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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Oranje Vrijstaat Transvaal
First posted July 1st 2005, last revised on November 23rd 2013







History of the Cape Colony : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
1488-1652 . 1652-1806 . 1806-1910
For the country's history since 1910, see History of South Africa


1488-1652
In 1488, Bartolomeo Diaz rounded the Cape, naming it Cape of Storms. The King of Portugal renamed it Cabo de Bona Esperança (Cape of Good Hope) because he believed finally a sea route had been found leading eastward and possibly to India; ten years later, Vasco da Gama was to prove him right.
The Cape area in those days was inhabited by the Khoikhoi people, often derogatorily referred to as Bushmen or Hottentots; in the extreme east of the Cape settled the Xhosa. The Khoikhoi lived of livestock breeding (which their ancestors had learned from the Bantu) and agriculture.
It took European traders several months to sail from Europe to India and vice versa; sailors and merchants, en route, suffered from scurvy, a disease caused by the lack of vitamins in their diet. European ships sent parties ashore every now and then at Table Bay in order to acquire food, sometimes by trading with the Khoikhoi, often by the means of theft.
The lucrative India trade, in order to be maintained in the long term, required the companies involved to establish supply stations. For the Portuguese, Delagoa Bay (Moçambique) functioned as such, for the Dutch Mauritius, for the French Reunion, for the British St. Helena. In 1647 a V.O.C. ship was shipwrecked in Table Bay. Part of the crew was left behind in order to salvage as much of the cargo as they could, to be picked up the following year. Leendert Jansz, after returning to the Dutch Republic, wrote a report about his experience at the Cape. In 1652 the Dutch moved their supply station from Mauritius to the Cape.

1652-1806
In order to provide their sailors with a supply of fresh vitamins halfway on their route to and from the East Indies, the
V.O.C. (Dutch East India Company) decided to settle farmers (the Dutch word for farmer is Boer) at the Cape. V.O.C. employee Jan van Riebeeck in 1652 landed with the first group of settlers and founded Kaapstad (Cape Town) as the first permanent Dutch settlement.
During the period of Dutch rule, settlement continued, on a small scale; in 1806 the European population was ca. 27,000. Notably a group of French Huguenots added to the colony's population (1689). A V.O.C. statute of 1701 stated that schooling exclusively was to be conducted in Dutch; in the course of the 18th century the Huguenots integrated into Boer society. Also, African slaves were brought into the colony - note that the Western Cape region previously had no black population.
Administatively, the Cape was just one of many outposts of the V.O.C., administrated by a governor responsible to the Governor-General in Batavia, and to the board of administration of the V.O.C. called De Heren Seventien (the 17 men) in the Netherlands.
The V.O.C. discouraged the territorial growth of the colony; however in the 18th century the Boers took matters into their own hands, and in 1778 the Cape Colony, by the way of annexation, was greatly expanded.
The Colonial Economy The colonists were to supply the V.O.C. with wheat, at prices fixed by the company; V.O.C. gardens produced a variety of vegetables and fruits, all intended to supply bypassing V.O.C. ships. The settler economy soon diversified, Boers breeding cattle and sheep (thus competing with the Khoikhoi) and establishing vineyards; here the Huguenots brought the knowhow. The economy of the Cape Colony was regulated by the V.O.C., to her own advantage; the V.O.C. prevented the emergence of a manufacturing industry to preserve a market for goods imported from the Dutch Republic.
Boer Society In the first number of years, the V.O.C. station at the Cape produced the desired food supplies for bypassing ships, but for feeding her own personnel, did depend on trade with the Khoikhoi. In an attempt to establish self-sufficiency, in 1657 a number of Company officials were released, granted farmland, equipped with necessary tools and permitted to farm, as long as they did not compete with the V.O.C. From the 1680es on the company no longer depended on trading with the Khoikhoi; the population of burghers (Boer settlers) continuously expanded. The Dutch settlers were very religious, most of them belonging to the Dutch Reformed Church (Calvinists). The Dutch introduced Roman-Dutch law, a tradition still influencing modern South African law.
