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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Malaysia Indonesia
First posted on May 15th 2002, last revised on December 15th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

for the history up to 1819, see History of Johor
for 1826-1946, see History of the Straits Settlements
for 1963-1965, see History of Malaysia



In 1819 the Sultanate of Johor ceded the island of Sincapura, from now on referred to as Singapore, to Britain. In 1826 it was combined with Penang and Malacca to form the Straits Settlements, which were under the Bengal Presidency. Following Japanese occupation in World War II (1942-1945), the Straits Settlements were dissolved in 1946. While Penang and Malacca were granted entry in the Union/Federation of Malaya (1946-1963), Singapore applied for entry, but was long denied it because Singapore's large Chinese population element would have affected the ethnic composition of Malaya. In 1963, the member states of the Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo (Sabah) joined to form Malaysia. The experiment did not work, and Singapore declared independence in 1965. In 1967, Singapore was among the founding members of ASEAN.

Timeline : Singapore

Historical Atlas, Singapore Page

Students' Paper : Chae, Seung Hoon, Historiography of Singapore (2010)






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Index Mundi; from Wikipedia; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Singapore
from World Wide Gazetteer
from Library of Congress, Country Studies
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL
from East and Southeast Asia. An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources at UOregon
Pandora (Australian), search for Singapore
List of Singapore-Related Articles, from Wikipedia
Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia; Singapore, from Post-Colonial Web
on History from East and Southeast Asia. An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources at UOregon
from Virtual Library Labour History
Category History of Singapore, from Wikipedia; The History of Singapore, from Post-Colonial Web
Historical Dictionaries Singapore Infopedia
Organizations International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society
Singapore Heritage Society
Trinity Theological College, Singapore, The Centre for the Study of Christianity in Asia (CSCA)
Timelines from timelines.ws; from BBC News
Knowledgenet Singapore has timelines etc.
Raffles and Singapore, by Raffles Girls' School, text plus timeline
Accounts of History History of Singapore, from ASNIC, UTexas; from Lonely Planet, from Wikipedia
Evolution of Singapore, a Digital Library, from Thinkquest, has 8 chapters
Singapore's Independence, from Catholic High School, 5 chapters
from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
Article Singapore, from Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
Historiography
Politics Political Resources on the Net : Singapore; Governments on the WWW : Singapore; Article Politics of Singapore, from Wikipedia
History of General Elections in Singapore, from Singapore Infopedia
Military Wars of Singapore, from ACED
Singapore, from Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth
Low Wye Mun, A History of Tanglin Barracks : The Early Years, in : Pointer, Journal of the Singapore Armed Forces, Oct. 1999
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Singapore; What is the Singapore Dollar ? from Go Currency
Article Economy of Singapore, from Wikipedia
Singapore Infopedia : Commerce and Industry
Singapore International Chamber of Commerce, from Singapore Infopedia
Raj Brown, The Emergence and Development of Singapore as a Regional / International Financial Centre, IEHC 2006
Search Company History, Funding Universe : Company Histories for Singapore
Company Histories : Singapore Airlines, Fraser & Neave Ltd., United Overseas Bank Ltd., Asia Pacific Breweries Ltd., Neptune Orient Lines Ltd., from Funding Universe
Category : Enterprise Singapore, from Economy Point
L. Simonin, Underground Life: or, Mines and miners, 1869, GB; p.256 lists Singapore as a coaling station
Social History Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Singapore
Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World : Singapore
Ethnography Singapore Infopedia : Ethnic Communities
Languages of Singapore (21), from Ethnologue
Article : Languages of Singapore, from Wikipedia; Catergory : Languages of Singapore, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Singapore
Chia Mengtat Jack, Beyond Riots : Secret Societies and Chinese Businesses in Singapore 1819-1890, NUS History Society e-Journal
E.W. Andrew, K.C. Bushnell, Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers (1907), posted by Gutenberg Library Online
Religion Category Religion in Singapore, from Wikipedia
Singapore, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Catholic Church in Singapore, from GCatholic
Institutions Article Singapore Changi Airport, from Wikipedia; Singapore, from Airline History
Article Broadcasting in Singapore, from Wikipedia; Singapore Broadcasting Authority, from Singapore Infopedia
History, from National University of Singapore
Structurae : Singapore; Search Lighthouse Depot for Singapore
Culture Article Singapore at the Olympics, Sport in Singapore, from Wikipedia
Biographies Singapore Infopedia : Biographies
Famous Singaporeans, from Nations Encyclopedia
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Others Singapore Freemasonry, from Singapore Infopedia

