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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
South Africa Namibia
First posted in April 2002, last revised on November 18th 2013

History of Botswana : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

until 1884 . 1884-1996 . since 1966

Precolonial History, to 1884
In 1836 the first Boer settlers arrived in the area; in 1840 followed by British missionaries, among them Robert Moffat, who translated the bible into Setswana. In 1840, Selegama, chief of the Bamangwato, repeatedly repelled Matabele incursions. His successor Khama III.. (since 1872; he was baptized in 1860) applied for British protection in 1882 (he was concerned about Matabele raids as well as about the unrest caused by the discovery of gold at Tati). Khama III. outlawed alcohol consumption, wizardry, polygamy, the practise of paying for brides.
The first christian missions were established in Bechuanaland in 1872.

British Protectorate, 1884-1966
In 1884 Britain declared a protectorate over Bechuanaland - a thinly populated stretch of land, mostly Kalahari desert, in central southern Africa. The reason for Britain claiming it was predominantly to prevent it to fall to Germany, which was establishing it's colony of German Southwest Africa (modern Namibia) in 1884. The stretch of land south of the Molopo River in 1885 was annexed by the Cape Colony.
In 1888, Cecil Rhodes obtained a treaty from Lobengula, King of the Matabele; in 1889, his British South Africa Company obtained a royal charter permitting him to establish colonies - Mashonaland, and since 1893 Matabeleland, as well as Barotseland north of the Zambezi soon came under the British South Africa Company's administration. The transit route from the Cape Colony (Kimberley) through southeastern Bechuanaland became the lifeline for the emerging colony of Rhodesia.
The administrative capital of Bechuanaland was established at Mafeking. Southern Bechuanaland was annexed by the Cape Colony in 1885, creating the unique situation that the capital of what remained of the Protectorate of Bechuanaland was located outside it's territory.
Much of what is today eastern Botswana was also claimed by Matabeleland; in 1887 Samuel Edwards, an agent of Cecil Rhodes, obtained a concession for mining in the area which later was transferred to Tati Concessions Limited; the region was integrated into the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
In 1891 the British High Commissioner for South Africa was charged with the administration of B.; from 1891 to 1930 the British administration pursued a minimalistic approach.
In 1895 the British South Africa Company applied for the incorporation of Bechuanaland into its territory; three Tswana chiefs, among them Khama III., visited London and successfully protested against the plan.
A railway line was built, which diminished the economic effects of the transit on Bechuanaland; soon afterwards, the Boer republics of Transvaal and Oranje were conquered in the Boer War (1899-1902), opening an alternative route through Transvaal.
When the Boer War broke out in 1899, a Boer force laid siege to Bechuanaland's capital Mafeking (which was located in the Cape Colony); Mafeking, under the command of Lord Baden Powell, held out.
For 1904, Bechuanaland's population was estimated at 130,000 - spread over a territory of a million square km.
In 1914, World War I broke out. German Southwest Africa quickly was occupied by South African troops.
From 1919 onward, the Caprivi Strip, which had been ceded by Britain to Germany in 1890, on paper a part of SWA, was administrated as part of Bechuanaland.
In 1920 an European Advisory Council (7 members) and a Native Advisory Council (max. 35 members) were appointed to assist the Resident Commissioner, who himself was under the direction of the High Commissioner for Basutoland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland. Khama III. died in 1923.
Until 1932 the protectorate's currency was based on the Gold Standard. In 1932 the Pim Report observed widespread poverty, malnutrition, poor health condition, lack of qualified administrative personnel, lack of funds for infrastructure projects. The British Colonial Administration then approved a nudget of 177 million Pounds Sterling.
In 1933 an African court found a white man guilty of raping an African woman; he was sentenced to whipping. The High Commissioner responded by dispatching 200 troops; King Tshekedi Khama was deposed. The European colony in Bechuanaland, however, sided with him, and so Tshekedi Khama was reinthroned.
More than 10,000 Bechuanas served in World War II, in Syria and other areas of the Middle East. In 1941 a military camp was established as Lobatse.
After World War II the British implemented constitutional reforms, granting the country's population voting rights.
A 1938 petition of the white population of the Tati District for incorporation into Southern Rhodesia was not approved.