The Boer society emerged and thrived under company rule. The burghers, amongst each other and with the Khoikhoi, traded on a barter basis; money was used primarily in dealings with the company. The farmers looked for farmhands, but were instructed not to enslave the local Khoikhoi population; some purchased African slaves from bypassing ships.
The extent by which the company could enforce her authority over the Boer population depended on the distance the respective Boer lived from Cape Town. Frontier Boer society developed the characteristics of a largely independent society; they regarded the grazing land as theirs for the taking, the Khoikhoi and Xhosa a nuisance (a potential workforce). Because of marriage at a young age and a large number of children, Boer society expanded rapidly, and in the 18th century the frontier was repeatedly pushed forward.
Relations with the Indigenous Population The Boers developed a frontier mentality, despised the Khoikhoi or Khoisan ('Hottentots'), the negroes ('Kaffirs') and those of mixed descent ('Coloureds'). The V.O.C. discouraged trade between the Boers and the Khoikhoi. From the beginning, the Boers claimed Khoikhoi land; the Khoikhoi were pressured into working for the Boers, paid little and treated badly. In 1659-1660 the first V.O.C.-Khoikhoi War was fought. The V.O.C., in order to avoid conflict, established a limit beyond which the settlement was not to extend. While this measure did not prevent Boers from moving beyond, for most of the 18th century the colony remained restricted to the nucleus in the Cape Town area. In 1745, Swellendam, in 1760 Graaff-Reinet was founded; in 1778 was the Great Fish River declared the border of the colony.
While the Cape Colony expanded, the Khoikhoi lost their grazing lands. They resisted; yet their military actions consisted of cattle raids. A smallpox epidemic in 1713 drastically reduced their numbers. Some of the Khoikhoi accepted a life as farmhands on Boer farms, where they intermarried with slaves; thus the'coloureds' emerged, who spoke Afrikaans; other Khoikhoi assimilated into Xhosa culture. The Khoikhoi seized to exist as a separate ethnic entity. In the late 18th century a large group of coloureds, Afrikaans-speaking, was expelled from the colony, moving inland and forming the Griqua nation. In 1779 the first conflict between the Boers and the Xhosa occurred. In 1795 a conflict with the Xhosa resulted in the Boers of Graaff-Reinet expelling the V.O.C. official, Maynier, and proclaiming a separate republic, which lasted until 1803.
End of V.O.C. Rule The British occupied the Cape Colony in 1795. The V.O.C. had transferred her territories and claims to the Batavian Republic in 1798 and ceased to exist in 1799. In 1803 Britain handed over the Cape Colony to the Batavian Republic. The latter enjoyed only short control over the Cape Colony, which again was occupied by the British in 1806.

British Rule, 1806-1910
During the period of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Britain occupied the Cape Colony in 1795, returned it to the Dutch in 1803 and again occupied it in 1806. The Netherlands ceded the Cape Colony formally in 1815.
The British declared it the Cape Colony and the governor took up residence in Cape Town (Kaapstad), the colony's capital. The Cape Colony pursued an active external policy, independent from the British Colonial Office, establishing an outpost in Natal (Port Natal, later renamed Durban) in 1824, annexing the lands west of the Kei river in 1834,
Economic Policy The British deregulated the economy. Boers no longer were bound to sell their products to fixed, artificially low prices, and were free to sell to any customer they wanted to. In 1808 the (official) Discount Bank opened; private banks followed in the 1820es. In 1825 the British silver currency was introduced, while the paper Rijksdaalder currency maintained valid. Cape Wool exports expanded strongly in the 1820es to 1840es.
Relations between Settlers and Natives The Boers were members of the Dutch Reformed Church, Calvinists who believed in predestination. They were convinced that they were God's chosen people, while damnation would await the natives. This prejudice, in the view of many Boers, justified their treatment of the Khoikhoi, coloureds and their slaves. An 1812 ordinance regulated the status of 'apprentices', largely confirming the practice. However, in 1792 Moravian Brethren, in 1799 missionaries from the London Missionary Society arrived, both proselytizing among the Khoikhoi and the Xhosa - and engaging in the campaign to abolish slavery.
Border wars with the Xhosa occurred in 1811-1812, 1817-1819, 1834-1835. Following the war of 1817-1819, the Cape Administration brought British settlers into the country, to settle the frontier area along the Great Fish River, in an attempt to separate Boers and Xhosa. The main settlement, Albany, later was renamed Port Elizabeth.