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors U.S. Ambassadors to Singapore, from NNDB; Chinese Ambassadors to Singapore, from PRC MOFA; Embajadores de Mexico en Singapur, from Acervo Historico Diplomatico
List of Canadian Heads of Post, click Singapore
List of High Commissioners from Nerw Zealand to Singapore, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Department of Statistics, Singapore
Population Figures Singapore, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
City Population : Singapore, from City Population
Historical Abortion Statistics, Singapore, from Johnston's Archive
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Federal Reserve (U.S.) : Foreign Exchange Rates, Historic
Election Results from Psephos (since 1997); from IFES Election Guide
from Elections and Electoral Systems (links)
Documents Historical Newspapers Official Gazettes Republic of Singapore Government Gazette : e-Gazette requires subscription
Hemerotheques Newspapers SG (Singapore Newspapers 1831-2006)
Selected Articles History of Singapore, from World History Archives
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
Online Yearbooks
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
National Archives Singapore, Moving Image & Sound Archives Singapore
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
National Archives Singapore, Picture Archive Singapore
National Library Singapore, Singapore National Album of Pictures
Systematic Collections
Specialist
National Archives Singapore, Records Database Singapore :Posters
Nanyang Temple : Historic Chinese Architecture in Singapore
Accidental Collections Wikimedia Commons
Universal Collections
Items on Singapore
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates of the World
Passport, from World Passports
Airline Timetable Images : Singapore
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Singapore, from Images of Asia
Asian Historical Architecture, a Photographic Survey
Archival Deposits National Archives Singapore, Records Database Singapore :Posters, Picture Archive Singapore, Moving Image & Sound Archives Singapore, Cartographic & Architectural Database Singapore, Collection of Oral History Recording Database , Government Records Information Database, Speech Text Archival and Retrieval System
National Archives (UK) ; Search Janus for Singapore
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Singapore ; Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken (Mofa, NL ; enter "Singapore" in field : "Lijst samenstellen op land of regio", 1 entry; sources posted in Dutch language
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Singapore
Constitutions Constitution of Singapore, from ICL
Laws Singapore Statutes Online
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Singapore, from ILO, 23 docs. since 1965
Internet Law Library : Singapore
Treaties Environmental Treaties : Singapore, from Pop Planet
Australian Treaties Library, search for Singapore
Singapore Treaties and International Agreements, from WorldLII
Historiography
Document Surveys British Library, Guide to Current South Asian Official Publications; scroll down for Singapore
Document Collections
Historical Maps responsible institutions Singapore Land Authority : Survey Maps
collections WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Singapore Page
Atlas of Singapore, from Wikimedia Commons
Singapore Maps, PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of Singapore, from Wikimedia Commons
Singapore, Modern
Singapore, Contemporary Singapore 1819, posted by M. Tay, From Emporium to Singapore City: Mapping the Journey - Every map has a story to tell
Singapore 1906, 1906 (2), 1907, 1922, 1932, 1966, from Probert Encyclopedia
Singapore 1914, PCL, UTexas
An atlas of the southern part of India, including plans of all the principal towns & cantonments, reduced from the grand trigonometrical survey of India, shewing also the Tenasserim provinces, 1854, posted on Internet Archive, has Singapoor map
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular from EB 1911
from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German (Singapur)
Religious from Jewish Encyclopedia 1901-1906
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Sincapore, posted by DTBSWS
