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India Maldives
First posted on May 26th 2002, last revised on May 15th 2010

Kingdom of Kandy 1469-1817 . Ceylon under V.O.C. Rule, 1656-1796 . Ceylon British, 1796-1948






At the time of the arrival of Vasco da Gama in Calicut (Kozhikode) 1498, the island of Sri Lanka (Ceylon) was divided into several polities : the Kingdom of Jaffna, the Kingdom of Kotte, the Kingdom of Kandy being the largest ones. The Portuguese established their control over Colombo (in the territory of Kotte, the latter kingdom being annexed by the Portuguese in 1597) and established a protectorate over the Kingdom of Jaffna until the Portuguese also annexed this kingdom in 1619.
In 1656-1660 the V.O.C. ousted the Portuguese from Ceylon and took over their territory around Colombo and Jaffna. The Kingdom of Kandy was the only native polity to last throughout the era of Portuguese and Dutch colonialism.
In 1796 the British occupied Dutch Ceylon, and the Batavian Republic ceded the island to Britain in 1802. A first British occupation of Kandy in 1803 was only temportary; in 1815 a second campaign succeeded in annexing the Kingdom of Kandy. Ceylon was now united under British rule. To work the plantations on Ceylon, the British brought in numerous Tamil workers from the Madras Presidency.
Ceylon became independent in 1948. The country was renamed Sri Lanka in 1972. Independent Sri Lanka saw the rise of tension between the ethnic Buddhist Sinhalese majority and the ethnic Tamil, mostly Hindu minority which escalated in the Sri Lanka Civil War (1983-2010).

Sri Lanka since 1994
Sri Lanka 1983-1994
Sri Lanka 1972-1983
Ceylon 1956-1972
Ceylon 1948-1956

British Ceylon 1931-1948
British Ceylon 1918-1931
British Ceylon 1880-1918
British Ceylon 1815-1880

Click here for the History of the Kingdom of Kandy (Udarata)

Historical Atlas, South Asia Page


Students' Paper : Son, Bo Kyung, The History of Persecution of the Buddhist Faith (2011)
Students' Paper : Lee, Seung Heon, History of Transportation in South Asia (2009)
Students' Paper : Kim, Kyung Mook : History of the Civil War in Sri Lanka, since 1983






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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL FILES
Country Profiles Current from BBC Country Profiles; from World Desk Reference ; from Nations Encyclopedia; from Index Mundi; from Wikipedia; from Index Mundi; from CIA World Factbook, Countries : Sri Lanka
Library of Congress Country Studies : Sri Lanka; from World Wide Gazetteer
Historic R. Percival, An account of the island of Ceylon, 1803, GB
J. Cordiner, A Description of Ceylon (1807), IA
J.E. Tennent, Ceylon (1859), posted on Internet Archive
L.F. Liesching, A Brief Account of Ceylon (1861), IA
H.J. Suckling, Ceylon: A General Description of the Island, Historical, Physical .. (1876), IA
A. Clark et al., Ceylon (1910), posted on Internet Archive
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World
from BUBL, from dmoz
from Lanka Library; Category : Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia; Sri Lanka, from Post-Colonial Web; Categorie : Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
on History from Lanka Library; from Lakdiva; from UC Berkeley Library; Category : History of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia; Categorie : Geschiedenis van Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia Dutch edition; History of Sri Lanka, from Post-Colonial Web
Historical Dictionary
Organizations International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka (1845), posted on Scholarly Societies
Department of Archaeology, Sri Lanka
Department of National Museums, Sri Lanka
Timelines from timelines.ws, a website exploiting US newspaper articles, very detailed on the 20th century; from BBC News; from Tikalanka
Accounts of History Current History of Ceylon / Sri Lanka, from www79.pair.com, 9 chapters; from Lonely Planet; from Sri Lanka Web Window
The True History of Sri Lanka, anonymous, detailed, list of kings
History of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
De Fonseka Family Website, on the history of Ceylon / Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, the Untold Story, by K.T. Rajasingham, posted by ATimes, at least 35 chapters
Historical R. Knox, An historical relation of the island Ceylon, in the East-Indies , 1681, GB
R. Fellowes, The history of Ceylon: from the earliest period to the year MDCCCXV , 1817, GB
Humphry William Codrington, A Short History of Lanka (1926), posted by Rhajiv Ratnatunga (covers period until 1833)
G. Turnour, An Epitome of the History of Ceylon: compiled from native annals and the first twenty chapters of the Mahawanso, 1836, GB
