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Literature on the History of South East Asia
First posted on May 15th 2002, last revised on December 16th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

for earlier history, see Malacca -1511, Malacca 1511-1824, Johor
for regional history, see also History of Labuan, Singapore
see also Malay Peninsula -1895, History of Malaya, History of Malaysia

In 1786 the E.I.C. acquired Penang (from the Sultanate of Kedah), in 1819 Singapore (from the Sultanate of Johor) and in 1824 Malacca (from the Netherlands). In 1826 these three possessions were combined as the Straits Settlements, and they were placed under the Presidency of Bengal. In 1867 the Straits Settlements were declared a separate Crown Colony. The Cocos (or Keeling) Islands (hitherto under Ceylon) were placed under the Straits Settlements in 1886, Labuan in 1906. Frim 1942 to 1945 the Straits Settlements (except for the Cocos Islands) were under Japanese occupation. In 1946 the Straits Settlements were dissolved. The Cocos Islands and Christmas Island until 1957 were administered by Singapore and since by Australia. Labuan became part of British North Borneo. Penang and Malacca joined the Federation of Malaya (1946) and in 1963 the Republic of Malaysia. Singapore in 1963 joined Malaysia, only to be expelled from the latter in 1965.

Timelines : Straits Settlements; Singapore
Historical Atlas, Straits Settlements Page

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from Wikipedia
Historical J. Anderson, Political and Commercial Considerations Relative to the Malayan Peninsula and the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, 1824, GB; also IA
Th.J. Newbold, Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Straits vol.1, 1839, IA, vol.2 1839, IA
J. Cameron, Our Tropical Possessions in Malayan India 1865, GB
The British Empire Series, vol.1 : India, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, British North Borneo, Hong-Kong (1899), IA
Links, on History
Timelines see here
Historical Dictionary Singapore Infopedia
F.P. Smith, A vocabulary of proper names, in Chinese and English, of places, persons, tribes, and sects, in China, Japan, Corea, Annam, Siam, Burmah, the Straits and adjacent countries 1870, IA
N.B. Dennys, A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya, 1894, Sejarah Melayu Library
J. Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, Sejarah Melayu Library
Organizations on Asian History International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
on SE Asian History Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
on Malaysia History Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
on Straits Settlements Singapore Heritage Society
Penang Heritage Trust
Accounts of History Current from The Evolution of Singapore; from Infoplease; from Wikipedia
The Straits Settlements, from Serajah Melayu
History of Malaya to 1963, from Helicon Publishing
Sanderson Beck, Burma, Malaya and the British 1800-1950
Historical Penang pp.123-137, Malacca pp.137-153, Singapore pp.153-170 in : R.M. Martin, History of the British possessions in the Indian & Atlantic Oceans, 1837, GB; also posted on Internet Archive
F.M. McLarthy, Affairs of the Colony, Being a History Concerning the Straits Settlements and the British .. (1893), posted on Internet Archive
R. St. John Braddell et al., One hundred years of Singapore 1819-1919 (1921), posted on Internet Archive
Catastrophe at Singapore, pp.327-342 in : John Gunther, Inside Asia, 1942 War Edition, NY : Harper & Brothers (1938) 1942
J. Kennedy, A history of Malaya, A.D. 1400-1959 1962, IA
Specific Periods
Administration Wikipedia, Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements
A. Ireland, The Far Eastern tropics; studies in the administration of tropical dependencies: Hong Kong, British North Borneo, Sarawak, Burma, the federated Malay states, the Straits Settlements, French Indo-China, Java, the Philippine Islands, 1905, IA
D. Newman, British Colonial Censorship Regimes: Hong Kong, Straits Settlements, and Shanghai International Settlement, 1916-1941
History of Public Service in Malaysia, anonymous, n.d.
