History by Country . A . B . C . D . E . F . G . HI . JK . L . M . N . OP . QR . S . TUV . WXYZ

Literature on the History of South East Asia
History of Qing China Luang Prabang
First posted on April 18th 2010, last revised on December 15th 2013






NARRATIVE . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

For the time before 1802, see Champa, Cochinchina, Annam, Tonkin
For 1859/1885-1954, see French Cochinchina 1859-1954, French Annam 1885-1954, French Tonkin 1885-1954, French Indochina 1887-1954
For 1954-1975, see South Vietnam, North Vietnam
For since 1975, see History of Vietnam
see also History of Mainland Southeast Asia



From 1558 to 1802, Vietnam (Dai Viet) had been split in three (two) major parts, which in western sources are referred to as Tonkin, Annam and Cochinchina (numerous spelling varieties). The Kingdom of Champa (numerous spelling varieties) located further to the south gradually was absorbed by Cochinchina. In 1802 the Nguyen Dynasty unified Vietnam.
While western scholars were aware of this situation, the old names (Annam, Cochinchina, Tonkin) continued to be used, and so did Champa in a number of sources. When referring to the entire political entity, some sources simply added the three territories, others referred to it as the Empire of Annam (with Tonkin, Cochinchina given provincial status), others referred to it as Cochinchina.
France in 1859/1863 took possession of the area around Saigon, which it referred to as Cochinchina. In 1883-1885 France acquired the remainder of Vietnam, which the French organized in two separate colonies, French Tonkin and French Annam.
The user should be aware that French Annam was much larger than the historic Annam of before 1802, as it included the old Cochinchinese capital Da Nang (Tourane) and the core territories of historical Cochinchina, while French Cochinchina consisted only of territory acquired by Cochinchina in the course of the 18th century, a territory which in European sources of that period partially is referred to as Champa, partially as belonging to Cambodia.

As WHKMLA intends to provide a list of links / references, this page is especially complex.

Spelling varieties : Annam : Anam, An-nam
Spelling varieties : Cochinchina : Cochin-China, Couchin-China, Chochin-China, Kochin-China, Cochinsina
Spelling Varieties : Tonkin : Tonquin, Tong-King, Tunquin
Spelling Varieties : Champa : Ciampa, Cham, Chiampa, Tsiompa, Tsiampa