Ceylon, pp.1-122 in R. Montgomery Martin, History of the British possessions in the Indian & Atlantic Oceans, 1837, GB
H.Ch. Sirr, Ceylon and the Cingalese: Their History, Government, and Religion .. (1850), IA
D. Obeyesekere, Outlines of Ceylon history (1911), IA
Specific Periods Articles : Kingdom of Dambadeniya, 1220-1283, Kingdom of Jaffna, 1215-1619, Kingdom of Gampola, Kingdom of Kotte 1412-1597, Kingdom of Sitawaka, 1512-1594, Kingdom of Kandy, 1469-1815, Portuguese Period in Ceylon, 1505-1658, Dutch Period in Ceylon, 1656-1796, British Ceylon, 1815-1948, Sri Lanka Independence Movement, Participation of Ceylon in World War II, Dominion of Ceylon, Sri Lanka in the Twentieth Century, from Wikipedia
Dutch Portuguese Colonial History, by Marco Ramerini, scroll down for Ceylon
P.E. Pieris, Ceylon and the Hollanders 1658-1796, New Delhi : (1918) Asian Educational Services 1999 [G]; online at Internet Archive
E.W. Perera, Memorandum upon Recent Disturbances in Ceylon (1915), IA
P.E. Pieris, Ceylon and the Portuguese, 1505-1658 (1920), IA
Politics Links Political Resources on the Net : Sri Lanka; Governments on the WWW : Nepal; Category : Politics of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
General Article Politics of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Sri Lanka Profile, from International Crisis Group
Institutions History, of Sri Lanka's Parliament
Was Universal Franchise a Disaster ?, excerpt from T.D.S.A. Disanayake's War and Peace, Vol.4
Chapter 7 : State Councils - Elections and Boycotts, from Sri Lanka - the Untold Story by K.T. Rajasingham (Asia Times Sept. 22th 2001)
Article Donoughmore Constitution, from Wikipedia
Political Parties, Movements Sri Lanka Independence Struggle, from Wikipedia
Category : Political Parties in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Article Lanka Sama Samaja Party, from Wikipedia
Article United National Party, from Wikipedia
G.J. Lerski, Origins of Trotskyism in Ceylon, from marxists.org
History of the Liberal Party of Sri Lanka
A Short History of the LSSP (Lanka Sama Samaja Party), by Leslie Goonewardene
Buddhist Monks and Politics in Sri Lanka, by James J. Hughes
Article GCSU Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia (trade union)
Foreign Relations MOFA Sri Lanka
Articles : Foreign Relations of Sri Lanka, India-Srti Lanka Relations, from Wikipedia
History of PRC-Sri Lankan Relations, from Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the PRC; India-Sri Lanka Relations, from Ministry of External Affairs, India; EU Relations with Sri Lanka, official; Russian-Sri Lankan Relations, from Russian Embassy in Sri Lanka; Japan-Sri Lanka Relations, from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan
Article Colombo Plan, from Wikipedia
Military Wars of Sri Lanka, from ACED; History of Sri Lanka Army; Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sri Lanka, from ODM; Military of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Armed Conflicts Report - Sri Lanka, from Ploughshares; Sri Lanka Assessment, from SATP; LTTE, from Global Security; History of the Conflict, from Sinhaya; History of the Sinhalese/Tamil Conflict by Leena Palamkunnel
CASCON Case SRI : Sri Lankan Civil War, 1950-, by L.P. Bloomfield, L. Moulton
Four Lankans die in secret 'Independence War', article from Weekend Express, on Ceylon in World War II
Under the Tropical Sun. Lachlan Macquarie & the 73rd Regiment in Sri Lanka 1796-1821, posted by Macqurie Univ. Library
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Sri Lanka
Article Economy of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
The Economy and Economic History of Sri Lanka, by Thayer Watkins
The History of Ceylon Tea, from Dilmah; from Wilson Teas, from Explore Sri Lanka, from Mlesna Teas, from Sri Lanka Tea Board; Taylor, Lipton and the Birth of Ceylon Tea, from Tea Muse
Cinnamon, from UCLA Biomedical Library
The History of Sri Lanka Coffee, from Hansa Coffee
History of Employers Federation of Ceylon
History of the Auditor General's Department, Sri Lanka
What was the Exchange Rate then ?, service provided by Economic History Services
Sri Lanka's Internet World Stats
Index of Economic Freedom : Sri Lanka 2006, from Heritage Foundation
Nicola Palmer, Defining a Different War Economy : The Case of Sri Lanka, from Berghof Handbook
The Origin, from Ceylon Chamber of Commerce; History of National Chamber of Commerce of Sri Lanka
Colombo Stock Exchange, click : about CSE, Historical Milestones
Global Integrity : Sri Lanka 2007
Enterprise Sri Lanka, from Economy Point
Economic Impact of Sri Lanka's Civil War, from AEI
History of Sri Lanka Tea Board