Military Straits Settlements Volunteer Force, from Land Forces of Britain, the Empire and Commonwealth
Straits Settlements Volunteer Force, from Far Eastern Volunteers Site
A.H. McCormick, The Volunteer Forces of the Federated and Unfederated States of Malaya, and the Straits Settlerments: 1940- 1942
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Straits Settlements
A History of the Currency in Straits Settlements, anonymous
A. Huttenbach, Memorandum on the Straits Settlements currency scheme 1903, IA
A. Huttenbach, The silver standard and the Straits currency question 1903, IA
E.W. Kemmerer, A Gold Standard for the Straits Settlements pt.1, Political Science Quarterly 19 1904, IA; pt.2 Political Science Quarterly 21 1906, IA
J.O. Anthonisz., Currency reform in the Straits Settlements 1913, IA
E.W. Kemmerer, Modern currency reforms; : a history and discussion of recent currency reforms in India, Porto Rico, Philippine Islands, Straits Settlements and Mexico 1916, IA
A Brief History of Banks in the Straits Settlements and Malaysia, 1840-1986
The Straits Settlements Opium Commission, by Ellen N. la Motte
Commerce & Industry, from Singapore Infopedia
Timeline of the Singapore Mint
James Low, A dissertation on the soil & agriculture of the British settlement of Penang or Prince of Wales Island in the Straits of Malacca, including Province Wellesley on the Malayan Peninsula, 1836, GB
John Phipps, A Practical Treatise on the China and Eastern Trade : comprising the commerce of Great Britain and India, particularly of Bengal and Singapore, with China and the Eastern Islands, 1836, GB
Y. Tai, Chinese capitalism in colonial Malaya, 1900-1941, thesis Univ. of Hong Kong 2010
Social History N. Hussin et al., Crimes in the Straits Settlements before World War II, Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Hum. 20 (1): 121 - 136 (2012)
S.P. Yeoh et al., Urbanization and Urban Growth during Colonial Rule and Independence in Peninsular Malaysia, Review of Indonesian and Malayan Affairs vol.14 no.1 1980
Ethnography Ethnic Communities, from Singapore Infopedia
Straits Settlements, pp.510-511 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
British Empire in Asia : Straits Settlements, pp.849-864 in vol.2A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
D.W. Smith, European Settlements in the Far East : China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands, India, Borneo, the Philippines, etc 1900, IA; Straits Settlements pp.247-265
Cheng Siok-Hwa, Government Legislation for Chinese Street Societies in the Straits Settlements in the Late 19th Century
World Huaren Federation, Malaysian Chinese
M. Rerceretnam, Black Europeans, the Indian coolies and empire : colonialisation and christianized Indians in colonial Malaya & Singapore, c.1870s-c.1950s, thesis Sidney 2002
Religion C.R. Yeoh, Malaysia, Truly Asia ? Religious Pluralism in Malaysia
Local History Article : History of Pulau Pinang (Penang), from Wikipedia
Article : History of Melaka (Malacca), from Wikipedia
Articles : History of Singapore, Singapore in the Straits Settlements, from Wikipedia
R.S.J. Braddell, One hundred years of Singapore : being some account of the capital of the Straits Settlements from its foundation by Sir Stamford Raffles on the 6th February 1819 to the 6th February 1919 vol.1 1921, IA, vol.2 1921, IA
G.M. Reith, Handbook to Singapore with Map, and a Plan of the Botanical Gardens 1892, IA
C.M. Turnbull, Penang's Changing Role in the Straits Settlements , 1826-1946
Institutions Organisations, from Singapore Infopedia
EngRailHistory, The Development of Malaya. A Line that Brought Prosperity to the Jungle
Biography Biographies, from Singapore Infopedia
Wong Yee Tuan, Uncovering the Myths of Two 19th-century Hokkien Business Personalities in the Straits Settlements, Chinese Southern Diaspora Studies, Volume 5, 2011-12