A 1946 census counted a population of 252,869, of whom 2,325 were Europeans, 96 Asiatics and 1,708 'coloureds'. The protectorate had a training center for African teachers. South African law was applied in the protectorate. In 1940 a dairy industry was established.
Seretse Khama, son of King Tshekedi Khama, while studying in Britain, married an Englishwoman. He then was refused permission to return to his homeland; in 1948 his father Tshekedi Khama was forced to leave the country. Both returned in 1956.
In 1950, the European and Native Advisery Councils were combined to form the Joint Advisory Council. In 1961 is was renamed Legislative Council, with widened authority. Half of the members were whites, half were blacks, at a time when 3,200 whites and 317,000 natives inhabited Bechuanaland. In 1961 a constitution was passed, replaced by another constitution in 1965, which foresaw Home Rule. Transition to independence was smooth. In 1965 the capital was moved from Mafikeng (located in South Africa) to Gaborone. In 1966, independence was declared.

Independence. since 1966
Independence was declared in 1966, and Botswana found itself a state with a black majority government surrounded by countries where the white minority ruled - South Africa, Southwest Africa, Rhodesia.
Botswana, aware of it's economic dependence on South Africa, pursued a moderate policy, publicly condemning South Africa's Apartheid policy, but not taking any action directed against it's southern neighbour. The country's recent history is characterized by peace and stability, which facilitated economic growth. Tourism is a major industry.
In the 1970es, the South African Army used the Caprivi Strip as a basis from where it supported the Angolan UNITA rebels. A separate Caprivi administration was established, complete with flag. It was internationally not recognized; Caprivi was outside of Botswanan control. In 1990, when Namibia became independent, Botswana ceded the area to Namibia.

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS
Article : Botswana, from Wikipedia
Historical R.P. Stevens, The South African Threat to the Independence of Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland 1966
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; Category : Botswana, from Wikipedia
South Africa Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
on History Virtual Library History : Botswana
Botswana History Pages, by Neil Parsons
Category : History of Botswana, from Wikipedia
Organizations The Botswana Society
Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
Historical Dictionaries P.E. Raper, Dictionary of Southern African Placenames n.d.
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Botswana, from Kirken i Norge
Chronology for San Bushmen in Botswana, from UNHCR Refworld; Chronology of Major Events, from Home of the Southern African San
History of Botswana, from IIASA Population Project
Timetable of Bechuanaland/Botswana history, from The Botswana Pages
Accounts of History Modern Article : History of Botswana, from Wikipedia
A Brief History of Botswana, by Neil Parsons
History of Botswana and History of Democracy, from Gem of Africa - Botswana at a Glance
Specific Periods Univ. of Botswana, History Department, Colonial Administration Pages Introduction and Index
A. Cook et al., Is Botswana the Miracle of Africa? Democracy, the Rule of Law, and Human Rights Versus Economic Development, Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems 19
EISA : Botswana: From the Stone Age to the Iron Age (1 million BP-1700 CE) 2009
EISA : Botswana: The Tswana Polities (1700-1885) 2009
EISA : Botswana: Early British Protectorate (1895-1945) 2009
EISA : Botswana: Late British colonialism (1945-1966) 2009
EISA : Botswana: Presidency of Seretse Khama (1966-1980) 2009
EISA : Botswana: President Ketumile Masire (1980-1998) 2009
EISA : Botswana: President Festus Gontebanye Mogae (1998-2008) 2009
Historiography L. Mafela, Colonial Literacy and the Socio-Political Dimensions of the History Syllabus in Colonial Botswana, Literacy Information and Computer Education Journal (LICEJ), Volume 1, Issue 2, June 2010
Politics Category : Politics of Botswana, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Botswana; Governments on the WWW : Botswana
Category : Elections in Botswana, from Wikipedia
Entry Botswana, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
The political organization of the Ngwato of Bechuanaland protectorate. By I. Schapera, in F. Meyer, African political systems 1950, IA
E. Barrett, Paul Kruger and the Bechuanaland crisis : 1877-1885, thesis San Jose State Univ. 1989
O. Selolwane, Monopoly politikos: How Botswana's opposition parties have helped sustain one-party dominance, African Sociological Review 2006
C.J. Makgala, The relationship between Kenneth Koma and the Botswana Democratic Party, 1965-2003 2003
B.W. Oitsile, Botswana and the Liberation in South Africa and Zimbabwe : The Government and People against White Racist Rule, thesis Trent Univ. 2010
L. vam Tiem, Democratisation in Africa: Feasible or Failure? A Comparative Study of Ghana, Botswana, Kenya and Nigeria, thesis Utrecht n.d.
