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Literature on the History of South East Asia
History of China History of Annam
First posted on December 17th 2004, last revised on December 15th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

For 1802-1859/1885, see Cochinchina, Vietnam 1802-1885
For 1859/1885-1954, see French Tonkin 1885-1954, French Indochina 1887-1954
For 1954-1975, see History of North Vietnam
For since 1975, see History of Vietnam
see also History of Mainland Southeast Asia

In western sources published prior to 1945, Vietnam during the years 1500 to French colonization does not appear as one political entity, but instead as three distinct entities - Tonkin (Tonquin, Tongking, Tonking etc.), Annam and Cochinchina. In 1802, the Nguyen Dynasty unified these three (Vietnam 1802-1885). While many contemporary western scholars were aware of this, the names Annam, Cochinchina and Tonkin continued to be used, at imes for the historical region, at times for the entire polity. Modern Vietnamese historiography emphasizes that these were fragments of essentially one greater unit, Dai Viet.
WHKMLA attempts to provide easy access to numerous historical sources, both primary and secondary. For sources on Dai Viet, see History of Vietnam. From 1887 to 1954, Tonkin, Annam and Cochinchina together with Laos and Cambodia formed part of French Indochina.

Historical Atlas : Vietnam Page
Timeline : Tonkin

List of Wars : Vietnam

Students' Paper : Son, Bo Kyung, The History of Persecution of the Buddhist Faith (2011)

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles from Wikipedia
Links General
Timelines click here
Accounts of History J. Richard, Histoire naturelle, civile et politique du Tonquin, vol.1, vol.2, 1778, in French, GB
Specific Periods An Historical Sketch of the Reign of the Emperor Kheen Lung, pp.213-219, in The Asiatic journal and monthly register for British and foreign India, China and Australasia 1832, GB
Articles : Mac Dynasty, Trinh Lords, from Wikipedia
Politics Foreign Policy, Relations Arnold van Wickeren, Geschiedenis van Portugal en de Portugezen, Ch.17 ch.3 subch.1 Portugezen en Hollanders in Achter-Indië, in Dutch, posted on Colonial Voyage
Hoang Anh Tuan, Silk for silver: Dutch-Vietnamese relations, 1637-1700, Diss. Leiden 2006
Alvares, Antonio, Mem?ia sobre o Real padroado da C?te de Portugal nas miss?s do Reino de Tunkin por Antonio Alvares, da Congrega?o do Oratorio de Lisboa, feita em 21 de janeiro de 1802, e resposta que deu o procurador da Coroa, Joao Antonio Salter de Mendonça em 9 de abril do mesmo anno, Tudo copiado da collecção de manuscriptos de Julio Firmino Judice Biker, e por este publicado, 1802, in Portuguese, SBB
Military F. Romanet du Caillaud, Histoire de l'intervention francçaise au Tong-King de 1872 a 1874, 1880, in French, IA
Economy & Finances History of the East India Company's Endeavours to extend their Trade in the East, pp.1-20 (esp. 17-18) in : Asiatic Joutnal vol.13, 1822, GB
J. Bruce, Annals of the Honorable East-India Company: from their establishment by the Charter of Queen Elizabeth 1600 to the Union of the London and English East India Companies 1707-1708, vol.2, 1810, numerous Tonquin entries
Hoang Anh Tuan, Silk for silver: Dutch-Vietnamese relations, 1637-1700, Diss. Leiden 2006
Social History Tranh Thi Phuonh Hoa, Franco-Vietnamese schools and the Transition from Confucian to a new Type of Intellectual in the Colonial Context of Tonkin, Yenching Institute Working Paper 2009
Religion Relation des missions des evesques françois aux royaumes de Siam, de Cochinchine, de Camboye & du Tonkin, 1674, in French, GB
Tonkin, p.207 in Thomas Yeates, Indian Church History, 1818, GB
Extrait d'une relation du M. Marette, missionaire apostolique au Tonkin, en date de Novembre 1835, sur la fete d'agriculture et les sacrifies a la terre, pp.146-162, in Journal Asiatique, February 1838, in French, GB
Local History History of Hanoi, from Lonely Planet
The History of Hanoi's Old Quarter, by Barbara Cohen
Article Tonkin, from Wikipedia
Article Hanoi, from Wikipedia
Structures, Institutions
Culture & Science
Environmental History