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon); from Rulers (B. Schemmel), scroll down for Straits Settlements
Governors of the Straits Settlements, from Singapore Infopedia
The India List and India Office List, 1905, GB
British Governors of the Straits Settlements, from Penang Traveltips
Statistical Data Population Figures Singapore, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht
Malaysia, Administrative Divisions, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht; data for Melaka, Pulau Pinang
History of Census Taking in Singapore, from Statistics Singapore, scroll down
Report on the census of the Straits Settlements, taken on the 5th April 1891, posted by NUS, by Sabrizain
Documents Historical Newspapers Newspaper Singapore (1831-2006)
Search University of Malaya Common Repository for "Straits Settlements Government Gazette"; has numerous issues of 1922
Sejarah Melayu Librar, click : News & Dispatches. Has articles from 1783 to 1951
Online Yearbooks
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Sejarah Melayu Gallery
National Archives Singapore, Picture Archive Singapore
National Library Singapore, Singapore National Album of Pictures
The Straits Settlements in Postcards, from Singapore Archives Online
Systematic Collections
Masruddin, Old Photos of Malaysia, uncommented
Historic Photos of Liberation, Malaysia Militarum
Rod38, Old Penang Island, photos; dotphoto : Old Penang Photos
Accidental Collections
Oriental Collections
Items on Straits Settlements
Trolleys in Malaysia : Penang, from Tram Views of Asia
Trolleys in Singapore, from Tram Views of Asia
Universal Collections
Items on Straits Settlements
Archival Deposits A Sense of History: a select bibliography on the history of Singapore, Official Records
NUS Libraries, Executive Government (before 1867), Executive government (1867-1965)
The Straits Settlements : Annual Reports 1855-1941, advertisement posted by Archive Editions
Tamotsu Nishizawa, Historical Statistical Materials on Malaya in London
Search Janus for Straits Settlements
Search National Archives (UK) for Straits Settlements
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre for Straits Settlements
Laws In[dex] to the Laws of the Strait[s Settlements] from April 1867 to 28th February 1882 1882, IA
The Acts and Ordinances of the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements 1867-1886 vol.1 1886, IA, vol.2 1886, IA
The acts and ordinances of the Legislative council of the Straits Settlements, from the 1st April 1867 to the 7th March 1898, IA
Cases Heard and Determined in Her Majesty's Supreme Court of the Straits Settlement 1808-1884 vol.1 : Civil Cases 1885, vol.3 : Magistrates' Appeals 1886, vol.4 : 1885-1890 Civil, Ecclesiatical .. Appeals 1890, IA
Document Collections
Individual Documents British trade in certain colonies. Reports on British trade in British West Africa, Straits Settlements, British Guiana, and Bermuda, furnished to the Board of trade by the honorary correspondents of their commercial intelligence branch in those colonies 1913, IA
Report on the Progress of the Straights Settlement, from 1859-60 to 1866-67. 1867, IA
Wikisource, Straits Settlement and Johore Territorial Waters Agreement of 1927
Historical Maps see here
An atlas of the southern part of India, including plans of all the principal towns & cantonments, reduced from the grand trigonometrical survey of India, shewing also the Tenasserim provinces, 1854, posted on Internet Archive, has Malacca, Singapoor map
J.G. Bartholomew, A Literary and Historical Atlas of Asia 1912, Sejarah Melayu Library
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular entry Straits Settlements, from EB 1911; from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
see also articles on Singapore, Malacca, Penang