Historical Atlas : Vietnam Page
Timeline : Annam
List of Wars, Vietnam

History of French Indochina, Index Page
History of Vietnam, Index Page







Narrative . References : ONLINE SECONDARY SOURCES . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Article Annam, Cochin-China, from Wikipedia
Historic - Annam E. Luro, Le pays d'Annam: etude sur l'organisation politique et sociale des Annamites, 1878, in French, IA
M. de Rivas, Idea del imperio de Annam, o de los reinos unidos de Tunquin y Cochinchina, 1859, in Spanish, IA
J. Silvestre, L'empire d'Annam et le peuple annamite. Apercçu sur la ge?ographie, les productions, l'industrie, les mİĞurs et les coutumes de l'Annam, 1889, in French, IA
Pasquier, Pierre, L'Annam d'autrefois essai sur la constitution de l'Annam avant l'intervention française, 1907, in French, SBB
Postel, Raoul, L'extreme Orient Cochinchine, Annam, Tong-kin, 1882, in French, SBB
Rivas, Manuel de, Idea del Imperio de Annam o de los reinos unidos de Tunquin y Cochinchina, 1859, in Spanish, SBB
Historic - Cochinchina Pierre-Jacques Lemonnier de La Bissachere, Etat actuel du Tunkin, de la Cochinchine, et des Royaumes de Camboge, Laos et Lac-Tho, vol.1, vol.2, 1812, in French, GB
De la Cochinchine, pp.150-186 in : Annales maritimes et coloniales vol.2 pt.1 1824, in French, GB
Historic - Tonkin Pierre-Jacques Lemonnier de La Bissachere, Etat actuel du Tunkin, de la Cochinchine, et des Royaumes de Camboge, Laos et Lac-Tho, vol.1, vol.2, 1812, in French, GB
Etats Tributaires de la Chine : Du Ton-Kin, pp.354-400 in vol.1 of J.B. Grosier, De la Chine: ou Description g?n?rale de cet empire, 1818, in French, GB
Veuillot, Eugene, La Cochinchine et le Tonquin le pays, l'histoire et les missions, 1861, in French, SBB
Links General
Organizations
Timelines see here
Accounts of History common A. Launay, Histoire ancienne et moderne de l'Annam, Tong-king et Cochinchine (1884) in French, posted on Internet Archive
Rouyer, Louis Felix Edmond, Histoire militaire et politique de l'Annam et du Tonkin depuis 1799, 1906, in French, SBB
on Annam A. Schreiner, Abrege de l'histoire d'Annam, 1906, in French, IA
on Cochinchina Article : Cochin China, from Wikipedia
Article : Cochinchine, from Wikipedia French edition
A. Launay, Histoire ancienne et moderne de l'Annam, Tong-king et Cochinchine, 1884, in French, IA
Specific Periods Pre-Colonial Vietnam, by E. Bolt, A. Garrett
E.J.J. Diquet, Annam et Indo-Chine française: I. Esquisse de l'histoire annamite. II. Role de la France en Indo .. (1903) in French, posted on Internet Archive
Diplomate, L'affaire du Tonkin; histoire diplomatique de l'etablissement de notre protectorat sur L'Annam et de notre conflit avec la Chine, 1882-1885 (1888) in French, posted on IA
Articles : Nguyen Dynasty, from Wikipedia
Romanet du Caillaud, F., Histoire de l'intervention française au Tong-King de 1872 a 1874, 1880, in French, SBB
Historiography A. des Michels, Les Annales imperiales de l'Annam (1892) in French, posted on Internet Archive
Politics Foreign Relations - Annam H. Cordier, H.V. Fontanier, Une Mission chinoise en Annam: 1840-1841 (1903) in French, posted on Internet Archive
G. Deveria, Histoire des relations de la Chine avec l'Annam-Vietnam du XVIe au XIXe .. (1880) in French, posted on Internet Archive
H. Cordier, La reprise des relations de la France avec l'Annam sous la restauration, 1903, in French, IA
Politics Foreign Relations - Cochinchina John Crawfurd, Journal of an embassy from the governor-general of India to the Courts of Siam and Cochin China, 1830, GB
E. Roberts, Embassy to the eastern courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat (U.S.), 1837, GB
G. Finlayson, Th. Stamford Raffles, The mission to Siam, and Hue : the capital of Cochin China, in the years 1821 & 1822, 1826, GB
P. la Bissachere, La relation sur le Tonkin et la Cochinchine (1810) 1920, in French, IA
H. Cordier, La France et la Cochinchine, 1852-1858: la mission du Catinat a Tourane (1856), 1906, in French, IA
Article : Missions to Siam and Cochinchina, in : Oriental Herald, vol.1 pp.329-338
Military C. de Bazancourt. Les expeditions de Chine et de Cochinchine, vol.1, 1861, vol.2, 1862, GB
Economy & Finances A Global History of Currencies : Vietnam
History of the East India Company's Endeavours to extend their Trade in the East, pp.1-20 (esp. 13-17) in : Asiatic Joutnal vol.13, 1822, GB
P. Vitry, Etude sur le regime financier de l'empire d'Annam : l'organisation fiscale et les charges publiques dans l'ancien empire et depuis la domination française (1905) in French, posted on IA
Social History
Ethnography Languages of Vietnam (103), from Ethnologue
Minorities at Risk, scroll down for Vietnam - Chinese, Montagnards
List of Ethnic Groups in Vietnam, from Wikipedia
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Vietnam
History of Buddhism in Vietnam, by L. Clark, S. Brown
Religions in Vietnam, from Vietnamese Culture
Catholicism in Vietnam, by Dang Anh Tuan
J.R. Shortland, The persecutions of Annam: a history of Christianity in Cochin China and Tonking (1875), posted on Internet Archive
O.S.J., Mission de la Cochinchine et du Tonkin, 1858, in French, IA
Castro, Rafael de, Principales sucesos ocurridos en las misiones del Tunquin, a cargo de los religiosos Dominicos desde setiembre de 1861 hasta agosto de 1862, 1863, in Spanish, SBB
Pachtler, G. Mich., Das Christenthum in Tonkin und Cochinchina, dem heutigen Annamreiche, von seiner Einf?rung bis auf die Gegenwart, 1861, in German, SBB
by Region Dupuis, Jean, Le Tonkin de 1872 ?1886 histoire et politique, 1910, in French, SBB
Local History History of Hue, from Wikipedia
Culture & Science
Biographies
Environmental History
Others G.M. Vassal, On and off Duty in Annam (1910), posted on IA

