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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Malaya before 1895
First posted on December 17th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Introduction . Prehistory . Early History . Srivijaya . 1400-1800s . Sumatra within the Dutch East Indies . Sumatra within Indonesia

historical Sumatran polities Srivijaya, Malacca, Aceh, Johor, Riau
see also V.O.C., Dutch East Indies, 1795-1949, Indonesia


Introduction
Sumatra (Sumatera in Bahasa Indonesia) is the world's six largest island, with an area of 473,481 square km and a population of around 50 million. The Bukit Barisan mountains, stretching parallel to the island's western coast, contain several active volcanoes. Sumatra is located on the "Pacific Rim of Fire", a seismic active zone. The Lake Toba eruption (between 75,500 and 67,500 BP) is regarded one of the most destructive volcanic eruptions in history. The tsunami of 2004 had its epicenter in the Indian Ocean just west of Sumatra and caused severe damage, especially in and near Aceh.
Sumatra once was connected to the Asian mainland; and because of changes in the sea level, then at times was an island, at times connected to Java, the Malay Peninsula and even Borneo. As late as 17,000 BC, such a connection still was the case [Cribb].
The island consists of diverse ecozones : the eastern coastal lands, the central highlands, the western coast. Throughout most of its history, Sumatra was divided into a number of polities; only under Dutch colonial rule, after the conquest of Aceh in 1903/1908 was the island politically united.

Prehistory
Humans arrived on Sumatra "long before it became an island" [Crossroads p.32]. Paleolithic and Mesolithic stone tools have been found at a number of places. The Neolithic (farming) is believed to have arrived with Austronesian settlers [2000-500 BCE, Crossroads p.32]; the usage of metal tools began some time after 500 BCE.

Early History
A Sanskrit text of the Ramayana from the third century BCE refers to a gold-rich island or region called Suvarnadvipa. In later sources, this term was used specifically for Sumatra [Crossroads]. During the first millennium, Sumatra did export gold and forest products. The oldest known polity on Sumatra was Kantoli (S. Sumatra), c.500 CE. Vaishnavite Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism early on competed for influence.

Srivijaya
From the 7th century to 1290, the maritime Empire of Srivijaya (Palembang is believed to have been the capital) controlled much of Srivijaya (except parts of the west coast). Srivijaya was a center of Buddhist studies. A number of stone inscriptions in Kawi script scattered over Sumatra refer to Srivijaya. In the 1025, Srivijaya was raided and briefly controled by the South Indian Chola Dynasty. The capital of Srivijaya seems to have moved from Palembang to Jambi.
Marco Polo in 1292 visited Samudra Pasai (northern Sumatra, which he called Java minor); his account reports nearby Ferlec (= Perlac) already having been Muslim. When Ibn Battuta visited Samudra Pasai in 1345, it was already a Muslim polity ruled by a Sultan and it had been since at least 1326, as attested by a local gravestone [Crossroads]. Visitors from the 13th to the 16th century also attest a great difference in lifestyle, as well as animosity, between peoples living on the coast and those dwelling in the interior. People dwelling in the interior, most notably the Minangkabau and the Batak, maintained their national identities into the 20th century.

1400-1800s
From 1400 to 1511, The Sultanate of Malacca (Melaka) ruled much of Sumatra's east coast. The Sultanate of Palembang was independent. In 1511 the Portuguese conquered Malacca; the Sultan moved his capital to Johor River. The new Sultanate of Johor controlled much of the central section of Java's east coast. In northern Sumatra, Samudra Pasai fell to the Portuguese in 1521. The Sultanate of Aceh emerged as a regional power. In 1641, the V.O.C., allied with Johor, expelled the Portuguese from Malacca and took over the city. The British established a trading factory in Bencoolen (Western Sumatra) 1685. In 1725, the Sultanate of Siak seceded from Johor. In 1799 the V.O.C. declared bankrupcy, and her possessions were taken over by the Batavian Republic (Dutch East Indies). In 1814, the Sultanate of Aru (Deli) seceded from Siak. In 1819 the Sultanate of Riau-Linggor seceded from Johor. In an 1824 deal, the British ceded Bencoolen to the Dutch, in return for the Dutch ceding Malacca to the British.
