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Literature on the History of South East Asia
Federated Malay States Indonesia
First posted on May 2nd 2010, last revised on December 16th 2013

NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

for the history up to 1895, see History of Johor, History of Kedah, History of Kelantan, History of Perlis, History of Trengganu
see also History of Malaya, History of Malaysia

In 1786 to 1824 the E.I.C. / Britain acquired Penang, Singapore and Malacca, which were formed into the Straits Settlements in 1826. Britain, while recognizing the sovereignty of Siam over the northern Malay States (Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Terengganu), used its influence to assure that British economic interest on the Malay peninsula, after the Kedah War, would no longer be threatened by Siamese military campaigns.
In 1885 Johor, by treaty became a British protectorate, but did not join the Federated Malay States when this federation was established in 1895.
In the Treaty of Bangkok 1909 Siam ceded Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu to Britain. From 1909 to 1946 Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu were called the Unfederated Malay States, a term to differentiate them from the Federated Malay States and the Straits Settlements.
Throughout the usage of the term "Unfederated Malay States", they did not have any common institutions.
After the Japanese occupation in World War II, the Federation of Malaya was established, in which the five individual Unfederated Malay States, Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu, joined Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor (hitherto Federated Malay States) as well as Penang and Malacca (hitherto Straits Settlements) as member states.

This page focusses on the History of the Unfederated Malay States from 1909 to 1946. For the individual states, see Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu

Historical Atlas, Malaysia Page (since 1963)
List of Wars : Malay Peninsula (until 1963)

Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles from Wikipedia
The Unfederated Malay States, from Sejarah Melayu
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; from dmoz; Links on Malaysia (chapter on M. History) from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
List of Malaysia-related Topics, from Wikipedia
Virtual Library Malaysia
Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia
on History from Virtual Library Malaysia; from Univ. Oregon, Asian Studies
Historical Dictionaries N.B. Dennys, A Descriptive Dictionary of British Malaya 1894, IA
Organizations on Asian History International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA)
Perak Heritage Society
on SE Asian History Japan Society for Southeast Asian Studies (JSSEAS)
The International Center for East Asian Archaeology and Cultural History (ICEAACH)
Finnish University Network for East and Southeast Asian Studies
on Malaysia History Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Timelines from BBC News, from timelines.ws; from geographia.com; another one from Malaysia Stall
Accounts of History Sejarah Melayu. A History of the Malay Peninsula, from malaya.org.uk
History of Malaysia, from World Travel Guide, from Asian Info, Lonely Planet
Article History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Historical F.A. Swettenham, British Malaya; an account of the origin and progress of British influence in Malaya, 1907, IA
J. Kennedy, A history of Malaya, A.D. 1400-1959 1962, IA
Specific Periods Global Security : Malaysia History : 1870-1909 - The Malay States , 1909-1941 - Federated and Unfederated States
Politics Tracing the Development of the Legal System : Early Malaya, pp.1-19 in A. bt Ahmad, Legal Systems in ASEAN : Malaysia; scroll down for Unfederated Malay States
Military Wars affecting the Malay Peninsula, until 1963 (at this site)
Wars of Malaysia, 1800-1999, from ACED
Article Military History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
A.H. McCormick, The Volunteer Forces of the Federated and Unfederated States of Malaya, and the Straits Settlerments: 1940- 1942
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Malaysia
Economic History of Malaysia, from Economic History Encyclopedia
Category Economic History of Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Tin Mining in Malaysia - Present and Future, from TED Case Studies; Tin Tales from the Past, from Malaysia up Close
The Story of Malaysian Natural Rubber, from Malaysian Rubber Board
Y. Tai, Chinese capitalism in colonial Malaya, 1900-1941, thesis Univ. of Hong Kong 2010
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Malaysia (141), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Malaysia - Chinese, East Indians
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Malaysia
M. Rerceretnam, Black Europeans, the Indian coolies and empire : colonialisation and christianized Indians in colonial Malaya & Singapore, c.1870s-c.1950s, thesis Sidney 2002
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Malaysia, from Kirken i Norge
Category Religion in Malaysia, from Wikipedia
Article History of the Jews in Malaysia, from Wikipedia; Malaysia, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Catholic Church in Malaysia, from GCatholic
J. Roxborogh, An outline history of Christianity in Malaysia
C.R. Yeoh, Malaysia, Truly Asia ? Religious Pluralism in Malaysia
Nalanda, Buddhism in Malaysia
Malaysia Hindudharma Mamandram, Hinduism in Malaysia
History of Regions see History of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, Terengganu at this site
States of Malaysia, Districts of Malaysia, from www.statoids.com
Local History
Institutions EngRailHistory, The Development of Malaya. A Line that Brought Prosperity to the Jungle
Culture Online books on History of Malaysian architecture, from ArchNet
Malaysia, from UK Food Online, a culinary history of Malaysia
Biographies List of Malaysians, from Wikipedia
Environmental History Indo-Malayan Ecoregion, from WWF
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Malaysia