John Capper, An Outline of the Commercial Statistics of Ceylon, pp.424-434 in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Volume 2 1839 GB
A. Bertolacci, A view of the agricultural, commercial, and financial interests of Ceylon , 1817, GB
Social History from Crime and Society. A Comparative Criminology Tour of the World (Robert Winslow)
H. Sharp, Notes on vernacular education in Ceylon (1919), IA
Ethnography Languages of Sri Lanka (8), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, Sri Lanka : Indian Tamils, Sri Lankan Tamils
Country Report : Sri Lanka, from U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants
Forced Migration Online, Research Guide Sri Lanka, from FMO, 2004/2005
History, from Ceylon Tamils
International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Sri Lanka
Imtiaz Ahmed, Communal Conflict in Modern Sri Lanka : Search for a Resolution, from IJP
Chronological Events in the History of Sri Lankan Malays, by Tony P. Miskin
Sri Lanka, from Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre; Profile of Internal Displacement : Sri Lanka, from UNHCR
South Asia, from World Cultures Encyclopedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Sri Lanka
Eleanor Pavey, Case Studies : The massacres in Sri Lanka during the Black July riots of 1983 , from Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence
Refugee Studies Centre : Narrating Displacement : Oral Histories of Sri Lankan Women 2003, from Forced Migration Online
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Sri Lanka, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
History of Methodism in Sri Lanka, from GBGM-UMC
History of Budhism in Sri Lanka, from Sinhalanet
Repression of Buddhism in Sri Lanka by Portuguese, from Christian Aggression
Buddhism and Caste in India and Sri Lanka, by Jeffrey Samuels
The Church of Ceylon, from Anglican Communion
A Brief History of the Muslims of Sri Lanka, from Sri Lanka Genealogy Website
Ceylon, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
Patron Saint Index : Ceylon
Between Hammer and Anvil : Sri Lanka's Muslims, from CPA Media
S. Tuttle, Letters and conversations on the Ceylon mission, 1830, GB
History of Regions Provinces of Sri Lanka, Divisions of Nepal, from www.statoids.com
Article Provinces of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Local History History of Colombo, from Wikipedia
History of Trincomalee, from Wikipedia
History of Batticaloa, from Wikipedia
History of Galle, from Wikipedia
History of Jaffna, from Wikipedia
Institutions History, from Sri Lanka's Broadcasting Corporation; History, of Sri Lanka Telecom; of Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation
History, from Sri Lankan Airlines; Ceylon, Sri Lanka, from Airline History
Brief History of Sri Lanka Railways; The Railways of S.L., from Info Lanka
Article Education in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia; History of University of Moratuwa, of University of Colombo, of Ceylon Technical College, of Trinity College, Kandy
History of Sri Lanka Post
History of Colombo Observatory, from Institute of Commonwealth Studies
History, of Department of Archaeology, Sri Lanka
Newspapers in Ceylon, from Sri Lanka Genealogy Website
Structurae : Sri Lanka; Search Lighthouse Depot for Sri Lanka
Culture Sri Lanka, from UK Food Online, history of Sri Lankan cuisine
Articles History of Cricket in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka at the Olympics, Sport in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Biographies Category : Sri Lankan People, from Wikipedia
Others Alcohol and Drugs History Society : Sri Lanka
Landmarks in the history of soil science in Sri Lanka, by R.B. Mapa
Disaster History by Country : Sri Lanka, from Relief Web; Category Disasters in Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Sri Lanka Directory, from Peace Corps Online
Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Sanderson Beck, Tibet, Nepal and Ceylon 1800-1950
J. Capper, Old Ceylon, sketches of Ceylon life in the olden time (1877), posted on Internet Archive
H. Cave, The ruined cities of Ceylon (1904), posted on Internet Archive

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED DOCUMENTS
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel); from Regnal Chronologies; from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
List of Prime Ministers of Sri Lanka, from Wikipedia
Lists of Ambassadors Chronological List of Ambassadors (from France to Sri Lanka and the Maldives), from Ambafrance; Liste der Botschafter der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Colombo (Sri Lanka), from Wikipedia German edition
U.S. Ambassadors to Sri Lanka, from NNDB; Canadian Ambassadors to Sri Lanka, from MOFA Canada
Chinese Ambassadors to Sri Lanka, from PRC MOFA;
Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Sri Lanka, from Population Statistics
City Population : Sri Lanka, from City Population
Estimates of Death Toll in Sri Lankan Civil War, posted by Matthew White, scroll down for Sri Lanka
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Federal Reserve (U.S.) : Foreign Exchange Rates, Historic
Election Results from Psephos (since 1999); from IFES Election Guide (since 1999); from Elections and Electoral Systems
Documents Historical Newspapers Kranten Historisch [historical newspapers]
World History Archives
Newspaper Article Index, from National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Life Magazine, 1936-1972, Search for "Ceylon", search all issues; 292 Ceylon articles, GB
Modern Newspapers links from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers
News from Sri Lanka, from SPUR, a lot political-historical (pro-Sinhalese)
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Wikimedia Commons
Sri Lanka, from Images of Asia
Documents for the history of Sri Lanka, from Colombo Postcards (before 1947), Sri Lanka Postcards, from Harappa
License Plates of Sri Lanka, from License Plates of the World, from Sri Lanka
Ceylon : Colombo, from Tram Views of Asia
Historic Picture Postcards, from Postcardman, commercial site
Search Delcampe Picture Postcards for Ceylon
Images of Ceylon
Airline Timetable Images : Sri Lanka
Medals of Sri Lanka, from OMSA
P & O Navigation Timetables; lines destined to Bengal and further east stopped at Colombo
Plate's Ceylon, from Early Postcards of India and Ceylon
Archival Deposits Search National Archives (UK) for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Search Janus (catalogues of archives and manuscript collections held throughout Cambridge) for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Ceilon, Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Methodist Missionary Society Archives 1791-1948, from IDC Publishers, have files on Ceylon
Constitutions, Laws Sri Lanka Legislation
Court of Appeal of Sri Lanka
Supreme Court of Sri Lanka
Internet Law Library : Sri Lanka
Constitution, from Official Website of Sri Lanka
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Sri Lanka, from ILO, 39 docs. since 1948
Treaties Peace Agreements Digital Collection : Sri Lanka, from United States Institute of Peace
Treaties and Engagements Relating to Ceylon, pp.417-464 in vol.5 of A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds, relating to India and Neighbouring Countries, 1864, GB
Ceylon, pp.515-517 in vol.6 of Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America 1776-1949, 1971, GB
Document Surveys Ch.11 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Orientalium atque Asiaticarum, Par.10 : Aliis certas tantum provinciae Indiae Orientalium descripserunt, pp.252-253 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Document Collections Documents of Sri Lanka - Acts and Ordinances, Papers, from SATP
Truth Commissions : Sri Lanka, from United States Institute of Peace
W. Geiger, Mahavamsa : the great chronicle of Ceylon (1912), posted on Internet Archive
R.G. Anthonisz., Report on the Dutch Records in the Government Archives at Colombo: With Appendices (1907), posted on Internet Archive
Historical Maps WHKMLA Historical Atlas
Atlas of Sri Lanka, from Wikimedia Commons
Schwartzberg, Historical Atlas of South Asia, posted by DSAL
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
Search Atlas of Mutual Heritage for Ceylon, Arippi, Avissawella, Batticaloa, Chilaw, Colombo, Delft Island, Elephant Pass, Fort Frederick, Fort Hammenhiel, Hultsdorf, Kalpitya, Kalutara, Kandy, Manmar, Nielwelle, Panama, Fort Starfort
Maldives & Sri Lanka, from Asian Linguistic Maps
Maps Bellin Ceylon 1750, Jaffenapatam 1761, Point de Galle 1751, posted by FWP
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Article : Ceylon, pp.309-311 in vol.4 of Encyclopaedia Britannica , 1797, GB
Article : Ceylon, pp.360-365 in vol.5 of the 4th ed. of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1810, GB
Article : Ceylon, pp.676-680 in vol.2 of supplement to the 4th-6th editions of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1824, GB
Article : Ceylon, pp.359-370 in vol.5 of Encyclopaedia Britannica , 1833, GB
Articles Ceylon, Dschaffna, Kandi, Trinkonomali, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Articles Ceylon; Colombo, Kandy, Jaffna, Kurunegala, Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Galle, from EB 1911
Religious from Catholic Encyclopedia (1908, Ceylon); Article Colombo, from Catholic Encyclopedia
Ostindien, pp.677-696 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic Ceylon, pp.338-362 in vol.1 of W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, GB