The Cape Administration undertook measures to improve the status of the natives. It accepted, to the dismay of the Boers, complaints by the Khoikhoi (1815). An 1828 ordinnance granted rights to free Khoikhoi and Coloureds at court equal to those of the whites. The British abolished slavery in 1834 (effective in 1838; affecting 36,000 slaves in the Cape Colony) and undertook measures to Anglicize the colony.
Relations between the British Administration and the Boers The Boers deeply resented the treatment they were given by the British administration. When the British had assumed the administration of the Cape in 1806, the language of administration had been Cape Dutch (Afrikaans). In 1825/1827, English was introduced as language of administration, in addition to Cape Dutch. The gradual introduction of British legal reforms such as the ordinnance of 1828, granting equal status to Khoikhoi and Coloureds, and the 1834 act abolishing slavery (both measures being resernted by the Boers) caused Boer leaders to organize a mass exodus - the Great Trek; from 1835 to 1843, c. 12,000 Boers would leave the colony. Modern historians believe, the lack of new farmland for the taking in the Cape Colony, in a rapidly expanding Boer society, was the main driving force behind the Great Trek. Most of the Boers stayed in the Cape, and almost all of the wealthy Boers affected by the abolition of slavery.
Cape Foreign Policy In 1867, diamonds were discovered in an area called Griqualand West; the area soon attracrated miners and fortune hunters. Claimed by the Boers, it was declared a British protectorate in 1871 and annexed by the Cape Colony in 1880. In 1877-1881, Cape troops occupied the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal). The undertaking ended in disaster : the Boers revolted, easily defeated the Cape troops, and reestablished their independence, Britain was not committed to dispatch troops; the Cape administration had to accept the defeat.
The Cape Colony annexed Southern Bechuanaland in 1895.
The discovery of gold at Witwatersrand outside Johannesburg in the Transvaal, another boomtown, attracted British attention. Businessman, politician and colonial adventurer Cecil Rhodes, founder of De Beers and Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, proclaimed the strategic aim of placing an area along the route Cape to Cairo under British control. After acquiring territory in Bechuanaland, Mashonaland, Matabeleland, Barotseland and Nyasaland, mostly as colonies for his British South Africa Company and failing to find a gold mine compatible to the Witwatersrand, he provoked the Boer War (1899-1902).
After temporarily humiliating British forces and offering stiff resistance, the Boers were forced to surrender, the Boer republics turned into British colonies.
Economy The diamond and gold rush resulted in the emergence of a modern mining industry and the rapid expansion of the raiload network. Ostrich farming expanded; South Africa attracted immigrants at an unprecedented scale. The (Second) Boer War of 1899-1902 resulted in a crisis of the Transvaal mining industry, which affected the Cape as is was met with an increase in taxation. The immigration of Chinese labourers was banned (1905).
The Cape Dutch In 1881 the Afrikander Bond was established, with chapters in the Orange Free State, Transvaal and in the Cape Colony. In 1882 the Boers were granted the right to speak (Cape) Dutch in the Legislative Assembly. Fears of a rising of the Cape Dutch - after the war of 1877-1881 - did not materialize.

1910- . In 1910, the Cape Colony, together with Natal, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, formed the Union of South Africa, which was given the status of a Dominion.
In 1948, the Union of South Africa adopted the Apartheid Policy (until 1994). In 1961 South Africa declared independence, became the Republic of South Africa. In 1994, Apartheid was abolished. The Bantustans were reintegrated; the Cape Province was broken up into three Provinces : the Western Cape, the Eastern Cape and the Northern Cape.

