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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Burma Thailand
First posted on January 11th 2005, last revised on May 18th 2010

The Shan States include Baw (Maw), Hopong (Hopon), Hsahtung (Thaton), Hsamöngkem (Thamaingkan), Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut), Hsenwi (Theinni ; North Hsenwi and South Hsenwi), Hsihkip (Thigyit), Hsipaw (Thibaw), Kehsi Mangam (Kyithi Bansan), Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing), Kenghkam (Kyaingkan), Kenglön (Kyainglon), Kengtung (Kyaingtong), Kokang, Kyon, Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku), Laihka (Legya), Lawksawk (Yatsauk), Loi-ai (Lwe-e), Loilong (Lwelong), Loimaw (Lwemaw). Manglon, Monghsu, Mawkmai (Maukme), Mawnang (Bawnin), Mawson (Bawzaing), Mongkawng (Mogaung), Mongkung, Mongleng (Mohlaing), Monglong, Mongmit (Momeik), Mong Nai (Mone), Mongnawng, Mong Pai (Mobye), Mong Pan, Mong Pawng (Maing Pun), Mongping (Maingpyin), Mongsit (Maingseik), Mongtung (Maington), Mongyang (Mohnyin), Mongyawng,Namhkai (Nanke), Namhkok (Nankok), Namhkom (Nankon), Namtok (Nantok), Namkhok-Nawngwawn, Panglawng, Pangmi, Pangtara (Pindara), Pwehla (Poila), Sakoi, Samka, Tawngpeng, Wanmaw (Bhamo), Wanyin (Banyin), Wuntho (Wynn Tho), Yawnghwe (Nyaungshwe), Ywangan (Yengan)
From 1886 to 1948 part of British Burma. From 1948 to 1962 part of the Union of Burma which provided a degree of autonomy for the states. The Wa States were used by Kuomintang Chinese forces as a base of operations against the PRC. Development of the Golden Triangle.
Since 1962 Burma saw constitutional changes which resulted in centralization, the disregard of regional autonomy and democratic rights & institutions.

Timeline : Shan

List of Wars, Burma

E x t e r n a l . F i l e s
Country Profiles Links, Portals Organizations Accounts of History Politics Military History Economic History
Social History Ethnography History of Religion Regional History Local History Institutions Culture
Biography Others
D o c u m e n t s
Historical Data Documents Institutions National Symbols
P r i n t e d . R e f e r e n c e
Bibliographies Online Libraries Online Journals General Accounts Specific Topics Historical Dictionaries Others

Country Profiles Current Article : Shan State, from Wikipedia
The Shan States of Burma : Toyotas, Traders and Tribes, by Leslie Nevison
Links General Category : Shan State, from Wikipedia
Organizations on Asian History International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Timelines Search Google News Archive for Shan States, click Timeline
Accounts of History General Article : Shan State : History, from Wikipedia; Shan History, from YWAM
History, from shanland.org
History of the Shan States, from Thaiyai.com
L. Milne, Shans at home. With two chapters on Shan history and literature (1910), posted on Internet Archive
Specific Periods Burma : Sahibs in the Shan States, from drugtext.org
A Forgotten Invasion : Thailand in Shan State, 1941-1945, from CPA Media
Politics Shan, from UNPO
International Boundary Studies, posted at Florida State Univ.; scroll down to No.33 (Burma-Laos), study, no maps; scroll down to No.42 (Burma-China), study, 2 maps; scroll down to No.63 (Burma-Thailand), study, 1 map
Sai Wansai, Shan-Burmese Relation : Historical Account and Contemporary Politics, posted by Shanland
Military A Forgotten Invasion : Thailand in Shan State, 1941-1945, from CPA Media
Economy & Finances Burma's Poppy Trail, from CPA Media
Ethnography Languages of Myanmar, from Ethnologue
How Wild are the Wa ?, from CPA Media
Articles : Shan People, Va People, from Wikipedia
F. Fryer, Tribes on the frontier of Burma (1907), posted on IA
L. Milne, Shans at home. With two chapters on Shan history and literature (1910), posted on Internet Archive
Local History Some facets of Hsipaw's History, from myanmar.com
Biographies Article Khun Sa, from Wikipedia
Freedom Heroes : Inge Sargent (wife to Prince of Hsipaw), by Jennifer Beck

Historical Data Lists of Statesmen Shan and Karen States, from World Statesmen
List of Shan State Rulers, from Wikipedia
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Myanmar, Provinces, from Population Statistics
Documents Image Databanks
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK)
Constitutions, Laws
Document Collections Kanbawsa - A Modern Review, by Mi Mi Khaing (1950es description of the Shan States)
Historical Maps Maps of the Greater Wa Speaking Area, from SOAS Wa Dictionary Project
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article Shan States, from EB 1911
Article Keng Tung, from EB 1911
Geographical J.G. Scott, J.P. Hardiman, Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (1901), posted on Internet Archive
Article Shan States, Hopong (S.C.), Hsahtung (S.C.), Hsamonghkam (S.M.), Hsawnghsup, N. Hsenwi (N), S. Hsenwi (N.), Hsipaw (N.), Kehsi Mansam (S.E.), Kenghkam (S.E.), Kenglon (S.E.), Kengtung (S.), Kyawkku (S.M.), Kyong (S.M.), Laihka (S.E.), Lawksawk (S.C.), Loi-ai (S.M.), Loilong (S.M.), Loimaw (S.M.), Manglon (N.), Maw (S.M.), Mawkmai (S.E.), Mawnang (S.M.), Mawson (S.M.), Monghsu, Mongsang (S.E.), Mongkung (S.E.), Mongnai (S.E.), Mongnawng (S.E.), Mongpai (S.C.), Mongpan (S.E.), Mongpawn (S.E.), Mongsit (S.E.), Namhkai (S.M.), Namhkok (S.C.), Namtok (S.M.), Nawngwawn (S.C.), Pangmi (S.M.), Pangtara (S.M.), Poila (S.M.), Sakoi (S.C.), Samka (S.C.), Wa States, Wanyin (S.C.), Yawnghwe (S.), Yengan (S.M.) from Imperial Gazetteer of India (c. 1905)
Ethnological The Tai Nation : Shans and Laos pp.202-203 in A.H. Keane, The World's Peoples: A Popular Account of Their Bodily & Mental Characters , 1908, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues C.M. Enriquez, A Burmese loneliness; a tale of travel in Burma, the Southern Shan States and Keng Tung (1918), posted on Internet Archive
S.H. Holt, A Thousand Miles on an Elephant through the Shan States (1890), Internet Archive
Institutions Archives
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag of Shan State, from FOTW

Bibliographies General RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
Online Libraries General Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Burma Online Burma/Myanmar Library
Online Journals Guides Electronic Journals Online
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Historical Dictionaries Articles : Paoh pp.438-440, Shanland pp.509-512, Wah pp.605-607, in : James Minahan, Nations without States, A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements, Westport CT : Greenwood 1996 [G]

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