Economic J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Malakka, Prinz Wales oder Pulo Penang, Sincapore, posted by DTBSWS
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Straits Settlements
Chapters : Penang, or Prince of Wales Island, pp.402-405, Malacca pp.405-408, Singapore pp.408-412, in : R.M. Martin, Statistics of the colonies of the British empire in the West Indies, South America, North America, Africa, Austral-Asia and Europe, 1839, GB
Ottomar Haupt, Währungs-Politik und Münz-Statistik, Berlin : Walther & Apolant 1884, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Ferner Osten
Nopitsch, Wilhelm Hermann, Kaufmännische Berichte, gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Welt mit der Kriegs-Corvette Galathea (Mercantile Reports, collected on a Journey on the War-Corvette Galathea in the Years 1845, 1846 and 1847), in den Jahren 1845, 1846 und 1847, Hamburg : Besser & Mauke 1849, in German, posted by DTBSWS, Pulo Pinang pp.33-39, Singapore pp.40-54
Geographical On Labuan (1906-1946) :
On Malacca (1824-1946) :
Article : Malacca, p.118 in The Edinburgh gazetteer, or geographical dictionary 1822, GB
Malacca pp.392-393, in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, Or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, 1827, GB
Article : Malacca, p.188 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Article : Malacca, p.474 in R. Brookes, A new universal gazetteer, 1832, GB
Article : Malacca, capital of kingdom Malacca, in : G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1836), GB, unpaginated
On Penang (1786-1946) :
Poolo Penang p.393, in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, Or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, 1827, GB
Article : Prince-of-Wales-Island, or Pulo Penang, p.418 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Article : Prince-of-Wales-Island, or Penang, p.614 in R. Brookes, A new universal gazetteer, 1832, GB
Article : Prince-of-Wales-Island, or Penang, in : G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1836), GB, unpaginated
On Singapore (1819-1946) : Article : Singapoor, p.562 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Article : Sincapour, p.680 in R. Brookes, A new universal gazetteer, 1832, GB
Article : Sincapoor, in : G.Th. Landmann, A universal gazetteer; or, Geographical dictionary of the world (1836), GB, unpaginated
On Wellesley Province : Article : Wellesley Province, p.708 in vol.1 of W. Hamilton, The East Indian Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Straits Settlements, pp.487-499 in vol.8 of E. Reclus, Universal Geography, n.d. [1876-1894], IA
Ethnographical Malacca pp.179-180 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides
Memoirs Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore Story, 1999, 680 pp., memoirs of Singaporean PM until 1965, has chapter on Japanese occupation
Institutions Archives National Archives of Singapore
Arkib Negara Malaysia
Musea Penang Museum, Penang Islamic Museum
Virtual Museum Melaka
National Museum Singapore
Labuan Museum
Libraries National Library, Singapore
National Library of Malaysia
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of the Straits Settlements, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Coins of the Straits Settlements, from Coin Pictures
Stamps Rare Straits Settlements Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamp Gallery; Straits Settlements stamps 1867-1902, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Straits Settlements Catalogue of Publications on the history of Penang, from Penang Library (Malay language website; most titles in English)
A Sense of History. A Select Bibliography on the History of Singapore, from NUS Library
Publications of Singapore Heritage Society, of Penang Heritage Trust
Reprints of MBRAS