M.L. Malbrough, Democratization and State Building in Botswana and Zimbabwe : A Comparative Case Study, thesis Mercer Univ. 1998
P.F.G. Mtimkulu, The Key to One-Party Dominance : A Comparative Analysis of Selected States (Botswana, India, Israel, Italy, Sweden, South Africa), thesis Johannesburg 2006
K.R.D. Manungo, The role of the Native Advisory Council in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1919-1960, Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies, vol.13, nos.1&2 (1999)
H. Masemola, An Analysis and Appraisal of Restructuring in SADCC/SADC since 1990, thesis Univ. of South Africa 2005
Military Botswana (Bechuanaland Protectorate) and the Two World Wars, from University of Botswana
The Difaquane Wars, from Botswana Travel Guide
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Botswana, from ODM
P. Sharp, L. Fiisher, Inside the 'crystal ball': Understanding the evolution of the military in Botswana and the challenges ahead , ch.2, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
R.F. Morton, Linchwe 1 and the Kgatla campaign in the South African war, 1899-1902, Cambridge 1985
The Boer War in Botswana, from the Univ. of Botswana, History Dept.
The Relief of Mafeking, from U.S. Scouting Service Project; same title, from H.W. Wilson, with the flag to Pretoria (1901), posted by Pinetreeweb
Economy & Finances Global History of Currencies : Botswana; Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Botswana
Category : Economy of Botswana, from Wikipedia
Economy, from Botswana History Pages, by Neil Parsons
Botswana : an Example of Prudent Economic Growth, from World Bank (2000)
The History of Diamond Mining in Botswana, by Jishi Santos; Chris Cann, The Sparkling History of Botswana (2008)
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Botswana
D. Acemoglu, An African success story : Botswana, 2001, IA
Z. Mmolowa, An evaluation of Botswana's economic growth 2000, IA
D.P. Erasmus, The National Income of Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1955, African Studies in Income and Wealth, 1962
C.J. Makgala et al., The Challenges to Financial Responsibility in the Tribal Administration of Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1919-1966, AHR 2008
L. Mafela, Colonial Initiatives and African Response in the Establishment of the Dairy Industry in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1930-1966, Pula : Botsweana Journal of African Studies vol.13 no.s 1&2 1999 pp.77-92
M. Mogalakwe, How Britain underdeveloped Bechuanaland protectorate: a brief critique of the political economy of colonial Botswana, CODESRIA 2006
N. Parsons, Makgowa, Mahaletsela, and Maburu: traders and travellers before c.1820, 1997
W.G. Morapedi, The state, crop production and differentiation in Botswana, 1947-1966 2006
C.J. Makgala, Taxation in the tribal areas of the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1899-1957 2004
V. Seidler, Colonial Legacy and Institutional Development. The Cases of Botswana and Nigeria 2011
A.C.S.M. Mutshingeh, Colonialism and cattle marketing in Botswana, 1900-1954, thesis Univ. of Zambia 2011