In 1825 the Dutch East Indies conquered and annexed Palembang; from 1833 the Dutch treated Jambi as a sultanate separate from Riau-Linggor; in 1858 Siak accepted a Dutch protectorate; in 1871 the British accepted the Dutch claim on Aceh. The conquest of Aceh, begun in 1873, lasted until 1903/1908. The Sultanate of Jambi was annexed in 1906. The inhabitants of islands west of Sumatra, such as Nias, are regarded as being a modern Megalithic society.

Sumatra within the Dutch East Indies
The Dutch developed Deli as a major plantation center (among others : tobacco) and tapped the island's oil reserves (Royal Dutch-Shell). The Dutch administration brought workers in significant numbers to Sumatra, from other parts of the archipelago.

Sumatra within Indonesia
Indonesia became independent in 1949. A Sumatran, Mohammad Hatta, had played a leading role in Indonesia's independence movement. Indonesia's capital is Jakarta; the country's economy is concentrated on heavily populated Java. From the 1950s to 1980s, the Transmigrasi program resettled millions of Javanese families on the larger, but lesser populated island of Sumatra. The island population rose from about 20 million in 1971 to about 50 million in 2010, with extraordinary growth rates in the 1970s and 1980s, due to Transmigrasi.
Aceh resented the incorporation into Indonesia and rebelled 1953-1959, and again 1976-2005.






Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern F. Brinkgreve et al. (ed.), Sumatra, Crossroads of Cultures, 2009
Historical Cornelis Lekkerkerker, Land en Volk van Sumatra, in Dutch, IA
Otto Mohnike, Banka und Palembang, nebst Mittheilungen über Sumatra im Allgemeinen, 1874, in German, IA
Adolph Eschelskroon, Beschryving van het eiland Sumatra : Inzonderheid ten aanzien van deszelfs Koophandel, 1783, in Dutch, GB
Links Virtual Library History : Indonesia
Organizations The Islamic Manuscript Association (TIMA)
Sumatra Heritage Trust
Nalanda Sriwijaya Centre, Singapore
Historical Dictionary J. Crawfurd, A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries 1856, IA
Timelines
Accounts of History General William Marsden, The history of Sumatra, 1784, IA
J.P. Parraud, Histoire de Sumatra, 1788, in French, IA
Salomon Müller, Bijdragen tot de kennis van Sumatra : bijzonder in geschiedkundig en ethnographisch opzigt 1846, in Dutch, IA
Specific Periods
Prehistory Indonesia News and Archives, Sumatra Prehistoric Artefacts, 2011
C.T. Flessen, Bellwood and Solheim: Models of Neolithic movements of people in Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 2006
600 BCE-600 CE Early Hindu Colonisation in Sumatra, pp.116-125 in R.C. Majumdar, Ancient Indian Colonies In The Far East Vol II Suvarnadvipa Part I Political History, 1937, IA
600-1450 Article : Srivijaya, from Wikipedia
Crivijaya Kingdom, from Melayu Online
George Coedes, Le Royaume de Çrivijaya, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 18 1918 pp.1-36
Gabriel Ferrand, L'empire sumatranais de Çrivijaya, 1922, in French, posted on Internet Archive
K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, Sri Vijaya, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 40 1940 pp.239-313, in English
F. Bosch, Crivijaya, de Cailendra en de Sanjaya-vamca, BTLV 108 1952 pp.113-123
H. Claessen, How unique was Srivijaya ?, BTLV 151 1995 pp.443-445
J. Wisseman Christie, State formation in early maritime Southeast Asia. A consideration of the theories and the data., BTLV 151 1995 pp.235-288
P.Y. Manguin, Sriwijaya, entre texte historique et terrain archeologique : un siecle a la recherche d'un Etat evanescent, Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 88 2001 pp.331-339
F. Sumio, The Rise of Tambralinga and the Southeast Asian Commercial Boom in the Thirteenth Century, 2006
P.Y. Manguin, Srivijaya, an Introduction, 2009
A.O. Zakharov, Constructing the polity of Sriwijaya in the 7th-8th centuries: The view according to the inscriptions, Indonesian Studies Working Papers 9 2009
R.W. Bottenberg, Sriwijaya: Myth or Reality ?, thesis Leiden 2010
T. Suzuki, The History of Srivijaya under the tributary trade system of China, 2012
Malay Kingdom of Srivijaya Palembang, Buddhism in Palembang, The Maritime Influence, from Network Indonesia
1450-1750 F. Colombijn, A Moving History of Middle Sumatra, 1600-1870, Modern Asian Studies 39, 1 (2005) pp.1-38.