Historical Book Catalogues Classified Catalogue of Books, Pamphlets, Maps, Views etc. Relating to Asia, pp.503-543 : Straits Settlements etc., n.d. (c.1900), Sejarah Melayu Library
booksellers Nutmeg Publications. Malaysian Heritage Publications
Books on Malaysia, from Orchid Press
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
on Straits Settlements Search DBNG
Search New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
South East Asia Digital Library (project)
South East Asia Visions, at Cornell
Search Leiden University Repository (NL, Open Access)
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
National Library Singapore, Singapore Pages
Sejarah Melayu Library
Digital Library Malaysia
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Malaysia
Malaysian Theses Online
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Electronic Journals Online
modern, on SE Asia W.S. Tiew, Malaysian Historical Journals (1847-1966): A Bibliometric Study, Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science vol.8 no.1 July 2003: pp.19-43
Journal of Southeast Asian History 1960-1969, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 2009-, from Cambridge Journals Online (require registration)
ASEAS (Austrian Journal of South East Asian Studies), open access, 2008-
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
historic, on Asia The Quarterly Oriental Magazine, Review and Register (Calcutta) 1826 Jan.-Jun., 1826 Jul.-Dec., 1827 Jan.-Jun., 1827 Jul.-Dec., GB
Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany for British India and its Dependencies (London) vol.21 1826 Jan.-Jun., vol.22 1826 Jul.-Dec., vol.23 1827 Jan.-Jun., vol.24 1827 Jul.-Dec., vol.25 1828 Jan.-Jun., vol.26 1828 Jul.-Dec., vol.27 1829 Jan.-Jun., vol.28 1829 Jul.-Dec., The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China and Australasia (London), vol.1 1830 Jan.-Apr., vol.2 1830 May-Aug., vol.3 1830 Sep.-Dec., vol.4 1831 Jan.-Apr., vol.5 1831 May-Aug., vol.6 1831 Sep.-Dec., vol.7 1832 Jan.-Apr., vol.8 1832 May-Aug., vol.9 1832 Sep.-Dec., vol.10 1833 Jan.-Apr., vol.11 1833 May-Aug., vol.12 1833 Sep.-Dec., vol.13 1834 Jan.-Apr., vol.14 1834 May-Aug., vol.15 1834 Sep.-Dec., vol.16 1835 Jan.-Apr., vol.17 1835 May-Aug., vol.18 1835 Sep.-Dec., vol.19 1836 Jan.-Apr., vol.20 1836 May-Aug., vol.21 1836 Sep.-Dec., vol.22 1837 Jan.-Apr., vol.23 1837 May-Aug., vol.24 1837 Sep.-Dec., vol.25 1838 Jan.-Apr., vol.26 1838 May-Aug., vol.27 1838 Sep.-Dec., vol.28 1839 Jan.-Apr., vol.29 1839 May-Aug., vol.31 1840 Jan.-Apr., vol.32 1840 May-Aug., vol.33 1840 Sep.-Dec., vol.34 1841 Jan.-Apr., vol.35 1841 May-Aug., vol.36 1841 Sep.-Dec., vol.37 1842 Jan.-Apr., vol.38 1842 May-Aug., vol.39 1843 Sep.-Dec., vol.40 1843 Jan.-Apr., The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany, vol.1 1843 May-Oct., vol.2 1843 Nov.-1844 Apr., vol.3 1844 May-Oct., vol.4 1844 Nov.-1845 Apr., GB
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (London), vol.1, 1834, vol.2, 1835, vol.3, 1836, vol.4, 1837, vol.5, 1839, vol.6, 1841, vol.7, 1843, vol.8, 1846, vol.9, 1848, vol.10, 1847, vol.12, 1850, vol.13, 1852, vol.14 pt.1, 1851, vol.15, 1855, vol.16, 1856, vol.17, 1860, vol.18, 1861, vol.19, 1864, vol.20, 1863, New Series, vol.1, 1865, vol.2, 1866, vol.3, 1868, vol.4, 1870, 1904, 1935, GB
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Calcutta), vol.1, 1832 Jan.-Dec., vol.3, 1834 Jan.-Dec., vol.4, 1835 Jan.-Dec., vol.5, 1836 Jan.-Dec., vol.6 pt.1 1837 Jan.-Jun., vol.6 pt.2 1837 Jul.-Dec., vol.7 pt.1 1838 Jan.-Jun., vol.7 pt.2 1838 Jul.-Dec., vol.9 pt.2 1840 Jul.-Dec., vol.10 pt.1 1841 Jan.-Jun., vol.10 pt.2 1841 Jul.-Dec., vol.11 pt.1 1842 Jan.-Jun., vol.11 pt.2 1842 Jul.-Dec., vol.12 pt.1 1843 Jan.-Jun., vol.12 pt.2 1843 Jul.-Dec., vol.13 pt.1 1844 Jan.-Jun., vol.13 pt.2 1844 Jul.-Dec., vol.14 pt.1 1845 Jan.-Jun., vol.14 pt.2 1845 Jul.-Dec., vol.15 1846, vol.16 pt.1 1847 Jan.-Jun., vol.17 pt.1 1848 Jan.-Jun., vol.17 pt.2 1848 Jul.-Dec., vol.18 pt.1 1849 Jan.-Jun., vol.18 pt.2 1849 Jul.-Dec., vol.19 1850, vol.20 1851, vol.21 1852, vol.22 1853, vol.23 issues 1-4 1854, vol.23 issues 5-7 1854, vol.26 1857, vol.27 1858, vol.28 1859, vol.29 1860, vol.31 1862, vol.32 1863, vol.33 1864, vol.36 1867, vol.37 1868, vol.38 1869, GB