R. Grynberg et al., SACU Revenue Sharing Formula: The History of An Equation n.d.
Social History Botswana, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Botswana, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
W.G. Morapedi, Migrant Labour and the Peasantry in the Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1930-1965, Journal of Southern African Studies 1999 pp.197-214
O.N. Kealotswe, Acceptance and Rejection : The Traditional Healer Prophet and His Integration of Healing Methods, Boleswa Journal of Theology, Religion and Philosophy (BJTRP) 2005
T.L. Maruatona, Adult Education and Social Transformation in the South : The Botswana Experience, 2010
L. Mafela, Changing Livelihoods, Language Use and Language Shift amongst Basarwa of Botswana, 2009
L.I. Magole, Common Pool Resource Management among San Communities in Ngamiland, Botswana 2009
D.L. Kgathi et al., Community Based Natural Resource Management and Social Sustainability in Ngamiland, Botswana 2005
W.G. Morapedi, Comparative Aspects of Farm Labour in Twentieth Century Botswana, 2007
L. Mafela, Competing Gender Ideologies : A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Education among the Batswana of Botswana, c.1840-c.1994, Pula Journal of African Studies vol.11 no.2 1997 pp.155-165
F.T. Kalabamu, Land tenure and management reforms in East and Southern Africa - the case of Botswana, 2000, pp.305-319
M. Mogalakwe, The Making of a Foreign "Labour Aristocracy" in Botswana, 2008
P.T. Mgadla, Missionary wives, women and education: the development of literacy among the Batswana 1840-1937, 1997
M.M.M. Bolaane, Tsetse and trypanosomosis control in the Okavango Delta, 1930s - 1970s 2007
P.C. Moumakwa, The Botswana Kgotla System: A mechanism for Traditional Conflict Resolution in modern Botswana. Case study of the Kanye Kgotla, thesis Tromsø 2010
A Plague Survey of Ngamliand, Bechuanaland Protectorate, During the Epidemic of 1944-1945, Tydskrif vir Geneeskunde 1946 pp.511-515
Ng'ong'ola, Clement: Aspects of Land Tenure and Deeds Registration in Botswana, has two paragraphs on the development of settlement and registration law in the 1890es
K.S. Freddie, Traditional Leadership : Some Reflections on Morphology of Constitutionalism and Politics of Democracy in Botswana, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol.1 no.14; October 2011
S.H. D'Souza, The Impact of the Derby Day Meeting on African Education in Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Nigeria, 1923-1939, thesis Manchester 1973
Ethnography Languages of Botswana (26), from Ethnologue
Art and Life in Africa : Botswana
Category Languages of Botswana, from Wikipedia
Botswana : San Bushmen, from Minorities at Risk
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Botswana
Migration Information Source : Botswana
C.G. Makgala, Ngwato Attitudes towards Zimbabwean Immigrants in the Bechuanaland Protectorate in the 1950s, AHR 2006, unpaginated
J. Makgala, Bid to Settle Jewish Refugees from Nazi Germany in Botswana 1938-1939, 2006
O. Phibion, Borankana (Phatisi) Music Performance, Learning and Transmission among the Bakwerna of Botswana 2012
W.G. Morapedi, Post-liberation xenophobia in Southern Africa: the case of the influx of undocumented Zimbabwean immigrants into Botswana, c.1995-2004 2007
K. Nthomang, Relentless Colonialism: the case of the Remote Area Development Programme (RADP) and the Basarwa in Botswana 2004
M.D. Ramoroka, The History of the Barolong in the District of Mafikeng : A Study of the Intra-Batswana Ethnicity and Political Culture from 1852 to 1950, thesis Univ. of Zululand 2009
Squatters on their own land (1) by Kristyna Bishop : San Territoriality in Western Botswana, from firstpeoples.org, detailed history
W. van Binsbergen, Botswana's ethnic structure. an abortive research proposal 1994/2002
L. Bornegrim et al., Administration of Tribal Land in Botswana, thesis Gävle 2010
Institutionalized Ethnicity : Botswana
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Botswana, from Kirken i Norge
Virtual Jewish History Tour : Botswana, from Jewish Virtual Library
Botswana, from International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies - Cemetery Project
Category : Religion in Botswana, from Wikipedia
B.S. Bennett et al., The BaKhurutshe Anglicans of Tonota. Religious Persecution in Bechuanaland Protectorate, International Journal of African Historical Studies 43/2 2010 pp.319-340
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
History of Regions Category : Districts of Botswana, from Wikipedia
Districts of Botswana, from www.statoids.com
Article Tati Concession Land, from Wikipedia
Provinces of South Africa, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : British Protectorate of Bechuanaland 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Republic of Botswana 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