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), scroll down; from Rulers (B. Schemmel), scroll down; from Regnal Chronologies
List of Vietnamese Monarchs, from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Population Figures Historical Population Statistics : Vietnam, from Population Statistics at Univ. Utrecht, scroll down for Annam data
Documents Historical Newspapers
Online Yearbooks
Image Databanks Historic Picture Postcards : Cochinchina, from Postcardman
Archival Deposits
Laws
Treaties
Historiography
Document Collections Documents related to the Vietnam War, from Mt. Holyoke (has magazine articles from 1824 onward, documents from 1940 onward)
La correspondance generale de la Cochinchine, 1907, IA
Inventaire sommaire de la correspondance generale de la Cochinchine (1686-1863), 1905, IA
Asia for Educators : Primary Sources with DBQs, Vietnam
Individual Documents
Historical Maps
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General - Annam Article : Annam, pp.383-391 in vol.2 of Encyclopedie Moderne, 1823, in French, GB
Article : Annam, p.198 in Herder's Conversations-Lexikon vol.1 1854, in German, posted by Zeno
Article : Annam (Vietnan), pp.528-529 in Pierer's Universal-Lexikon vol.1 1857, in German, posted by Zeno; here pt.2 of the article on the History of Annam, pp.529-530
Article : Annam (Vietnan), pp.813-814 in Nordisk Familjebok, 1st edition vol.1 1876, in Swedish, posted by Project Runeberg
General - Cochinchina Article : Cochinchina, p.230 in Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon, 1809, in German, posted by Zeno
Article : Cochinchina, pp.229-230 in Pierer's Universal-Lexikon, vol.4, 1858, on German, posted by Zeno
Religious
Economic - Annam Hue, p.457 in vol.2 of William Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Anam oder Cochinchina, pp.1012-1013 in Handels-Almanach oder Uebersicht des in den verschiedenen Ländern der Erde Wissenswürdigsten für den Handel, 1838, in German, GB
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Annam
Economic - Cochinchina Cochin-China, pp.452-456 in vol.2 of William Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Of Cochinchina, p.226 in vol.2 of W. Beaves, Lex Mercatoria : or, A Complete Code of Commercial Law 1813
J. Chr. Nelkenbrecher, Allgemeines Taschenbuch der Münz-, Maass- und Gewichtskunde für Banquiers und Kaufleute (General Manual on Coinage, Measurement and Weights, for Bankers and Merchants) Berlin 1832, in German, entries Cochinchina, posted by DTBSWS
Anam oder Cochinchina, pp.1012-1013 in Handels-Almanach oder Uebersicht des in den verschiedenen Ländern der Erde Wissenswürdigsten für den Handel, 1838, in German, GB
Gülich, Gustav von, Geschichtliche Darstellung des Handels, der Gewerbe und des Ackerbaus der bedeutenden handeltreibenden Staaten unserer Zeit (Historical Description of Trade, Industry and Agriculture of the Important Trading States of Our Time), Jena : Frommann 6 vol.s 1830-1845, chapter : Birma, Siam und Cochinchina, vol.4 1844 pp.236-238, in German, posted by DTBSWS
Economic - Tonkin Tonquin, pp.457-460 in vol.2 of William Milburn, Oriental Commerce, 1813, GB
Of Tonquin, pp.226-227 in vol.2 of W. Beaves, Lex Mercatoria : or, A Complete Code of Commercial Law 1813
E.G. Balfour, The cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, commercial, industrial, and scientific; products of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, useful arts and manufactures (1885), vol.1, vol.2, vol.3, posted on Internet Archive; search for Tonkin, Tonquin
Geographical - Annam Empire of Annam, p.370 in C. Malte-Brun, Universal Geography, Or, a Description of All the Parts of the World, 1822, GB