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen, by Ben Cahoon; from Regnal Chronologies,
Vietnamese History, from LuanPhan, has list of Kings of the various dynasties
Tunkin, pp.52-53 in 1799 pt.1, p.54 in 1800 pt.1, pp.54-55 in 1801 pt.1, pp.54-55 in 1802 pt.1, p.51 1803 pt.1, of Genealogisches Reichs- und Staats-Handbuch, in German, GB
Statistical Data Population Figures Historic Population Statistics by Province : Vietnam, posted by Jan Lahmeyer; data for Tonkin at the bottom
Documents Historical Newspapers
Image Databanks Historic Picture Postcards : Tonkin, from Postcardman
Archival Deposits
Treaties Rapport au President de la Republique Française, 28 Fevr. 1890 [on creation of French tribunal in Tonkin], p.306 in 2nd series vol.33 of Archives Diplomatiques, 1890, in French, GB
Chine-France, Convention pour le raccordement de lignes telegraphiques, Dec. 1st 1888, pp.257-260 in 2nd series vol.34 of Archives Diplomatiques, 1890, in French, GB
Document Surveys Ch.11 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Orientalium atque Asiaticarum, Par.6 : Siamensium rerum scriptores (also Tunchinensium), pp.244-247 in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Document Collections Asia for Educators : Primary Sources with DBQs, Vietnam
Individual Documents
Historical Maps map Tongking, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888, posted by Wikimedia Commons
map Indochina, from Scottish Geographical Magazine 1886, posted by Wikimedia Commons
see WHKMLA Historical Atlas, South East Asia, French Indochina, Vietnam pages
Atlas of Vietnam, from Commons Wikimedia
Talessman's Atlas, series of maps of the Eastern Hemisphere 1300 BC - 1500 AD
Tong-King 1906, Hanoi (European Quarter) 1922, Hanoi (European Quarter) 1932, from Probert Encyclopedia Antiquarian Map Archive
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Tongking, Hanoi, from EB 1911
Articles Tongking, Hanoi, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888-1889, in German
Article : Annam [treats Tonkin as province of A.], pp.383-391 in vol.2 of Encyclopedie Moderne, 1823, in French, GB
Religious Das Sinesische Reich, pp.697-700 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Economic J.C.M.R., Korte Schets van den tegenwoordigen staat van het Half-Eiland beoosten de Ganges, pp.317-347 in : vol.4 of Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap der Kunsten en Weetenschappen, 1786, in Dutch, GB, on Tonkin p.346-347
Tunquinesischer Handel, pp.61-64, in : Friedrich Ludwig Langstedt, Geschichte des asiatischen Handels, 1803, in German, GB
Tonquin, pp.457-460 in vol.2 of William Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Of Tonquin, pp.226-227 in vol.2 of W. Beaves, Lex Mercatoria : or, A Complete Code of Commercial Law 1813
Geographical Tunquin, pp.728-732 in J.E.B., Compendieuse Staats-Beschreibung Des Durchlauchtigen Welt-Kreises, 1721, in German, GB
Tonquin, pp.212-214 in : Alexander Hamilton,A new account of the East Indies, vol.2, 1744, GB
Treats of Couchin-China, and Tonquin, their Religion, Laws and Customs : Tonquin, pp.378-379, in : A new history of the East-Indies, 1754, GB
Tonquin, pp.427-432 in : Thomas Salmon, A new geographical and historical grammar, 1767, GB
Tonquin, pp.551-558 in vol.5 of L.P. Anquetil, Precis de l'Histoire Universelle ou Tableau historique presentant les vicissitudes des Nations ... , 1799, in French, GB
Along the Coast and in the Gulf of Tonkin, pp.466-469 in : Joseph Huddart et al., The Oriental Navigator, or New Directions for Sailing to and From the East Indies, China, New Holland etc., 1801, GB
Historical [on the Dutch factory in Tonquin], pp.379-381 in vol.31 of G. Sale. 379, 1759. GB
Entry : The Kingdom of Tonquin, pp.141-154, in : T.G. Smoillett, The Present State of the World,
vol.7 1768, posted on Google Books
Histoire du Tonquin, pp.380-444 in vol.1 of F.M. de Marsy, Histoire moderne des Chinois, des Japonnois, des Indiens, des Persans, des Turcs, des Russiens etc., 1771, in French, GB
[Eur. Compagnies in Tonquin] pp.52-57 in G.Th.F. Raynal, Histoire philosophique et politique Des Etablissemens & du Commerce des Europeens dans les deux Indes, 1773, in French, GB
Histoire du Royaume de Tonquin, pp.501-598 in vol.52 of Histoire universelle, depuis le commencement du monde jusqu'a present, 1783, in French, GB
Entry : Tonkin pp.333-337 in vol.5 of J.G. Eichhorn, Geschichte der letzten drey Jahrhunderte, 1806, in German, GB
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Institutions Archives Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Tonkin
Musea Hanoi Museums, from Haivenu
Libraries National Library of Vietnam, page in Vietnamese
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes Coins and Banknotes from Vietnam and French Indochina, from Art Hanoi
Annam Cash Coins, from East Asian Cash Coins
Vietnam Coins and Paper Notes, from Viet Touch

