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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Cape Colony Natal
First posted June 10th 2011, last revised on November 25th 2013

History of Great Kaffraria : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Until 1848 . 1848-1865
For the country's history since 1865, see History of the Cape Colony

Until 1848
Old maps refer to the Xhosa as the Kaffers, to their country as Kaffraria. The Boers have used the word Kafirs in a derogatory sense, so that it is now regarded politically incorrect. The lands inhabited by the Xhosa have been dubbed Transkei and Ciskei in Afrikaans, referring to the land beyond espectively on this side of the Kei (= stone) river, thus indicating that the settlers came from the west.
The Xhosa people had a common language and religion; their political structure was that of a tribal kingdom. The economy was primarily based on cattle herding.
With the arrival of white settlers (Boers) in the late 18th century, conflicts over land began, which continued after the hitherto Dutch Cape Colony changed into British hands in 1806/1815. In 1834 the land to the west of the Kei River was annexed by the British Cape Colony; in 1848 Great Kaffraria, the land to the east of the Kei River, was annexed by the British.

British Crown Colony, 1848-1865
In 1848 Britain annexed the Transkei region, naming it Great Kaffraria; it was declared a Crown Colony. The British encouraged pursued a settlement policy, encouraging immigrants from Germany and Ireland to come into the country. The Xhosa felt threatened; Xhosa prophetess Nongqawuse called on her people to secure the help of their ancestors by slaughtering their cattle; the subsequent mass slaughter resulted in a famine and mass starvation. In 1865 it was incorporated into the Cape Colony.