1750-1914 F. Colombijn, A Moving History of Middle Sumatra, 1600-1870, Modern Asian Studies 39, 1 (2005) pp.1-38.
Historiography Article : Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai, Wikipedia, (Chronicle of the Kings of Pasai, believed to be from the 14th century)
J. Hadler, A Historiography of Violence and the Secular State in Indonesia: Tuanku Imam Bondjol and the Uses of History, The Journal of Asian Studies vol.67, no.3 (August) 2008 pp.971-1010
N.H. Shuhaimi et al., Verifiable Memories of Historical Events in the Malay Classical Literary Sources, Asian Social Science vol.9 no.6 2013
R.W. Bottenberg, Sriwijaya: Myth or Reality ?, thesis Leiden 2010
I.A. Mansumoor, Territorial Expansion and Contraction in the Malay Traditional Polity as Reflected in Contemporary Thought and Administration (1999)
Administration
Military A. Harfield, Bencoolen. A History on the Honourable East India Company's Garrison on the West Coast of Sumatra 1685-1825
The Cholas, from Sejarah Melayu
Article : Pamalayu Expedition, Wikipedia, of 1288
Articles First Expedition to Palembang, Second Expedition to Palembang, from Wikipedia
Articles Eerste Expeditie naar Palembang, Tweede Expeditie naar Palembang, from Wikipedia Dutch edition
for Aceh wars , see under Aceh
Economy & Finances J.N. Micsic, Traditional Sumatran Trade, Bulletin de l'Ecole Française d'Extreme Orient 1985 vol.74 pp.423-467
A.L. Reber, The pirate trade of the British in West Sumatra 1735-1770, thesis Hull 1977
K.C. Situmorang, The Organisation of Trade in North Sumatra. Batak Traders and Trading Networks , thesis Bonn 2011
L. Andaya, The trans-Sumatra trade and the ethnicization of the Batak in: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 158 (2002), no.3 pp.367-409, Scribd
Article : Sumatran Dollar, Wikipedia
C. Salmon, Srivijaya, la Chine et les marchands chinois (Xe-XIIe s.). Quelques reflexions sur la societe de l'empire sumatranais, Archipel 63 2000 pp.57-78
D. Qin et al., Sri Vijaya as the Entrepot for Circum-Indian Ocean Trade. Evidence from Documentary Records and Materials from Shipwrecks of the 9th-10th Centuries, Etudes Ocean Indien 46-47, 2011
J. Guy, Rare and Strange Goods. International Trade in Ninth-Century Asia (on Belitung shipwreck, sank after 826)
G. Wade, An Early Age of Commerce in Southeast Asia, 900-1300 CE, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 40(2), pp.221-265 June 2009
B.D. Averbuch, From Siraf to Sumatra: Seafaring and Spices in the Islamicate Indo-Pacific, Ninth-Eleventh Centuries C.E., thesis Harvard 2013
Willem Westerman, De Tabakskultuur op Sumatra's Oostkust, 1901, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
G.E. Haarsma, De Tabakscultuur in Deli, 1890, in Dutch, posted on Internet Archive
J.T. Lindblad, The Economic Decolonization of Sumatra, New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 11, 1 (June 2009): pp.178-88
Handelsposten : Palembang en Jambi, from De VOC Site, in Dutch
An Account of the Cultivation of sago in the East, pp.31-37 in : Journal of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy vol.1, 1830, GB
Social History A. Stark, The Matrilineal System of the Minangkabau and its Persistence Throughout History: A Structural Perspective, Southeast Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, vol.13 2013 pp.1-13
Erwiza, Miners, managers and the state: A socio-political history of the Ombilin coal-mines, West Sumatra, 1892-1996, thesis Amsterdam 1999
S. Rice, Rubber, Rice, Race, and Space: A Socio-Ecological Approach to the Remaking of Agricultural Space in East Sumatra, thesis Kent State 2012