Of the Agriculture in Ceylon, pp.151-152 in J.Cl. Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture, vol.1, 1825, GB
Ceylon, pp.182-209 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, or, The East India Trader's Complete Guide, 1825, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Ceylon oder Ceylan, Colombo, posted by DTBSWS
E.G. Balfour, The Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Ceylon
Geographical S.C. Chitty, The Ceylon gazetteer: containing an account of the districts &c. of Ceylon (1834), posted on Internet Archive
Articles Calpentyn, Adamsbjerget, Ceylon, Arippo, Colombo, Jaffnapatam, Trinkonomale, Galle, Point de, Negombo, from Geografisk-Statistisk Haandbog 1858-1863, in Danish
G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1835), posted on Internet Archive; search for Ceylon
Ceylon pp.247-248 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Ceylon, p.379 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Historical Island of Ceylon, pp.116-117 in vol.37 of G. Sale, An universal history, 1783, GB
Ceylon pp.383-384, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Other Article : Ceylon, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides, Travelogues Ph. Baldaeus, Wahrhaftige ausführliche beschreibung der berühmten ostindischen kusten Malabar und Coromandel, als auch der insel Zeylon: samt dero angräntzenden und untergehörigen reichen, fürstentühmen, ländern, städten ... so wol auch der merkwürdigsten kriegshändel, belägerungen, feld- und seeschlachten, sonderlich zwischen den Portugesen und Holländern, handel-und kaufmannschaften: durchgehends verzieret mit neuen landkahrten und abbildungen der vornehmsten städte, festungen, trachten, thiere, früchte, &c. so in India selbst nach dem leben gezeichnet, und folgends mit fleiss zu kupfer gebracht: benebst einer umständlichen und gründlichen entdeckung der abgötterey der ost-indischen heyden, Malabaren, Benjanen, Gentiven, Bramines &c. .. (1672) in German, IA
J. Daly, An account of the interior of Ceylon, and of its inhabitants , 1821, GB
J. Haafner, Travels on foot through the island of Ceylon, 1821, GB
J.C. Willis, Ceylon, a handbook for the resident and the traveller (1907), posted on Internet Archive
Personal Diary of Anagarika Dhammapala (1896-1897, Buddhist missionary who travelled from Ceylon to U.S.), posted on Anagarika Dhammapala Web Site
Residence Memoirs Memoir of Hendrick Zwaardecroon, Commandeur of Jaffnapatam (afterwards Governor-General of Nederlands India) 1697. For the guidance of the council ot [sic] Jaffnapatam, during his absence at the coast of Malabar (1911), posted on IA
Th. Skinner, Fifty years in Ceylon. An autobiography (1891), posted on IA
S.W. Baker, Eight years in Ceylon (1902), posted on IA
W. Knighton, Forest Life in Ceylon, vol.1 1854, vol.2, 1854, IA
Institutions Archives National Archives of Sri Lanka, from TANAP
Huntington Archive of Buddhist and Buddhist-related Art, Sri Lanka
UNESCO Archives Portal : Government Archives, National Asia Pacific, one entry for Sri Lanka, scroll down
Musea Articles : Colombo Dutch Museum, Colombo Port Maritime Museum, National Museum of Colombo, from Wikipedia
Monuments Tentative List : Sri Lanka, World Heritage List, scroll down for Sri Lanka, from UNESCO World Heritage
Sri Lanka, from Showcaves
Libraries National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Libraries in Sri Lanka, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry; National Anthem, from National Anthems Net
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Ceylon / Sri Lanka, from World Currency Museum; of Ceylon / Shri Lanka, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money; from Zeno
Coins, from The coins and history of Asia (until 1600); from Lakdiva Coins Collection, from Zeno
Search Coin Archives for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Stamps Rare Ceylon Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Ceylon 1857-1902, 1902-1920, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Ceylon / Sri Lanka Sri Lanka, from Terrorism and Political Violence : An International Bibliography
Sri Lanka, from The Online Books Page
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Sri Lanka
Food and Culture (Bibliography) : South Asia
D. Ludden, Bibliography on South Asian Agrarian History (c.1990)
Bibliography on Topics Relevant to Indic Civilization, from Indic Studies
Labor in South Asia, a Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Gallica
Center for Research Libraries (CRL)
on Sri Lanka National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Tamil Electronic Library
Search DBNG for Ceylon, Sri Lanka etc.