Historical Atlas, South Africa Page


Students' Papers : Kim, Hong, The Boer War as Portrayed in Punch 1898-1900 (2008)






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Current Articles : Cape Colony, Cape Province, from Wikipedia
Historical P. Kolbe, Naaukeurige en uitvoerige beschryving van de kaap de Goede Hoop, 1727, in Dutch, GB
P. Buchenroeder, Beknopt berigt nopens de volkplanting de Kaap de Goede Hoop, 1806, in Dutch, GB
Ansicht des Vorgebirges der Guten Hoffnung im Jahre 1814, pp.20-40 in vol.1 of Ethnographisches Archiv, 1814, in German, GB
J.C. Chase, The Cape of Good Hope and the eastern province of Algoa Bay, 1843, GB
G. Nicholson, The cape and its colonists: with hints to settlers in 1848, 1848, GB
T. Smith, South Africa delineated, 1850, GB
H. Hall, Manual of South African geography, 1859, GB
R. Noble, The Cape and its people: and other essays, 1869, GB
J. Noble, Descriptive Handbook of the Cape Colony : Its Condition and Resources (1875), IA
A.R.E. Burton, Cape Colony to-day 1907, IA
Links on History Category : Cape Colony, from Wikipedia
Organizations Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
South African Military History Society
Anglo-Boer War Philatelic Society
Cape Town Family History Society
Cape Town Heritage Trust
van Riebeeck Society
Historical Dictionaries P.E. Raper, Dictionary of Southern African Placenames n.d.
Timelines Alistair Boddy-Evans, Timeline of Slavery in the Cape Colony
Accounts of History Modern
Historical G. Lauts, Geschiedenis van de Kaap de Goede Hoop, Nederlandsche volkplanting. 1652-1806, 1854, in Dutch, GB
The Cape of Good Hope, pp.1-262 in R.M. Martin, History of Southern Africa, 1836, GB
A. Wilmot, History of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, From Its Discovery to the Year 1819, 1869, GB
M.J. Boon, The immortal history of South Africa: the only truthful, political, colonial, local, domestic, agricultural, theological, national, legal, financial and intelligent historty of man, women, manners and facts of the Cape Colony, Natal, the Orange Free State, Transvaal, and South Africa vol.1 1885, IA
G. McCall Theal, South Africa (the Cape Colony, Natal, Orange Free State, South African Republic, and all other territories south of the Zambesi) 1894, IA
Specific Periods Article : History of Cape Colony until 1806, 1806-1870, 1870-1899, 1899-1910, from Wikipedia
D. Mills, The English in Africa (1900), IA, chapter VII : The English and the Dutch in South Africa, pp.158-196
A.F. Trotter, Old Cape Colony; a chronicle of her men and houses from 1652-1806 (1903), IA
J. Cappon, Britain's Title in South Africa, Or, The Story of Cape Colony to the Days of the Great Trek (1901), IA
A. Wilmot, J.C. Chase, History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope: From Its Discovery to the Year 1819 (1869), IA
G. McCall Theal, History of South Africa from 1795 to 1872, vol.1 1915, vol.2 1915, vol.3 1915, vol.4 1915, vol.5 1915, IA
A.B. Smith, The French Period at the Cape, 1781-1783: a report on excavations at Conway Redoubt, Constantia Nek, Military History Journal Vol 5 No 3 - June 1981
Historiography R.E. Chernis, The past in service of the present : a study of South African school history syllabuses and textbooks 1839-1990 thesis Univ. of Pretoria 1990
M. Hamer, The Five Nations. A note on the background, 2007
J. Fourie, The Quantitative Cape: Notes from a new historiography of the Dutch Cape Colony, ERSA working paper 372 2013
Politics W.G. Mills, The Roots of African Nationalism in the Cape Colony : Temperance, 1866-1898 n.d.