Ethnography Muturzikin, Linguistic Map of Sumatra
S. Müller, Bijdragen tot de kennis van Sumatra : bijzonder in geschiedkundig en ethnographisch opzigt 1846, in Dutch, IA
Article : Minangkabau People, Wikipedia
Y. Primadesi, Preserving of Information Value in Oral Tradition of Minangkabau society, West Sumatera, Indonesia, n.d.
Z.M. Nasution, The Meaning of "Merantau" For Minangkabau, thesis USU 2011
P.R. Sanday et al., Cloth and Custom in West Sumatra. The Codification of Minangkabau Worldview, Penn Museum, Expedition 26 no.4
T.M. Manhart, A song for Lowalangi - The interculturation of Catholic mission and Nias traditional arts with special respect to music, thesis Singapore 2005
S. Sager, The Sky is our Roof, the Earth our Floor: Orang Rimba Customs and Religion in the Bukit Duabelas Region of Jambi, Sumatra, thesis Australian Nat'l Univ. 2008
R.E. Elson, Constructing the Nation: Ethnicity, Race, Modernity and Citizenship in Early Indonesian Thought, Asian Ethnicity (2005) 6 (3): pp.145-160
The History and Western Discovery of the Batak, from Virtual Collection of Masterpieces
Religion G. Simon, The progress and arrest of Islam in Sumatra 1912, IA
J.S. Aritonang, The encounter of the Batak people with Rheinische missions, thesis Utrecht 2001
Article : Candi of Indonesia : Candi of Sumatra, Wikipedia
Buddhism in Palembang, from Network Indonesia
History of Regions for Aceh, Riau see on the respective index pages
Geographic Regions J. Kathirithambi-Wells, Hulu-hilir Unity and Conflict : Malay Statecraft in East Sumatra before the Mid-Nineteenth Century, Archipel 1993 vol.45 pp.77-96
F. Colombijn, A Moving History of Middle Sumatra, 1600-1870, Modern Asian Studies 39, 1 (2005) pp.1-38.
Article : Nias, Wikipedia
U. Hummel et al., Cross and Adu: A Socio-Historical Study on the Encounter between Christianity and the Indigenous Culture on Nias and the Batu Islands, Indonesia (1865-1965), Mission, issue: 43 (2007), thesis Utrecht 2007
E.E. Mackinnon, Early Polities in Southern Sumatra: Some Preliminary Observations Based on Archaeological Evidence, n.d., Sejarah Melayu Library
Historic Polities
Asahan Article : Asahan Sultanate, from Wikipedia
Article : Kesultanan Asahan, from Wikipedia Bahasa Indonesia edition
Brief History of Asahan, by Christopher Buyers
Bangka History of Bangka Island, from Indonesia Tourism
Article : Bangka : History, from Wikipedia
Bencoolen Article : British Bencoolen, Wikipedia
Article : Samudera Pasai Sultanate, Wikipedia
Deli Article : Sultanate of Deli, from Wikipedia
Article : Kesultanan Deli, from Wikipedia Bahasa Indonesia edition
A Brief History of the Kingdom of Deli, from North Sumatra Travel
The Sultanate of Deli, from Melayu Online
Indragiri Indragiri, from Kingdoms of Indonesia
Indragiri Sultanate, from Melayu Online
Jambi Article : Jambi : History, from Wikipedia
Lampung Debbie Salcedo, Lampung Culture and History
Geschiedenis van Lampung, from Lampung Info
Langkat Article Sultanate of Langkat, from Wikipedia
Article : Kesultanan Langkat, from Wikipedia Bahasa Indonesia edition
Brief History of Langkat, by Christopher Buyers
Palembang The Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam, from Melayu Online
Guide "Archipel" III : Palembang et Bangka, Archipel 1978 vol.15 pp.145-161
History of Palembang, by Bachtiar Wijaya
J. Bastin, Palembang in 1811 and 1812 Pt.2, in BTLV 1954 vol.110/1 pp.64-88
M.H. Court, An exposition of the relations of the British government with the Sultaun of Palembang and the Island of Banca, 1821, GB
Serdang Article : Sultanate of Serdang, from Wikipedia
Article : Kesultanan Serdang, from Wikipedia Bahasa Indonesia
Kesultanan Serdang, from Sejarah Melayu, in Bahasa Melayu
The History of Serdang Bedagai, from Serdang Bedagai Regency Website
Siak Kingdom of Siak, from Melayu Online; Regency of Siak, from Life in Riau Province