Search Leiden University Repository (NL, Open Access) for Sri Lanka
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Sri Lanka
Theses Server Index to Post Graduate Theses, from National Library and Documentation Centre, Sri Lanka
Search Narcis (server for theses from the Netherlands) for Ceylon, Sri Lanka
Online Journals South Asia Journals, from ELIN-NIAS; Sri Lanka Journals, from ELIN-NIAS
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Historiography Article : Sinhalese Historiography, by M.R. Fernando, pp.836-837, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.167-180 Article Sri Lanka. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Patrick Peebles, The History of Sri Lanka, Westport CT : Greenwood 2006, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 954.93 P373h
Specific Topics G.C. Mendis, Ceylon under the British, New Delhi : (1952) Asian Educational Services 2005 [G]
S.G. Perera, The Jesuits in Ceylon, New Delhi : (1941) Asian Educational Services 2004 [G]
Donald Ferguson, The Earliest Dutch Visits to Ceylon, New Delhi : (1930) Asian Educational Services 1998 [G]
P. Ramanathan, Riots and Martial Law in Ceylon, 1915, New Delhi : (1916) Asian Educational Services 2003 [G]
P.E. Pieris, Ceylon and the Hollanders 1658-1796, New Delhi : (1918) Asian Educational Services 1999 [G]; online at Internet Archive
Valli Kanapathipillai, The Repatriation of Indian Tamil Plantation Workers from Sri Lanka to India, pp.326-330 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
The Far Frontiers pp.507-523, in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942 [G]
Chr.V. Hill, South Asia : an Environmental History, Santa Barbara : ABC Clio 2008, 329 pp., KMLA Lib. Call Sign 304.2 H645s
Historical Dictionaries Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping, Lanman Md. : Scarecrow 1996 [G]
S.W.R. de A. Samarasinghe, Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka, Rowman & Littlefield 1997
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Article : Sri Lanka, in : The World in Figures 1st ed. 1976 pp.197-198, 2nd ed. 1978 pp.197-198, 4th ed. 1984 pp.197-198 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Ceylon, 1913 pp.623-625, 1944 p.168, 1945 pp.169-170, 1946 p.191, 1947 pp.190-191, 1948 pp.179-180, Ceylon, Dominion of, 1949 pp.154-155, 1949 pp.154-155, 1950 p.162, Ceylon, 1951 p.166, 1952 p.162, 1953 pp.157-158, 1954 pp.158-159, 1955 pp.211-212, 1956 pp.150-151, 1957 pp.209-210, 1958 pp.146-147, 1959 pp.147-148, 1960 pp.147-148, 1961 pp.156-157, 1962 pp.139-140, 1963 pp.254-255, 1964 pp.232-233, 1965 pp.223-224, 1966 pp.176-177, 1967 pp.193-194, 1968 pp.188-190, 1969 pp.189-190, 1970 pp.191-192, 1971 pp.183-184, 1972 pp.168-169, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), 1973 pp.165-166, Sri Lanka, 1974 p 632, 1975 p.640, 1976 p.630, 1977 pp.629-630, 1978 p.643, 1979 p.636, 1980 p.636, 1981 p.631, 1982 p.637, 1983 pp.631-632, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), 1984 p.633, 1985 pp.513, 783, 1986 pp.507-508, 782, 1987 pp.477, 750, 1988 pp.434-435, 702, 1989 p.434, 702, 1990 pp.451, 718, 1991 pp.433-434, 703, 1992 pp.406, 703, 1993 pp.408, 718, 1994 pp.409, 718, 1995 pp.476, 718, 1996 pp.472-473, 718, 1997 pp.475-476, 716, 2002 pp.495-496, 730 [G]