C.J. Makgala, History and Perception of Regionalism in Botswana, 1891-2005 JCAS 2009 pp.225-242
C.J. Makgala, Limitations of British territorial control in Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1918-1953 2010
The Tati Concession Lands, The destruction of Lobengula and the Matabele 1880-1893 from Great Epic Books
Local History List of Cities in Botswana, from Wikipedia
Articles : Gaborone : History, Wikipedia
Main Centres of Botswana : Francistown , from Botswana online; on history of Francistown (1880s ff)
Institutions Bechuanaland, Botswana, from Airline History
Article University of Botswana : History, from Wikipedia
Article Botswana Railways, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Botswana
Cultural History Articles Botswana at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
W.H. Wills et al., The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book 1905, IA
Article : Khama III., in : Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon, in German
Environmental History Disaster History : South Africa, from Relief Web
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Botswana
B.T. Mokopakgosi, The University in Botswana and the liberation struggle in southern Africa (1973-1980), 2008

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors Article : High Commissioner for Southern Africa (British), from Wikipedia; has office holders 1847-1964
U.S. Ambassadors to Botswana, from NNDB
Chinese Ambassadors to Botswana, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Central Africa (Anglican), from Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Central Statistics Office, Botswana
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
Historical Abortion Statistics : Botswana, from Johnston's Archive
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile, Botswana
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1966
Inflation Rate Index Mundi, Botswana Inflation Rate 1999-2011
Trading Economics, Botswana Inflation Rate 2001-
Unemployment Rate Index Mundi, Botswana Unemployment Rate 2000-2007
Election Results from Psephos (since 1999); from IFES Election Guide
EISA, Botswana Elections Archive
African Elections Database : Elections in Botswana
Search IPU Parline for "Botswana"
Documents Historical Newspapers The London Gazette Archive
Historical Articles on B. Reports in The Times (London) on the Boer War in SE Botswana, summaries posted by University of Botswana
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Botswana, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Botswana Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Bechuanaland 1890, pp.162-163, IA, 1891, pp.162-163, IA, 1892, pp.167-168, IA, 1894, pp.167-168, IA, 1895, pp.167-168, IA, 1896, pp.167-168, IA, 1898, pp.167-168, IA, 1899, pp.181-182, IA, 1903, pp.192-193, IA, South Africa - Bechuanaland Protectorate 1913, pp.193-194, IA, 1919, pp.200-201, IA, 1921, pp.202-204, IA
UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Questions Concerning Botswana 1978, 1979, Botswana-South Africa Armed Incidents 1985, South African Aggression against Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe 1986, Botswana-South Africa Relations 1987, Botswana-South Africa Armed Incidents 1988
Staatskalender Digitized Books from Bechuanaland 1889-1938 (Botswana), Digitized Books from the Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Historic Films Colonial Film : Bechuanaland
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Baden-Powell Photo Gallery, posted by Lewis P. Orans
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Botswana
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Botswana
International Mission Photography Archive : Botswana
Archival Deposits British Provenience
National Archives, UK
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
SOAS, Archive Catalogue (Archives of the London Missionary Society, the Methodist Missionary Society, the Presbyterian Church of England Foreign Missions Committee)
Janus : General Photos of Bechuanaland
British Online Archives, Universities' Mission to Central Africa
Microform Academic Publishers, Guides, Central Africa 1883-1964. The Monthly Magazine of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, introduction by R.G. Stuart
Adam Matthews Publications, African Missionaries' Collections
Other Provenience
African Studies Centre, Leiden : Development Plans, Bechuanaland
Indiana University Library, African Pamphlets Collection Index
National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Register to the Papers of Gordon D. Gibson, 2009
Methodist Church of South Africa Archives
Constitutions Botswana Embassy, Botswana Constitution of 1966, with amendments until 2002
Laws Botswana e-Laws
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Botswana etc.)