Asiatick Researches; or Transactions of the Society Instituted in Bengal for Inquiring into the History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences and Literature of Asia, vol.16 1828, vol.17 1832, vol.20 1836, GB
The Oriental Herald and Journal of General Literature (London) vol.8 1826 Jan.-Mar., vol.9 1826 Apr.-Jun., vol.10 1826 Jul.-Sep., vol.11 1826 Oct.-Dec., vol.12 1827 Jan.-Mar., vol.13 1827 Apr.-Jun., vol.14 1827 Jul.-Sep., vol.15 1827 Oct.-Dec., vol.16 1828 Jan.-Mar., vol.17 1828 Apr.-Jun., vol.18 1828 Jul.-Sep., vol.19 1828 Oct.-Dec., vol.21 1829 Apr.-Jun., vol.22 1829 Jul.-Sep., vol.23 1829 Oct.-Dec., GB
Journal Asiatique 1822-1937, posted by Gallica, in French
The Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, vol.2, 1848, vol.3, 1849, vol.8, 1854, vol.9, 1855, N.S. vol.2, 1858, vol.3, 1859, vol.4 1862, GB
on Straits Settlements
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.765-769 Article Southeast Asia : Singapore KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Special Topics C.M. Turnbull, The Straits Settlements 1826-1867. Indian Presidency to Crown Colony, London : Athlone Press 1972 [G]
A.J. Stockwell, British Expansionism and Rule in South-East Asia, pp.371-394 in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Historical Dictionaries K. Mulliner, Historical Dictionary of Singapore, Rowman & Littlefield 2002
Amarjit Kaur, Historical Dictionary of Malaysia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1993
Historical Atlas HASEA : Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Siam, the Malay States and Britain, 15th to 20th Centuries, pp.247-253 in : G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville, Historical Atlas of Islam, NY : Continuum (1991) 2003 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp.625-626, 1942 p.627, 1943 pp.662-663, 1944 p.664, 1945 pp.663-664, 1946 p.702
Statesman's Year-Book 1889 pp.889-906, 1895 pp.158-165, 1898 pp.158-165, 1901 pp.172-180, 1902 pp.178-183, 1904 pp.180-186, 1905 pp.181-190, 1906 pp.184-190, 1907 pp.187-192, 1910 pp.157-163, 1912 pp.163-169, 1918 pp.160-165, 1919 pp.165-170, 1924 pp.164-170, 1925 pp.166-172, 1926 pp.170-176, 1928 pp.171-177, 1929 pp.171-177, 1932 pp.174-180, 1933 pp.177-183, Malaya : Straits Settlements 1937 pp.192-199, 1942 pp.184-191, 1943 pp.182-188
(New) Int'l Yearbook 1898 p.751, 1899 pp.754-755, 1900 p.842, 1907 pp.745-746, 1908 p.670, 1909 pp.673-674, 1913 p.654, 1914 pp.667-668, 1916 p.660, 1918 p.623, 1919 p.640, 1920 p.656, 1921 p.679, 1923 p.729, 1925 pp.669-670, 1928 p.717, 1930 p.737, 1932 p.771, 1933 p.770, 1934 p.673, 1935 p.688, 1938 pp.708-709, 1939 p.741
British Malaya, 1932 p.116, 1933 p.111, 1934 p.101, 1935 p.103, 1938 p.107, 1939 p.95, Events of 1940 pp.90-91, 1941 pp.82-83
Americana Annual 1927 p.808, 1928 p.737, Malaya, British 1930 pp.464-465, 1931 pp.459-460, 1932 pp.432-433, 1933 pp.452-453, 1934 pp.352-353, 1935 pp.425-426, 1936 pp.427-428, 1937 p.427, 1938 pp.410-411, 1939 pp.461-462, 1940 pp.473-475
Other Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1932 p.482, 1933 p.487, 1934 pp.488-489, 1935 p.487, 1936 pp.469-470, 1937 pp.468-469, 1938 p.472, 1939 p.488; British Malaya 1932 pp.95-96, 1933 pp.126-127, 1934 pp.109-110, 1935 p.102, 1936 p.89, 1937 p.87, 1938 p.89, 1939 p.80, 1940 p.76, 1941 pp.81-82

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