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Vietnam, Tonkin
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies
on Vietnam, Tonkin
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 1901-2003
Journal Asiatique (in French) 1st series vol.2, 1823, vol.3, 1823, vol.4, 1824, vol.5, 1824, vol.6, 1825, vol.7, 1825, vol.8, 1826, vol.9, 1826, vol.10, 1827, vol.11, 1827, 2nd series vol.1, 1828, vol.2, 1828, vol.3, 1829, vol.4, 1829, vol.5, 1830, vol.6, 1830, vol.7, 1831, vol.8, 1831, vol.9, 1832, vol.10, 1832, vol.11, 1833, vol.12, 1833, vol.13, 1834, vol.14, 1834, vol.15, 1835, vol.16, 1835, 3rd series vol.1 1836, vol.2 1836, vol.3 1837, vol.4 1837, vol.5 1838, vol.6 1838, vol.7 1839, vol.8 1839, vol.9 1840, vol.10 1840, vol.11 1841, vol.12 1841, vol.13 1842, vol.14 1842, 4th series vol.1 1843, vol.2 1843, vol.3 1844, vol.4 1844, vol.5 1845, vol.6 1845, vol.7 1846, vol.8 1846, vol.9 1847, vol.10 1847, vol.11 1848, vol.12 1848, vol.13 1849, vol.14 1849, vol.15 1850, vol.16 1850, vol.17 1851, vol.18 1851, vol.19 1852, vol.20 1852, 5th series vol.1 1853, vol.2 1853, vol.3 1854, vol.4 1854, vol.5 1855, vol.6 1855, vol.7 1856, vol.8 1856, vol.9 1857, vol.10 1857, vol.11 1858, vol.12 1858, vol.13 1859, vol.14 1859, vol.15 1860, vol.16 1860, vol.17 1861, vol.18 1861, vol.19 1862, vol.20 1862, 6th series vol.1 1863, vol.2 1863, vol.3 1864, vol.4 1864, vol.5 1865, vol.6 1865, vol.7 1866, vol.8 1866, vol.12 1868, vol.14 1869, GB
Annales de la propagation de la foi vol.1, 1827, vol.2, 1826, vol.3, 1828, vol.4, 1830, vol.5, 1831, vol.6, 1833, vol.7, 1834, vol.8, 1835, vol.9, 1836, vol.10, 1837, vol.11 1839, vol.12, 1840, vol.14, 1842, vol.15, 1843, vol.16, 1844, vol.17, 1845, vol.18, 1846, vol.19, 1847, vol.20, 1848, vol.21, 1849, vol.22, 1850, vol.23, 1851, vol.24, 1852, vol.25, 1853, vol.27, 1855, vol.28, 1856, vol.29, 1857, vol.30, 1858, vol.31, 1859, vol.33, 1861, vol.34 1862, vol.35 1863, vol.36 1864, vol.37 1865, vol.38 1866, vol.39 1867. vol.40 1868, GB
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 959 T188c
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.740-744 Article Southeast Asia : Laos, KMLA Lib. Call Sign R 032 B862h v.27
Stanley Karnow, Vietnam : a History, Harmondsworth : Penguin 1984, KMLA Lib. Call Sign 959.704 K18v
Specific Topics A.V. Schweyer, Ancient Vietnam. History, Art and Archaeology, Bangkok : River Books 2011 [G]
Historical Dictionaries William J. Duiker, Historical Dictionary of Vietnam, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow 1989 [G]
Yearbooks Article : French Indo-China - Tonquin, in : Statesman's Year Book 1895 pp.508-510 (on events of 1894) [G]
Article : French Indo-China - Tonking, in : Statesman's Year Book 1898 pp.506-508, 1901 pp.580-583, 1905 pp.638-643, 1910 pp.784-789, 1918 p.847, 1919 p.853, 1924 p.893, 1925 pp.904-905, 1926 p.878, 1928 pp.891-892, 1929 p.879, 1932 pp.881-882, 1937 pp.920-921, 1943 pp.907-908 [G]
Article : Tonking, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.828, 1928 p.758, 1930 p.747, 1931 p.743, 1932 p.692, 1933 p.745, 1934 p.576, 1935 p.696, 1936 p.707, 1937 p.682, 1938 pp.676-677, 1939 p.740, 1940 p.760, 1943 p.707, 1944 p.683 [G]
Article : Tonquin, or Tonking, in : International Year Book 1899 p.774, 1900 p.865 [G]
Article : Tongking, in : New International Year Book 1907 p.769, 1908 p.692, 1909 p.700, 1913 p.678, 1914 p.695, 1916 p.685, 1918 p.645, 1919 p.674, 1920 p.674, 1921 p.696, 1923 p.746, 1925 p.698, 1928 p.749, 1930 p.758 [G]

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