Handelsberichte der kaufmännischen Begleiter der Ostindischen Expedition (Mercantile Reports by Traders Accompanying the Prussian East Asian Expedition), Berlin : Königliche Geheime Ober-Druckerei 1861, posted by DTBSWS : Fr. Wolff : Singapore, pp.3-21
Nopitsch, Wilhelm Hermann, Kaufmännische Berichte, gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Welt mit der Kriegs-Corvette Galathea (Mercantile Reports, collected on a Journey on the War-Corvette Galathea in the Years 1845, 1846 and 1847), in den Jahren 1845, 1846 und 1847, Hamburg : Besser & Mauke 1849, in German, posted by DTBSWS, Singapore pp.40-54
Political P. d'Avity, Les Estats, Empires et Principaux du Monde 1616 p.901, 1617 p.901, 1621 p.170, 1622 p.901, 1665 p.798, lists the Kingdom of Siam as a possession of the Kingdom of Pegu, and Sincapure as one of the principal cities of Siam
Geographical Article : Malaca (la presquile de), p.845 in Dioctionnaire universel François et latin 1721, GB, in French (detrait de Malaca ou detrait de Sincapura)
Article : Malaca, p.777 in P.C. Berthelin, Abrege du Dictionnaire françois et latin 1762, GB, in French (detrait de Malaca ou detrait de Sincapura)
Article : The Kingdom of Siam (p.113 reference to Sincapura) pp.112-123 in vol.7 of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of all Nations, 1769, GB
Article : Sincapora, in : J. Walker, The Universal Gazetteer, 1810, GB
Article : Sincapura, Sincapora, Sincapoura, p.3 in vol.21 of Encyclopaedia Perthensis; or, Universal dictionary of Knowledge, 1816, GB
Sincapore p.443 in vol.III of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography 1822, GB
Article : Sincapore, Sincapoura, Sincapura, p.611 in vol.2 of J.E. Worcester, A Geographical Dictionary or Universal Gazetteer, Ancient and Modern, 1823, GB
Historical Article : Ihor, p.9 in vol.6 of Groot algemeen historisch, geografisch, genealogisch en oordeelkundig woordenboek 1729, in Dutch, GB (reference to landhoek van Sincapura)
Sinkapura mentioned pp.221-222 in vol.7 of Modern Part of an Universal History .. 1759, GB (King of Johor offering island of Sinkapura to Captain Hamilton, 1703)
Sinkapura mentioned pp.173-175 in Article : Malayen, vol.3 of C.F. Koeppen, Universal-Lexikon der Völker- und L&aunl;ndergeschichte 1806, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Hansard (British Parliament)
Singapore Parliament Reports
Tariffs Sincapure (and back, from the U.K.) - 365 days, p.149 in : Ellis' British Tariff for 1832-1833, 1835, GB
Tourist Guides
Travelogues Straits of Sincapura mentioned in ch.23 (end) of J. Huyghen van Linschoten, His Discourse of Voyages into Ye Easte 1598, GB
Dominions of Johore pp.94-100 in vol.2 of A. Hamilton, A New Account of the East Indies 1703, GB (reference to Sincapore)
J.F. Gemelli Careri, A Voyage round the World, Part III, containing the most remarkable things he saw in Indostan, Book III Chapter VIII, The Description of the Dangerous Streight of Sincapura, and of the People Inhabiting about it, pp.273-275 in vol.4 of A Collection of Voyages and Travels 1704, GB
The country of Sinkapura (1662), p.216 in J. Nieuhoff's travelogue, Churchill, A Collection of Voyages and Travels 1704, GB
The Travels of Peter Texeira from India to Italy by Land, 1711, GB, Ch.I, refers to the Straight of Sincapura
Singapore Strait, pp.259-176, Passage Westward through Singapore and Malacca Straits pp.277-281 in vol.2 of J. Horsburgh, The India Directory, or, Sailing Directions to and from the East Indies 1852, GB
Residents' Memoirs Lady Sophia Raffles (ed.), Memoir of the Life and Public Services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, F.R.S, 1830, GB
Institutions Archives National Archives of Singapore
National Register of Archives (UK), Place Search, type Singapore
UNESCO Archives Portal : Government Archives, National Asia Pacific, one entry for Singapore, scroll down
Musea National Museum of Singapore
Webpage of the Singapore History Museum, of the Singapore Philatelic Museum
Monuments no entries for Singapore in UNESCO's World Heritage List, Tentative Lists
Library National Library Board, Singapore
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from Expat Singapore; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Singapore banknotes, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from World Currency Museum