Introduction to Riau, from Indahnesia
Siak Sri Indrapura, from Indonesia Tourism
Article : Kesultanan Siak Sri Inderapura, from Wikipedia Bahasa Indonesia edition
Local History I. Suwandy, Padang West Sumatra History Collections, pt.1 2012, pt.2 2012, pt.3 2012, pt.4 2012, pt.5 2012
J. Drakard, An Indian Ocean Port: Sources for the Earlier History of Barus, Archipel 1989 vol.37 no.37 pp.53-82, Persee
W.K. Yeo, Palembang in the 1950s: The Making and Unmaking of a Region , thesis Univ. of Washington 2012
B. Bronson et al., Palembang as Srivijaya. The Lateness of Early Cities in Southern Southeast Asia, Asian Perspectives, XIX(2), 1976
P.I. Manguin, 'Welcome to Bumi Sriwijaya' or the Building of a Provincial Identity in Contemporary Indonesia, Asia Research Institute Working Paper no.102, 2008
Article : Medan : History, from Wikipedia
Dirk A. Buiskool, Medan - A Plantation City on the East Coast of Sumatra, 1870-1942 (2004)
Cor Passchier, Medan, Urban Development by Planters and Entrepreneurs, 1870-1940 (1995, revised 2008)
Port of Jambi, Port History, from World Port Source
Institutions
Culture Y. Darwis, A History of Minangkabau Press, 1859-1945, thesis Univ. Teknologi Mara 2010
Syofani's Traditional West Sumatra Dance and Music Ensemble, Repertoire of Minangkabau Traditional Dance
U. Junus, Kaba and Novel and Minangkabau Society: History of Ideas , vol.12 no.2, 2000
S. Murao, A Cultural Anthropological Study of Body Techniques for Protection: The Case Study of Indonesian Minangkabau, Ars Vivendi Journal no.3 (February 2013): pp.51-68
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History : The Batak
Virtual Collection of Asian Masterpieces : The Batak, 2009
Virtual Collection of Asian Masterpieces : Cultural dynamics and diversity of Sumatra: the New Museum project, 2010
D. van Melis, The Kettledrums of Insular Southeast Asia. Protohistoric Distribution and Localization, thesis Leiden 2010
Azibaza, Srivijaya Art of Buddha Images
Biographies
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
WWF : Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests : Southeastern Asia: The island of Sumatra in Indonesia
J. Patton, A 6,500 year earthquake history in the region of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake 2012
World Heritage Center, scanned nominations : Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, 2004
M.A. Safitri, Forest tenure in Indonesia : the socio-legal challenges of securing communities'rights, thesis Leiden 2010; on Lampung, Sumatra; historical aspects
Article : Toba Catastrophe Theory, Wikipedia
S. Oppenheimer, The Mount Toba Volcanic Super-Eruption
SPAFA, Final Report. Consultative Workshop on Archaeological and Environmental Studies on Srivijaya, 1983
S. Rice, Rubber, Rice, Race, and Space: A Socio-Ecological Approach to the Remaking of Agricultural Space in East Sumatra, thesis Kent State 2012
Archaeology The Digital Archaeological Record (tDAR)
ABIA South and Southeast Asian Art and Archaeology Index, Project at IGNCA, New Delhi; ABIA Website
Tanah Datar Archaeological Project
Jambi Ancient Riverine Harbour Settlements: Sungai Batang Hari, from Southeast Asian Archaeology
Others

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen World Statesmen : Sultans of Aceh Asahan, Deli, Indragiri, Jambi, Langkat, Palembang, Siak; page has more entries
Genealogical Gleanings : Asahan, Deli, Langkat, Siak
Documents Yearbook Entries [on the Expedition against Palembang], pp.260-292 in Jaarboeken van het Koningrijk der Nederlanden, 1821, in Dutch, GB
Image Databanks Geheugen van Nederland; site in Dutch; Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam; Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden; Maritiem Digitaal (Dutch Maritime Musea); Leiden University Digital Sources (mostly images); Wikimedia Commons; Atlas of Mutual Heritage