Impero d'Annam, pp.182-212 in vol.3 of G. R. Pagnozzi, Geografia moderna universale, 1823, in Italian, GB
Entry : Annam, p.773 in vol.1 of Encyclop?die des gens du monde, 1833, in French, GB
Empire of Annam, pp.408-409 in A. Balbi, An abridgement of universal geography: modern and ancient, 1835, GB ; Empire d'An-nam ou de Viet-nam, pp.768-770 in vol.2 of A. Balbi, Abrege de geographie, 1838, in French, GB
Serials
Genealogisches Staats-Handbuch, vol.65 1827 pp.317-318, vol.66 1835 p.367, vol.67 1839 pp.392-393, in German, GB
Anam, p.378 in A. Harris, A geographical hand book, 1862, GB
Geographical - Cochinchina Cochin-China, pp.177-178 in vol.2 of J. Pinkerton, Modern Geography 1804, GB
Entry : Of the Character, Manners, and Customs of the Inhabitants of Cochin-China, pp.203-204 in vol.1 of Richard Philips, A general view of the manners, customs and curiosities of nations , 1813, GB
Entry : Cochin-China, pp.524-527 in : Jedediah Morse et al., The American Universal Geography, 1819, GB
Entry : Cochin-China, pp.372-379 in : vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography: or a description of all parts of the world, 1825, GB
Article : Cochin China, p.208 in R. Brookes, A new universal gazetteer, 1832, GB
Entry : Cochin-China, p.277 in : A. Arrowsmith, A grammar of modern geography, 1832, GB
Entry : Cochinchine, pp.231-233 in vol.6 of Artaud de Montor, Encyclopedie des Gens du Monde, 1836, in French, GB
Geographical - Tonkin Tunquin, p.179 in vol.2 of J. Pinkerton, Modern Geography 1804, GB
Entry : Of the Character, Manners, and Customs of the Inhabitants of Tonquin, pp.204-206 in vol.1 of Richard Philips, A general view of the manners, customs and curiosities of nations , 1813, GB
Entry : Kingdom of Tonkin, p.527 in : Jedediah Morse et al., The American Universal Geography, 1819, GB
Entry : Tonquin, pp.367-372 in : vol.3 of C. Malte-Brun, Universal geography: or a description of all parts of the world, 1825, GB
Empire of Tonkin, p.145 in : W.Ch. Woodbridge, Rudiments of geography, 1828, GB
Entry : The Kingdom of Tonkin, pp.277-278 in : A. Arrowsmith, A grammar of modern geography, 1832, GB
Entry : Annam (lists Tonkin as a province of the former), pp.140-144 in : Encyclopedie du dix neuvieme siecle, 1838, in French, GB
Ethnographical Entry : Tonchino, pp.129-188, La Cocincina pp.188-221, in vol.4 of D. G. Ferrario, Il Costume Antico e Moderno di Tutti i Popoli, 1824, in Italian, GB
Empire d'Annam (Cochinchine), pp.377-379 in X. Heuschling, Manual de statistique ethnographique universelle, 1847, in French, GB
Historical
Parliamentary Debates foreign Hansard (British Parliament)
Tour Guides
Travelogues Adolphe Philibert Dubois de Jancigny, Japon, Indo-Chine, Empire Birman, (ou Ava), Siam, Annam (ou Cochinchine), Peninsule Malaise, Ceylan, 1801, in French, GB
Voyage en Asie : Empire d'Annam ou le Tong-king, pp.200-206 in Jean-Baptiste-Benoit Eyries, Voyage pittoresque en Asie et en Afrique, 1839, in French, GB
C.L.F.F. Renouard Sainte-Croix, Voyage commercial et politique aux Indes Orientales, aux ?les Philippines, a la Chine, avec des notions sur la Cochinchine et le Tonquin pendant les annees 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806 et 1807, 1810, in French, GB
Institutions Archives Judith Henchy, Preservation and Archives in Vietnam : Decentralized Control in the Colonial Period; scroll down for Imperial Records
Search ARCHIEVEN.NL for Annam
Musea Museums in Hue, from Vietnam Tourism
Monuments Complex of Hue Monuments, from UNESCO World Heritage
Libraries National Library of Vietnam, page in Vietnamese
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW
Coins, Banknotes Annam Cash Coins, from East Asian Cash Coins; more Annam coins from Zeno