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen
Statistical Data Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Malaysia, from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Documents Historical Newspapers
Online Yearbooks
Newsreels British Pathe
Wochenschau-Archiv (in German)
Archief Beeld en Geluid : Polygoon (in Dutch)
Image Databanks Sejarah Melayu Gallery
Malaysia Design Archive
Wikimedia Commons
Archival Deposits Digital Library Malaysia
National Archives (UK)
Document Collections
Historical Maps Maps, from Sejarah Melayu Gallery
click WHKMLA Historical Atlas, Malaya Page, Malaysia Page
Encyclopedia Entries
Ethnographical The Malay Peninsula, pp.525-527 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
British Empire in Asia : Malay States, pp.865-888 in vol.2A of J.A. Hammerton, Peoples of All Nations, c.1920, illustrated, IA
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides E.A. Powell, Where the strange trails go down; Sulu, Borneo, Celebes, Bali, Java, Sumatra, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Cambodia, Annam, Cochin-China (1921), IA
Institutions Archives National Archives of Malaysia; Repositories of Primary Sources : Asia : Malaysia, from Univ. of Idaho. Mostly Archive Webpages, 8 entries
UNESCO Archives Portal : National Archives Asia Pacific, has one entry for Malaysia (Nov. 13th 2006), scroll down; UNESCO Archives Portal : State and Regional Archives, Asia-Pacific Malaysia, 1 entry
Musea Lists, Links Museums in Malaysia
Musea Museum Websites
Monuments Tentative Lists : Malaysia, World Heritage List, scroll down for Malaysia, from UNESCO World Heritage
Malaysia Index, from Showcaves
Libraries Libraries in Malaysia, from LibDex
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Malaysia Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (MBRAS)
Malaysia Women's Studies Bibliography, from UC Berkeley Library
NNDB Bibliography Malaysia
Search Asian Development Bank (ADB) Publications for Malaysia
ASEAN Environmental Education Inventory Database, resources, scroll down for Malaysia
Food and Culture (a bibliography), by R.T. Dirks, click on South East Asia
Books on Malaysia, from Orchid Press
South East Asia Dissertations, click Malaysia
Malaysia, from The Online Books Page
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
International Boundary Studies, search for Malaysia
on Malaysia Sejarah Melayu Library
Digital Library Malaysia
South East Asian Studies, Student Theses, from Ohio University
ISEAS Working Papers, Back Issues 2000-2003
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Registry of Open Access Repositories, Malaysia
Malaysian Theses Online
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Search Electronic Journals Online for Thailand
Journal of Southeast Asian History 1960-1969, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 2009-, from Cambridge Journals Online (require registration)
ASEAS (Austrian Journal of South East Asian Studies), open access, 2008-
Asia Insights, from NIAS, 2002-
Southeast Asian Studies 1963-, mostly in Japanese
Explorations, 1997- Graduate Student Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, CSEAS, Univ. of Hawaii
Historiography Article : Malay Historical Writing, by E.U. Kraatz, pp.585-589, in vol.2 of A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing, NY 1998 [G]
General Accounts on SE Asia Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
on Malaysia Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard V. Andaya, A History of Malaysia, Honolulu : Univ. of Hawai'i Press 2001, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.5 A 543h
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.27, pp.745-755 Article Southeast Asia : Malaysia KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.27
Specific Topics British Malaya, in : Lilian Charlotte, Economic History of Asia and Africa, New Delhi (c. 1926) reprint 1998, pp.469-485 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Amarjit Kaur, Historical Dictionary of Malaysia, Lanham Md. : Scarecrow, 2nd edition 2001
Historical Atlas HASEA : Jan M. Pluvier, Historical Atlas of South-East Asia, Leiden : Brill 1995 [G]
Siam, the Malay States and Britain, 15th to 20th Centuries, pp.247-253 in : G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville, Historical Atlas of Islam, NY : Continuum (1991) 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Article Non-Federated Malay States, in : Britannica Book of the Year 1913 pp. 631-635 (on events of 1912) [G]
Articles Johor, Other British Protectorates, in : Statesman's Year Book 1910 pp.163-167, 1918 pp.169-172 [G]
Article : Malay States Not Included in the Federation, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1919 pp.174-177, 1924 pp.174-176, 1925 pp.176-178, 1926 pp.180-182, 1928 pp.181-183, 1929 pp.181-184, 1932 pp.185-187 [G]
Article : Malaya : Unfederated Malay States, in : Statesman's Yearbook 1937 pp.203-206 (data of 1935-1937) [G]
Article : Malay States, in : Americana Annual 1927 p.522, 1928 pp.475-476 [G]
Article : Malaya, British, in : Americana Annual 1930 pp.464-465, 1931 pp.459-460, 1932 pp.432-433, 1933 pp.452-453, 1934 pp.352-353, 1935 pp.425-426, 1936 pp.427-428, 1937 p.427, 1938 pp.410-411, 1939 pp.461-462, 1940 pp.473-475 [G]
Article : British Malaya, in : New International Year Book 1932 p.116, 1933 p.111, 1934 p.101, 1935 p.103, 1938 p.107, 1939 p.95, Events of 1940 pp.90-91, 1941 pp.82-83 [G]
Article : Unfederated Malay States, in : New International Year Book 1932 pp.798-799, 1933 p.799, 1934 p.700, 1935 p.713, 1938 p.736, 1939 p.770 [G]
Article : British Malaya, in : Funk & Wagnall's New Standard Encyclopedia Year Book 1940 p.76, 1941 pp.81-82 [G]

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