Statesman's Year-Book Ceylon, 1895 pp.103-109, 1898 pp.103-109, 1901 pp.112-118, 1905 pp.116-122, 1910 pp.103-108, 1918 pp.99-104, 1919 pp.104-109, 1924 pp.107-112, 1925 pp.108-114, 1926 pp.98-103, 1928 pp.99-105, 1929 pp.99-104, 1932 pp.100-105, 1937 pp.106-112, 1943 pp.93-98, 1970-1971 pp. 399-405, Sri Lanka, 1975-1976 pp.481-487, 1976-1977 pp.487-494, 1978-1979 pp.1103-1110, 1979-1980 pp.1112-1119, 1980-1981 pp.1108-1115, 1981-1982 pp.1114-1121, 1983-1984 pp.1113-1120, 1984-1985 pp.1110-1117, 1985-1986 pp.1111-1118, 1986-1987 pp.1111-1118, 1987-1988 pp.1116-1123, 1988-1989 pp.1120-1127, 1989-1990 pp.1227-1234, 1990-1991 pp.1127-1134, 1991-1992 pp.1130-1137, 1992-1993 pp.1222-1228, 1993-1994 pp.1224-1230, 1994-1995 pp.1224-1229, 1995-1996 pp.1213-1218, 1996-1997 pp.1189-1194, 1997-1998 pp.1189-1194, 1998-1999 pp.1299-1305, 2000 pp.1460-1466, 2001 pp.1429-1435, 2002 pp.1483-1489, 2003 pp.1480-1486, 2004 pp.1499-1505, 2005 pp.1509-1515, 2006 pp.1517-1523 [G]
(New) Int'l Yearbook Ceylon, 1898 pp.172-173, 1899 pp.172-173, 1900 pp.184-185, 1907 pp.149-150, 1908 pp.136-137, 1909 pp.144-145, 1913 p.145, 1914 pp.145-146, 1916 p.125, 1918 p.118, 1919 pp.137-138, 1920 pp.124-125, 1921 pp.126-127, 1923 p.127, 1925 pp.131-132, 1928 p.144, 1930 p.145, 1932 p.149, 1933 pp.136-137, 1934 pp.122-123, 1935 pp.126-127, 1938 pp.130-131, 1939 pp.120-121, Events of 1940 pp.115-116, 1941 p.104, 1942 pp.119-120, 1943 p.106, 1944 p.112
Americana Annual Ceylon, 1927 p.159, 1928 pp.142-143, 1930 pp.156-157, 1931 pp.180-181, 1932 pp.147-148, 1933 pp.143-144, 1934 p.137, 1935 p.135, 1936 pp.126-128, 1937 pp.114-115, 1938 p.114, 1939 pp.122-123, 1940 pp.117-118, 1943 pp.138-139, 1944 p.134, 1945 p.146, 1946 pp.151-152, 1947 pp.127-128, 1957 pp.141-142, 1961 pp.127-128, 1962 pp.125-126, 1963 pp.130-131, 1964 pp.132-133, 1965 p.143, 1967 pp.154-155, 1968 pp.142-143, 1969 pp.156-157, 1970 pp.180-181, 1971 pp.196-197, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), 1972 pp.186-187, 1973 p.178, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), 1974 p.565, Sri Lanka, 1976 p.524, 1988 pp.499-500, 1989 p.508, 1990 p.498, 1992 p.502, 1993 p.513, 1994 p.514, 1998 p.500, 2006 p.354
YB on Int'l Communist Affairs 1976 pp.382-384, 1980 pp.297-299
Other Article : Ceylon, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia 1932 p.115, 1933 p.154, 1934 p.130, 1935 pp.120-121, 1936 p.106, 1937 p.105, 1938 p.107, 1942 p.91, 1943 pp.98-99, 1944 p.70, 1946 p.94, 1952 pp.90-91, 1961 p.60 [G]
Entry : Sri Lanka, in : The Commonwealth Yearbook 1989 pp.339-348 [G]