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Datenbasis Internationale Beziehungen und Länderkunde (Data Base on International Relations and Country Studies) (site in German, most titles listed in English; numerous entries; publications mostly since 1970)
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
ISBN Database
on Vietnam, Annam
Online Libraries general Internet Archives
Gutenberg Library Online
e-corpus
International Boundary Studies
Gallica
on Vietnam Digitale Sammlungen : Ostasiatica, from Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extreme-Orient 1901-2003
Journal Asiatique (in French) 1st series vol.2, 1823, vol.3, 1823, vol.4, 1824, vol.5, 1824, vol.6, 1825, vol.7, 1825, vol.8, 1826, vol.9, 1826, vol.10, 1827, vol.11, 1827, 2nd series vol.1, 1828, vol.2, 1828, vol.3, 1829, vol.4, 1829, vol.5, 1830, vol.6, 1830, vol.7, 1831, vol.8, 1831, vol.9, 1832, vol.10, 1832, vol.11, 1833, vol.12, 1833, vol.13, 1834, vol.14, 1834, vol.15, 1835, vol.16, 1835, 3rd series vol.1 1836, vol.2 1836, vol.3 1837, vol.4 1837, vol.5 1838, vol.6 1838, vol.7 1839, vol.8 1839, vol.9 1840, vol.10 1840, vol.11 1841, vol.12 1841, vol.13 1842, vol.14 1842, 4th series vol.1 1843, vol.2 1843, vol.3 1844, vol.4 1844, vol.5 1845, vol.6 1845, vol.7 1846, vol.8 1846, vol.9 1847, vol.10 1847, vol.11 1848, vol.12 1848, vol.13 1849, vol.14 1849, vol.15 1850, vol.16 1850, vol.17 1851, vol.18 1851, vol.19 1852, vol.20 1852, 5th series vol.1 1853, vol.2 1853, vol.3 1854, vol.4 1854, vol.5 1855, vol.6 1855, vol.7 1856, vol.8 1856, vol.9 1857, vol.10 1857, vol.11 1858, vol.12 1858, vol.13 1859, vol.14 1859, vol.15 1860, vol.16 1860, vol.17 1861, vol.18 1861, vol.19 1862, vol.20 1862, 6th series vol.1 1863, vol.2 1863, vol.3 1864, vol.4 1864, vol.5 1865, vol.6 1865, vol.7 1866, vol.8 1866, vol.12 1868, vol.14 1869, GB
Annales de la propagation de la foi vol.1, 1827, vol.2, 1826, vol.3, 1828, vol.4, 1830, vol.5, 1831, vol.6, 1833, vol.7, 1834, vol.8, 1835, vol.9, 1836, vol.10, 1837, vol.11 1839, vol.12, 1840, vol.14, 1842, vol.15, 1843, vol.16, 1844, vol.17, 1845, vol.18, 1846, vol.19, 1847, vol.20, 1848, vol.21, 1849, vol.22, 1850, vol.23, 1851, vol.24, 1852, vol.25, 1853, vol.27, 1855, vol.28, 1856, vol.29, 1857, vol.30, 1858, vol.31, 1859, vol.33, 1861, vol.34 1862, vol.35 1863, vol.36 1864, vol.37 1865, vol.38 1866, vol.39 1867. vol.40 1868, GB
General Accounts Nicholas Tarling, The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, 4 vol.s, Cambridge : UP (1992) 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959 T188c
Stanley Karnow, Vietnam : a History, Penguin (1985) 1991, KMLA Lib.Sign. 959.704 K18v
Historical Dictionaries William J. Duiker, Historical Dictionary of Vietnam, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1989, 269 pp. [G]