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Botswana, from ILO, 15 docs. since 1978
Treaties General Treaty Collections
Bilateral Treaty Collections
Document Surveys British Library, Botswana Official Publications
Document Collections Great Britain, Office of Commonwealth Relations, Basutoland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland; history of discussions with the Union of South Africa, 1909-1939 1952, IA
British South Africa Company, Correspondence with Mr. C. J. Rhodes relating to the proposed extension of the Bechuanaland Railway : presented to both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty, May, 1899, IA
Univ. of Botswana, History Department, Colonial Administration Pages : Extracts from Documents
International Court of Justice, search for "Botswana"
Individual Documents Southern African Customs Union, 1910 Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Agreement
AHG (Assembly of Heads of State and Governments) Resolution 12/1, The Territorial Integrity of Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland, 1964, African Union
Historical Maps responsible institutions Department of Surveys and Mapping, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Botswana Botswana Maps, PCL, UTexas
David Rumsey Map Collection, Botswana
Category : Old Maps of Botswana, Maps of the History of Botswana, Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Map of Africa 1906-1912, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age, 86 k, in Spanish, detailed on the structure of Bechuanaland
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Map of Africa 1890, from Encyclopaedia Britannica, Am. edition 1890, from Perry Castaneda Library, UTexas. Note the northern border of Bechuanaland, far south of present border
Botswana, Modern Linguistic Map of Botswana and Zimbabwe, Muturzukin
Southern Africa 1894, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Botswana, Contemporary Map of South Africa 1896, from Probert Encyclopedia; has Northern Bechuanaland being part of Southern Rhodesia
R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 49. Linyanti 1883, 49. Linyanti 1889, 49. Linyanti 1894, 50. Tete 1884, 50. Tete 1890, 50. Tete 1893, 54. Kourouman 1882, 54. Kourouman 1883, 54. Vryburg 1897, 55. Pretoria 1882, 55. Pretoria 1896, 55. Pretoria 1899, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheets 30 Lusaka (1970), sheet 31 Salisbury (1970), sheet 33 Windhoek (1969), sheet 34 Johannesburg (1970), PCL, UTexas
British Bechuanaland 1887, Wikipedia
Bechuanaland 1906, 1922, 1932, Botswana 1969, Probert Encyclopedia
Map of British Bechuanaland 1887, from Perry Castaneda Library, Map Coll., UTexas. Note nothern border at 22 degrees s. lat.
detail, hindsight/modern Bechuanaland 1966, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
detail, contemporary Sketch Map of the Bechuanaland Protectorate, n.d., britishempire.co.uk
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Bechuanaland, Bechuana, Bushmen, Tati, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Article Westbetschuanen (Western Bechuanas), from Meyers Konversationslexikon, in German
Economic Bechuanaland Protectorate pp.333-334 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Geographical W.H.P. Greswell, Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi 1892, IA; Native States and Protectorates pp.285-307; Bechuanaland pp.298-304
C.P. Lucas, Geography of South and East Africa 1904, IA; British Bechuanaland and Southern Rhodesia pp.85-100
Ethnographical E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Bechuanaland pp.157-178
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; Bechuanaland pp.156-178
Historical W. Douglas MacKenzie, South Africa, its History, its Heroes and Wars 1900, IA; Bechuanaland pp.99-108
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard
Travelogues H. Bryden, Gun and camera in southern Africa; a year of wanderings in Bechuanaland, the Kalahari Desert, and the Lake River country, Ngamiland 1893, IA
Institutions Archives Republic of Botswana, Department of Culture and Youth, scroll down for National Library Service, Botswana National Archives and Record Service
J. Wamukoya, Guide to the contents of Botswana National Archives 2013
Monuments Republic of Botswana, from Showcaves
Libraries Botswana National Library Service
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of South Africa, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Botswana Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Bechuanaland, Botswana
Stamps Rare Bechuanaland, Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Stamps Bechualand Stamps 1886-1897, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer
Tati Concessions Revenue Stamps, from Gibbons Stamps Monthly (2002); Peter Thy, The Revenue Stamps of Bechuanaland (2003)