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Singapore survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database
general bibliographies pp.179-238 in K. Mulliner et al., Historical Dictionary of Singapore, Metuchen NJ 1991 [G]
Online Bibliography : A Sense of History from Nat'l Univ. of Singapore Library
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Online books on History of Singaporean architecture, from ArchNet
Singapore Women's Studies Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
CSCA Mission Research and Documentation Portal, CSCA: SOAS Mission Collection on Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Indochina and Myanmar : Singapore, 2005
serial publications Publications, from Singapore Heritage Society
New Asia Books : Singapore
general bibliographies
Singapore entries
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Singapore
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for Singapore
South East Asia Dissertations, click South East Asia, Singapore
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
Persee (French search engine)
CIFOR Publications (on Forest Management)
on Singapore Singapore Digitised Books
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Singapore
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
Search Electronic Journals Online for Singapore
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.765-769 Article Southeast Asia : Singapore KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Gretchen Liu, Singapore, A Pictorial History 1819-2000, Singapore : Archipelago Press (2000) 2003 [G]
Specific Topics PAP Women's Wing, A Woman's Place. The Story of Singapore's Women, Singapore : PAP Women's Wing 1993 [G]
The Fall of Singapore, in : Jasper H. Stembridge, The Oxford War Atlas Volume II, 1 September 1941 to 1 January 1943, Oxford : UP 1943 [G]
Historical Dictionaries K. Mulliner et al., Historical Dictionary of Singapore, Metuchen NJ 1991 [G]
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Article : Singapore, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.195-197, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.195-197, 4th ed. 1984 pp.195-197 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Malayan Union and Singapore, 1947 pp.474-475, 1948 pp.457-458, Malaya (Federation of) and Singapore, 1949 pp.404-405, 1950 pp.427-428, 1951 pp.437-438, 1952 pp.440-442, 1953 p.637, 1954 p.640, 1955 p.685, 1956 p.624, 1957 pp.685-686, 1958 pp.626-627, 1959 pp.619-620, 1960 p.622, 1961 pp.626-627, 1962 pp.619-620, Singapore, 1966 pp.682-683, 1967 p.682, 1968 pp.690-691, 1969 p.674, 1970 p.682, 1971 pp.663-664, 1972 p.624, 1973 p.611, 1974 p.611, 1975 pp.614-615, 1976 pp.612-613, 1977 p.612, 1978 p.628, 1979 p.619, 1980 pp.617-618, 1981 pp.616-617, 1982 pp.617-618, 1983 pp.612-613, 1984 pp.458, 712, 1985 pp.614-615, 1986 pp.513-514, 776, 1987 pp.483-484, 744, 1988 pp.441, 696, 1989 pp.441, 696, 1990 pp.458, 712, 1991 pp.440, 698, 1992 pp.412-413, 698, 1993 pp.416, 711, 1994 pp.417, 712, 1995 pp.469, 711, 1996 pp.467, 711, 1997 pp.471, 709
Statesman's Year-Book Singapore, 1970-1971 pp.489-492, 1975-1976 pp.474-478, 1976-1977 pp.480-485, 1978-1979 pp.1051-1056, 1979-1980 pp.1060-1065, 1980-1981 pp.1055-1059, 1981-1982 pp.1060-1065, 1983-1984 pp.1057-1062, 1984-1985 pp.1054-1059, 1985-1986 pp.1055-1060, 1986-1987 pp.1055-1060, 1987-1988 pp.1060-1066, 1988-1989 pp.1064-1070, 1989-1990 pp.1075-1081, 1990-1991 pp.1075-1081, 1991-1992 pp.1077-1083, 1992-1993 pp.1164-1170, 1993-1994 pp.1162-1168, 1994-1995 pp.1165-1171, 1995-1996 pp.1157-1162, 1996-1997 pp.1133-1138, 1997-1998 pp.1135-1140, 1998-1999 pp.1238-1244, 2000 pp.1386-1394, 2001 pp.1350-1358, 2002 pp.1405-1413, 2003 pp.1404-1412, 2004 pp.1425-1433, 2005 pp.1435-1443, 2006 pp.1443-1450
Americana Annual Singapore, 1957 p.695, 1961 pp.666-667, 1962 pp.672-673, 1963 p.596, Malaysia-Singapore, 1964 pp.402-406, 1967 pp.604-605, 1968 p.596, 1969 p.600, 1970 pp.606-607, 1971 p.596, 1972 p.590, 1973 p.593, 1974 p.513, 1976 p.484, 1964 pp.402-406, 1967 pp.604-605, 1968 p.596, 1969 p.600, 1970 pp.606-607, 1971 p.596, 1972 p.590, 1973 p.593, 1974 p.513, 1976 p.484, 1988 p.460, 1989 p.460, 1990 p.458, 1992 pp.460-461, 1993 pp.463-464, 1994 pp.471-472, 1998 pp.450-451, 2006 p.330
YB on Int'l Communist Affairs 1976 pp.372-382
Other Entry : Singapore, in : The Commonwealth Yearbook 1989 pp.329-332 [G]