Koleksi Foto, from Indonesian National Library, site in Bahasa Indonesia
Stichting Pelita, Beeldbank Virtueel Indië
Landing op Djambi 1948, documentary from Beeld en Geluid, Dutch language Wiki
Archival Deposits Indonesian Provenience
Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
Dutch Provenience
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL
Universiteit Leiden, South Ease Asia Collections
Memories van Overgave, from IDC Publishers; pdf file contains table of contents
E. Schwidder, E. Vermeij, Guide to the Asian Collections at the International Institute of Social History (IISG 2007) [400 page file]
British Provenience
National Archives (UK) Catalogue, Bencoolen, Sumatra
British Library, Indonesian Manuscripts; Raffles Family Collection
U.S. Provenience
Univ. of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, Batak Texts
Laws Adatrechtbundels, ed. by KITLV, Serie J : Het Maleische Gebied, posted by Papua Web (scroll down)
Adatrechtbundels, ed. by KITLV, Serie I : Zuid-Sumatra, posted by Papua Web (scroll down)
Resumes van het onderzoek naar de regten, welke in de gouvernements-landen op Sumatra op de onbebouwde gronden worden uitgeoefend, 1872, in Dutch, SBB
Historiography Digital Library of Malay Manuscripts, Sejarah Palembang, Undang-Undang Minangkabau M 37, Undang-Undang Minangkabau M 38
Document Surveys British Library, Help for Researchers, Indonesian Studies
I.R. Katkova, Publishing Shattariyah Sufi manuscripts of Western Sumatra: The Heritage of Sheikh 'Abd al-Manaf Amin al-Khatib (1922-2006), Islamic Manuscripts 2007
N. Heer, A List of Malay Manuscript Catalogues, 2010
Malay Concordance Project
Document Collections Thesaurus of Indonesian Islamic Manuscripts (T2IM)
Manuscript Collection, from Indonesian National Library, Koleksi Digital
Digital Library of Malay Manuscripts
GRETIL - Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages and related Indological materials from Central and Southeast Asia
Individual Documents D. Perret (trsl.), Inquiry of a Chinese trader about the Batak People in North Sumatra, 1 March 1701
Sumatra - Delly pp.306-308 in vol.1 of A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds, relating to India and Neighbouring Countries, 1862, GB
Sumatra - Langkat pp.309-310 in vol.1 of A collection of treaties, engagements, and sunnuds, relating to India and Neighbouring Countries, 1862, GB
Historical Maps Map : Sumatra Ethnic Groups, Wikimedia Commons
R. Cribb, Digital Atlas of Indonesian History : The Geology of Sumatra, Continental plates and plate fragments, twenty million years ago (Sumatra and Java form a combined island), Coastlines of the archipelago, ca 17,000 years ago (Sumatra with Java, Borneo attached to the mainland), Languages of Sumatra, Political entities known in the archipelago, ca A.D. 250, States and courts in the archipelago, ca A.D. 450, States and courts in the archipelago, ca A.D. 550, States and courts in the archipelago, ca A.D. 650, Kawi and Pallawa inscriptions, 4th-12th centuries, Likely extent of Srivijaya's maritime empire, 8th century, Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 13th century, Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 14th century, Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 15th century, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, 16th century, Sumatra, first half of 17th century, Sumatra, second half of 17th century, Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, first half of 18th century, Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, second half of 18th century, Dutch territorial expansion in Sumatra, 1817-1907, Dutch conquest of northern Sumatra, 1837-1907
U.S. Army Map Service, Sumatra 1:250,000 1943-, PCL, UTexas