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Botswana survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.155-189 in R.P. Stevens, Historical Dictionary of Botswana, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1975 [G]
N. Parsons, Select Bibliography on the History of Botswana (1997 version)
N. Parsons, 2007 Bibliography & Guide to Sources on Botswana
University of Botswana, History Department, Botswana History and Archaeology: Student Research Essays
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies N. Parsons, Botswana History: Bibliography for Local Studies
Barotseland, Bibliography by Subjects
Kalahari Peoples' Fund, Human Rights Bibliography : Genocide and Ethnocide of San (Bushmen) in Southern Africa : A Bibliography
serial publications Book Catalogue of Botswana Society Publications
Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
Botswana entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Botswana-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Botswana UBRISA, University of Botswana Research, Innovation and Scholarship Archive, suggestion : browse by titles; search engine unreliable
Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server University of Botswana Theses and Dissertations suggestion : browse by titles; search engine unreliable
Registry of Open Access Repositories : Botswana
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals full text online Directory of Open Access Journals
African e-Journals Project, Journal Directory
PULA: Botswana Journal of African Studies 1978-2003
General Accounts Zdenek Cervenka et al., Botswana - Lesotho - Swaziland, Bonn : Deutsche Afrika-Gesellschaft, 1974, in German
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.880-886 Article Southern Africa : Botswana. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Specific Topics Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Zdenek Cervenka et al., Botswana - Lesotho - Swaziland, Bonn : Deutsche Afrika-Gesellschaft, 1974, in German
Historical Dictionaries Richard P. Stevens, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Botswana, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1975 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Bechuanaland, 1913 pp.706-707 [G]
British South African Protectorates, 1944 p.130, 1945 p.128, 1946 pp.150-151, 1947 p.153, 1948 p.142, 1949 pp.125-126, 1950 p.130, 1951 pp.125-126, 1952 p.124 [G]
British South African Territories, 1953 pp.124-125, 1954 p.125, 1955 p.184, 1956 p.123, 1957 p.183, 1958 p.121, 1959 p.122, 1960 p.123, 1961 p.122, 1962 p.109-110, 1963 p.224 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1964 pp.268-269 [G]
Colonies and Other Dependencies, 1965 p.252, 1966 p.203 [G]
Botswana, 1967 p.176, 1968 pp.173-174, 1969 p.175, 1970 p.174, 1971 pp.168-169, 1972 p.153, 1973 pp.150-151, 1974 pp.158-159, 1975 p.143, 1976 pp.172-173, 1977 p.175, 1978 p.228, 1979 p.226, 1980 p.223, 1981 p.221, 1982 pp.221-222, 1983 p.219, 1984 pp.214-215, 1985 pp.460, 642, 1986 pp.456, 638, 1988 pp.385, 559, 1989 pp.389, 559, 1990 pp.402, 575, 1993 pp.356-357, 569, 1994 pp.355, 569, 1995 pp.381-382, 569 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Bechuanaland, 1895 pp.167-168, 1898 pp.167-168, 1901 pp.182-183, 1905 pp.194-195, 1910 pp.188-189 [G]
Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1919 pp.200-201, 1924 pp.209-211, 1925 pp.213-215, 1926 pp.217-219, 1928 pp.215-216, 1929 pp.216-217, 1932 pp.219-221, 1937 pp.239-241, 1943 pp.231-233 [G]
Botswana, 1970-1971 pp.497-500, 1975-1976 pp.231-233, 1978-1979 pp.222-225, 1980-1981 pp.221-225, 1983-1984 pp.224-227, 1984-1985 pp.223-226, 1985-1986 pp.222-225, 1987-1988 pp.223-226, 1988-1989 pp.223-226, 1989-1990 pp.224-228, 1990-1991 pp.224-228, 1991-1992 pp.224-228, 1993-1994 pp.224-228, 1994-1995 pp.219-223, 1995-1996 pp.211-215, 1996-1997 pp.227-231, 1997-1998 pp.232-236, 1998-1999 pp.259-263, 2000 pp.311-316, 2001 pp.303-307, 2002 pp.317-322, 2003 pp.315-320, 2004 pp.317-321, 2005 pp.312-316 [G]
Americana Annual Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1927 p.95, 1928 pp.84-85, 1930 p.99, 1931 p.102, 1932 p.100, 1933 p.91, 1934 p.105, 1935 p.92, 1936 pp.83-84, 1937 p.71, 1938 p.76, 1939 pp.81-82, 1940 p.66, 1943 pp.93-94, 1944 p.86, 1945 p.88, 1946 p.95, 1947 p.74, 1957 pp.83-84 [G]
British South African Territories : Bechuanaland Protectorate, 1961 p.97, 1962 pp.95-96, 1963 pp.103-104, 1964 pp.103-104 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1965 pp.183-185 (on events of 1964) [G]
Botswana, 1967 p.126, 1968 p.117, 1969 p.130, 1970 p.133, 1971 pp.161-162, 1972 pp.163-164, 1973 p.158 [G]
Other South and East African Year Book and Guide, 49th edition, 1949, pp. 193-196

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