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Article : British Kaffraria, from Wikipedia
British Kaffraria, from South African History Online
British Kaffraria, from British Empire Map Room
Historical T. Smith, South Africa delineated, 1850, GB
H. Hall, Manual of South African geography, 1859, GB; British Kaffraria pp.43-46
F.P. Flemyng, Kaffraria and its Inhabitants, 1853, GB
British Kaffraria. The People's Blue Book, 1863, GB
C.C. Henkel, History, resources and productions of the country between Cape Colony and Natal, or Kaffraria proper, now called the Narative or Transkeian Territories 1903, IA
Links on History
Organizations Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
South African Military History Society
Anglo-Boer War Philatelic Society
Historical Dictionaries P.E. Raper, Dictionary of Southern African Placenames n.d.
Accounts of History Modern
Historical The Cape of Good Hope, pp.1-262 in R.M. Martin, History of Southern Africa, 1836, GB
Specific Periods D. Mills, The English in Africa (1900), posted on Internet Archive, chapter VII : The English and the Dutch in South Africa, pp.158-196
G. McCall Theal, History of South Africa from 1795 to 1872, vol.1 1915, vol.2 1915, vol.3 1915, vol.4 1915, vol.5 1915, IA
M. Szeftel, Emerging Conflict Themes in the Transkei, thesis Univ. of Zambia 1970
British Kaffraria 1847-1865, from East London Lore
Military Kaffir War 1834-1835, Kaffir War 1846, Anglo-Boer War 1848, Kaffir War 1851-1853, Basuto War 1852, Basuto War 1857,
Economy & Finances
Social History
Ethnography South Africa, pp.29-59 in Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aboriginal Tribes, 1837, GB
The Kaffraria Germans, from German South African Resource Page
The Transkeian District, p.677 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Religion Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
History of Regions
Local History A Brief History of Stutterheim, British Kaffraria, from Welcome to Stutterheim
Biographies M.S. Benham, Henry Callaway, M.D.,D.D., first bishop for Kaffraria: his life-history and work; a memoir, 1896, IA
Resurrecting a vision - Xhosa prophetess Nongquawuse (19th century), from gtown99
History comes to a head - about 19th century Xhosa king Hintsa, from Daily Mail & Guardian
Environmental History Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen by Ben Cahoon
Population Figures South Africa, historical demographical data by administrative division, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Documents Historical Newspapers The Colonial Intelligencer or Aborigines' Friend 1850-1851, GB
Online Yearbooks Staatskalender Colonial Office List : British Kaffraria, 1862 p.56, 1867 pp.35-36, GB
International - Great Kaffraria Entries
Image Databanks Search University of Johannesburg Digispace for British Kaffraria
Archival Deposits Cape Colony Collections University of Johannesburg, South African Law Reports listed according to Shelf (Subject) Code in the Law Library, scroll down for Cape, Eastern Cape, Northern and Southeastern Cape
Archives holding docs. on C.C. National Archives, UK
Constitutions, Laws British Kaffraria, p.160 in A. Mills, Colonial Constitutions, 1856, GB
Treaties Act for the incorporation of the territories of British Kaffraria into the colony of Cape of Good Hope, 1865, pp.5-7 in A collection of the public general statutes passed in the 28th and 29th year of the reign of her majesty Queen Victoria 1865, GB
Document Collections
Historical Maps Map Issuing Institutions Republic of South Africa, Chief Surveyor General
R. Wonnacott, 90 years of surveying and mapping, 2010
General Collections David Rumsey Map Collection
Atlas of South Africa, from Wikimedia Commons
South Africa Maps, from PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of South Africa, from Wikipedia
Whole Country, Modern Map of the Cape Colony, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age
Whole Country, Historical Map of Southern Africa 1829, from Carte Generale de l'Afrique by Eustache Herisson, from the Perry Castaneda Library at UTexas, shows Caffres and Gouaquois (Griquas)
Map of Aethiopia Inferior from Blaeu 1635, from Yale Univ. Library. Map Collection; shows Caffraria in the region of what used to be Transkei
Map of Africa 1821 by William C. Woodbridge, from Yale Univ. Library, Map Collection; applied Caffraria to much of eastern and central South Africa
Map of Africa 1824 by Anthony Finley, from Yale Univ. Library, Map Collection; applied Caffraria to coastal stretch east of the Cape Colony Map of British Kaffraria, posted by British Empire Map Room
Detail, Modern
Detail, Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Article : Kaffraria, from EB 1902, posted by 1902 Encyclopedia
Religious Caffraria, pp.70-71 in W. Chapin, Missionary Gazetteer, 1825, GB
Caffraria, pp.114-120 in Ch. Williams, Missionary Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Caffraria, pp.94-98 in B.B. Edwards, Missionary Gazetteer, 1832, GB
Kaffraria, p.496 in H. Newcomb, A Cyclopedia of Missions, 1855, GB
Article Kafirs, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1914 ed.
Geographical Kaffraria, in C. Knight, The English Cyclopaedia : Geography, 1855, GB
Kaffraria, pp.188-195 in Sketches of the African kingdoms and peoples, 1860, GB
Kaffraria, pp.1582-1584 in vol.7 of Nordisk Familjebok 1884, in Swedish, Project Runeberg
W.H.P. Greswell, Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi 1892, IA; Native States and Protectorates pp.285-307
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard for British Kaffraria
Postal Routes etc.
Travelogues B. Stout, Cape of Good Hope and its dependencies: An accurate and truly interesting description of those delightful regions, situated five hundred miles north of the Cape, formerly in possession of the Dutch, but lately ceded to the Crown of England; and which are to be colonized, with every possible despatch ... Likewise a luminous and affecting detail of Captain Stout's travels through the deserts of Caffraria and the Christian settlements, to the Cape, 1820, GB
Residence Memoirs H. Ward, The Cape and the Kaffirs : a diary of five years' residence in Kaffirland ; with a chapter of advice to emigrants, based on the latest official returns, and the most recent information regarding the colony, 1851, GB
A.G.S. Gibson, Eight Years in Kaffraria, 1882-1890., from Project Canterbury
Exhibition Catalogues
Institutions Archives South African History Online : Archives
National Archives and Records Service, South Africa
National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, Offices which form part of the National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, scroll down for Eastern Cape Provincial Archives
National Archives of South Africa, Directory Entries of Archival Repositories 1999 page 5 : Kaffrarian Museum, King Williams' Town
Libraries National Library of South Africa
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms
Coins, Banknotes

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Cape Colony national, official
general, other
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
International Boundary Studies, search for South Africa
On British Kaffraria Search Aluka for Cape Colony
African Digital Library
Thesis Server IR Space, Search South African & African research repositories
Registry of Open Access Repositories : South Africa
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals African Journal Archive
General Accounts Robert Ross, A Concise History of South Africa, Cambridge Concise Histories, 1999, 219 pp.
Charles H. Feinstein, An Economic History of South Africa, Cambridge : UP 2005
Readers Digest Illustrated History of South Africa, Pleasantville NY : Readers Digest, 1988 [G]
Christopher Saunders and Iain R. Smith, Southern Africa 1795-1910, pp.597-623 in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Specific Topics
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries

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