipedia; Philippines, from Airline History
History of Broadcasting in the Philippines, from The Broadcast Archive
Structurae : Philippines; Search Lighthouse Depot for the Philippines
Culture Article Philippines at the Olympics, Category Sport in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Filipinos, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Disaster History by Country : Philippines, fromRelief Web, History of Disaster Management in the Philippines, from National Disaster Coordinating Council, Republic of the Philippines; Category : Disasters in the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Others The Legacy of Freemasons in the Philippines, by Rodel J. Ramos
Article Foreign Relations of the Philippines, from Wikipedia; History of Embassy of the Philippines in the Russian Federation; The Political Economy of Philippines-China Relations, by Benito Lim
Philippines : History of the Third Sector, Philippines : History of Philanthropy, from Philanthropy and the Third Sector in Asia and the Pacific
Philippine Directory, from Peace Corps Online

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Article President of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops/Bishops of Manila, Cebu, (Nueva) Caceres, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Population Figures The Philippines, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Census of the Philippine Islands 1903 vol.1, Geography, History and Population, vol.2, vol.3, vol.4, 1905, GB
Election Results
Documents Historical Newspapers
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender
Philippines
International, Philippines Entries
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Old Manila Photos
Picturesque Old Philippines
Cesar Paniamogan Jr., A Bit of Filipino History; pictures undated
Blog : Old Philippines Pictures
Blog : Some old Philippine photos during the 1st American occupation.
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Oriental Collections
Items on the Philippines
Image Databank : South East Asian Images & Texts, from University of Wisconsin Digital Collection (on Philippines, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia)
Trolleys in the Philippines : Corregidor, Manila, from Tram Views of Asia
Philippines, from Images of Asia
Southeast Asia Digital Library, Historical Archives and Photographs : Cebuanos Studios Centre, Philippines
Universal Collections
Items on the Philippines
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Archival Deposits U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, search for the Philippines
Search Janus for the Philippines
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for the Philippines
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for the Philippines
Search CIA Released Documents for the Philippines
Guide to the Records of the U.S. Senate at the National Archives, The Journey of the Philippine Archives Collection, Chapter 12. Records of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs and Predecessor Committees, 1816-1968
Constitution 1943 Constitution, from Chan Robles Virtual Law Library
Laws Acts of the Philippines 1900- , from AsianLII
Supreme Court of the Philippines, 1901- , from AsianLII
International Law Library : Philippines; U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, Philippine Islands: Acts of Congress and Treaties Pertaining to the Philippine Islands in Force .. (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Philippines, Bureau of Forestry, The forest manual containing the Forest act (no. 1148) : extracts from other laws of the Philippine Commission relating to the forest service, and the forest regulations 1904, IA
Treaties U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, Philippine Islands: Acts of Congress and Treaties Pertaining to the Philippine Islands in Force .. (1920), posted on Internet Archive
Consular Reports
Historiography
Document Collections Primary Sources on Philippine History
Links, from UWashington Library
Documents : the Philippines, from CEAS, at UCLA; scroll down for the Philippines
Documents on the History of the Catholic Church in the Philippines since 1940, from CBCP Online
Truth Commissions : Philippines, from United States Institute of Peace
Individual Documents The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-MaDuffie Act), from Chan Robles Virtual Law Library
Historical Maps Maps of the Philippines, from PCL, UTexas
Map : Languages of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Atlas of the Philippines, from Wikimedia Commons
Map : cable laid by CS Burnside in 1901, posted by History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious Article Philippine Islands, Cebu, Jaro (Iloilo), Manila, Palawan, Zamboanga, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 edition
Economic
Political
Geographical The Philippine Islands pp.294-295 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ethnological The Philippine Natives pp.220-222 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Historical
Other Article : Philippinen-Inseln, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides D. O'Connell, Manila, the pearl of the Orient; guide book to the intending visitor , 1908, IA
J.R. Arnold, The Philippines, the land of palm and pine : an official guide and hand book , 1912, IA
Travelogues C. Dauncey, An Englishwoman in the Philippines 1906, IA
Residence Memoirs M.H. Fee, A Woman's Impression of the Philippines, 1912, Project Gutenberg
Institutions Archives The National Archives, from WikiPilipinas
Musea National Museum of the Philippines
Monuments Tentative List : Philippines, World Heritage List, scroll down for the Philippines; from UNESCO World Heritage
The Philippines Index, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library of the Philippines; Article : National Library of the Philippines, from Wikipedia
Libraries in the Philippines, from LibDex, 23 entries
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the Philippines, from Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money, from Oriental Coins Database
Coins of U.S. Philippines, from Oriental Coins Database
Stamps Rare Philippines Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Philippines stamps issue 1852-1882, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on the Philippines Philippine Bibliography, from Library of Congress
Philippines, from The Online Books Page
Books on Philippine History, from Kabayan Central
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for the Philippines
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for the Philippines
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
Books on the Philippines, from Orchid Press
South East Asia Dissertations, click South East Asia, Philippines
Retana, Wenceslao Emilio, Bibliografia de Mindanao, 1894, SBB
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on the Philippines Philippine ELib; National Library of the Philippines : Online Public Access Catalog
Search DBNG .
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
South East Asia Digital Library (project)
South East Asia Visions, at Cornell
Search Leiden University Repository (NL, Open Access)
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories, Philippines
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
TDX (Theses from Spanish Universities Online; almost exclusively in Spanish); search for the Philippines
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Search Electronic Journals Online
Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly 1971- for Philippines
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Philippine Studies 1953-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Stanley Karnow, In Our Image. America's Empire in the Philippines, Ballantine 1990, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.9 K18i
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.25, pp.537-549 Article Philippines KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.25
Specific Topics Cesar Adib Majul, Muslims in the Philippines, University of the Philippines Press 1999 [G]
Philippines after Quezon, pp.309-326 in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942
Historical Dictionaries Ester G. and Joel M. Maring, Historical Dictionary of the Philippines, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1973 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : International Historical Statistics : Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, edited by B.R. Mitchell, Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan 4th ed. 2003
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Philppines, Commonwealth of the, 1944 pp.543-545, 1945 pp.543-545 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Philippine Islands, 1918 pp.617-622, 1919 pp.625-630, 1924 pp.634-639, 1925 pp.637-643, 1926 pp.619-624, 1928 pp.625-630, 1929 pp.620-625, 1932 pp.624-629 [G]
United States : Commonwealth of the Philippines, 1937 pp.654-660 [G]
Commonwealth of the Philippines, 1943 pp.664-669 [G]
Americana Annual Philippine Islands, 1927 pp.673-679, 1928 pp.619-623, 1930 pp.609-610, 1931 pp.596-598, 1932 pp.563-565, 1933 pp.599-602, 1934 pp.466-468, 1935 pp.561-562, 1936 pp.571-574, 1937 pp.564-565, 1938 pp.551-553, 1939 pp.614-615, 1943 pp.590-591, 1944 pp.565-566 [G]
Philippines, 1945 pp.576-578, 1946 pp.597-599 [G]
Other Article : Philippines, in : New International Year Book 1919 pp.514-517, 1920 pp.528-530, 1921 pp.548-552, 1923 pp.576-580, 1925 pp.543-545, 1928 pp.585-586, 1930 pp.608-611, 1932 pp.642-646, 1933 pp.645-647, 1934 pp.553-555, 1935 pp.569-572, 1938 pp.582-585, 1939 pp.610-612, Events of 1940 pp.587-589, 1941 pp.510-513, Events of 1942 pp.539-542, 1943 pp.479-482, 1944 pp.467-468, Philippine Islands 1945 pp.449-450 [G]