Muturzikin, Linguistic Map of Sumatra
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular
Religious
Economic Sumatra, pp.325-351 in W. Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Bencoolen oder Benkulen, Sumatra, posted by DTBSWS
Geographical Sumatra pp.150-168 in vol.1 of T. Salmon, Modern history or the present state of all nations, 1744, GB
Sumatra pp.45-46 in vol.8 of T.G. Smollett, The Present State of all Nations, 1769, GB
Oceanica : Sumatra, pp.426-445 in vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, 1822, GB
Sumatra, pp.79-115 in vol.14 of E. Reclus, The universal geography : earth and its inhabitants n.d. [1876-1894], IA
Ethnographical Sumatra pp.191-192 in S. Morewood, A Philosophical and Statistical History of the Inventions and Customs of Ancient and Modern Nations in the Manufacture and Use of Inebriating Liquors, 1838, GB
Historical Article : Sumatra, pp.1133-1134 in L. Moreri, Le grand dictionnaire historique 1689, in French, GB
Sumatra, pp.202-238 in vol.5 of F. de Marsy, Histoire Moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens &c., 1766, in French, GB
Sumatra p.383, in vol.2 of S. Maunder, The history of the world: comprising a general history, 1856, GB
Other Article : Sumatra, from Röll, Enzyklopädie des Eisenbahnwesens (Encyclopedia of Railroads) 2nd ed. 1912-1923, in German
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Staten Generaal Digitaal (Dutch Parliament, 1900-1994)
Travelogues Delley, p.125 in vol.2 of A. Hamilton, A new account of the East Indies, 1744, GB
Jambi p.222 in vol.4 of I. Commelin, Recueil des voiages qui ont servi a l'etablissement et aux progres de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales formee dans les Provinces Unies des Pais-Bas, 1705, in French, GB
Voyage de Beaulieu : Jambi, p.316 in vol.12 of Histoire Generale des Voyages, 1755, in French, GB
Th. Barnes, Account of a Journey from Moco-Moco to Pengkalan Jambi, through Korinch, in 1818, pp.137-159 in Malayan miscellanies, 1822, GB
John Anderson, Mission to the East Coast of Sumatra, 1826, posted on Internet Archive
Institutions Musea Article : Candi Muaro Jambi, from Wikipedia
Sultan Mahmud Badarudin II Museum, Palembang, from Putra Musi
Monuments Siak Palace, from a people loved
Grand Mosque of Pekanbaru, from Indonesia Tourism
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms FOTW : Flags of Aceh, Asahan, Deli, Djambi, Indragiri, Langkat, Siak
Flag of Siak, by Roberto Breschi, comment in Italian
Coins Coins, E.I.C. Sumatra, Djambi, Palembang, Aceh, from Oriental Coin Database
Palembang Coins, from Rondomons, commercial site
Numismaticon, from Palembang, Siak
Sri Vijaya Money, from Bank of Thailand Museum

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
DBNG
Online Libraries Gutenberg Library Online, Internet Archive
Persee (French search engine)
Sejarah Melayu Library
Aceh Books
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Indonesia
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Archipel, use Persee (French search engine)
BTLV 1853-1908, 1853-2009
Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 1979-
Bulletin of the Society for East Asian Archaeology (BSEAA) 2007-
Moussons. Recherche en sciences humaines sur l'Asie du Sud-Est
General Accounts On Southeast Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
On Sumatra Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.21, pp.213-245 Article Indonesia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.21
Steven Drakeley, The History of Indonesia, Westport CT : Greenwood 2005, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.8 0763h
Specific Topics
Historical Atlasses Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of Southeast Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Yearbook Entries