W.G. Mills, The Taylor Revival of 1866 and the Roots of African Nationalism in the Cape Colony, Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. VIII, facs. 2, pp.105-122
S. Orakçi, A Historical Analysis of the Emerging Links between the Ottoman Empire and South Africa, 1863-1923, thesis Univ. of Johannesburg 2007
Military First Kaffir War 1818-1819, Kaffir War 1834-1835, Kaffir War 1846, Anglo-Boer War 1848, Kaffir War 1851-1853, Basuto War 1852, Basuto War 1857, Kaffir War 1877-1878, Boer War 1899-1902, from ACED
R. Cannon, History of the Cape Mounted Riflemen (1842), IA
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902
A. Wessels, Japie Neser: Cape colonial and Afrikaner rebel, 1899-1902 and beyond, 2011
A.G. Hales, Campaign Pictures of the War in South Africa (1899-1900) (1901), posted online by Gutenberg Library Online
H.H.S. Pearce, Four Months Besieged, The Story of Ladysmith (1900), posted by Gutenberg Library Online
Handbook of the Boer War (1910), posted online by Gutenberg Library Online
From British Military Medals : Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal 1880-1897, Wueen's South Africa Medal, 1899-1901, King's South Africa Medal, 1901-1902, Defence of Kimberley Star, 1899-1900
Economy & Finances Entry South Africa, from Global History of Currencies, by Bryan Taylor
History of the First National Bank
A.R.E. Burton, Cape Colony for the Settler: An Account of Its Urban and Rural Industries, Their Probable Future (1902), posted on Internet Archive
J.C. Brown, Management of crown forests at the Cape of Good Hope under the old regime and under the new 1887, IA
W.H. Hutt, The Economics of the Colour Bar. A Study of the Economic Origins and Consequences of Racial Segregation in South Africa, 1964
R. Wallace, Farming industries of Cape Colony 1896, IA
A.R.E. Burton, Cape Colony for the Settler : an account of its urban and rural industries, their probable future development and extension 1903, IA
Social History Class R. Ross, The Rise of the Cape Gentry, n.d.
J. Fourier, An inquiry into the nature, causes and distribution of wealth in the Cape Colony, 1652-1795 thesis Utrecht 2012
J. Fourie et al., A History With Evidence: Income inequality in the Dutch Cape Colony 2010
Slavery Iziko : History of Slavery in South Africa
R. Ross, Emancipations and the Economy of the Cape Colony, n.d.
E. Green, The economics of slavery in 18th century Cape Colony: Revising the Nieboer-Domar hypothesis, African Economic History Working Paper Series no.9 2013
The Slave Route, from Arts 2000, on the history of slavery in the Cape Colony
Labour A. Laverty, Outcomes of Slavery in Brazil and South Africa 2007; liberal usage of the term "slavery"
R. Ross, Emancipations and the Economy of the Cape Colony, n.d.
R.J. Thompson, Cecil Rhodes, the Glen Grey Act, and the Labour Question in the Politics of the Cape Colony, thesis Rhodes Univ. 1991
E.A. Mantzaris, Labour Struggles in South Africa, The Forgotyten Pages, 1903-1921 n.d., South African History Online
Health Sieketroosters aan die Kaap 1652-1866 (Nurses at the Cape), summary of J.P. Claasen's doctoral thesis, summarized by by Johan Erasmus, in Afrikaans
Education
Family Laura J. Mitchell, Belongings : Property, Family, and Identity in Colonial South Africa, diss. Columbia UP n.d.
Immigration Immigranten in Kaap de Goede Hoop in de 17e eeuw, from CBG, in Dutch
Racial Discrimination M. Horell, A survey of race relations in South Africa: 1954-1955, 1955, DISA
K. Tankard, Proto-Apartheid at an Eastern Cape Town (= East London), n.d., ch.1, ch.2, ch.3, ch.4, ch.5, ch.6, ch.7, ch.8, ch.9, ch.10, ch.11
Language S.J. du Toit, Geskidenis fan di Afrikaanse taalbeweging - Uit publike en prifate bronne bewerk deur 'n lid fan di Genootskap fan Regte Afrikaners 1880, North West Univ., Collection Africana
H. Giliomee, The Rise and Possible Demise of Afrikaans as a Public Language 2012
H. den Besten, The slaves' languages in the Dutch Cape Colony and Afrikaans vir, Linguistics: an interdisciplinary journal of the language sciences, September 1, 2000
R. Ross, Paternalism, Patriarchy and Afrikaans, South African Historical Journal 32 (May 1995), pp.34-47
Other R. Cadbury, Everyday Life in Cape Colony in Time of Peace (1902), posted on Internet Archive
H. Ludlow, The government teacher as mediator of a "superior" education in Colesberg, 1849-1858, Historia vol.57 no.1 Durban May 2012
Ethnography General Cape Colony, pp.669-677 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
Indigenous South Africa, pp.29-59 in Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aboriginal Tribes, 1837, GB
Andrew B. Smith, Where have all the Hottentots gone ?, posted by Science in Africa
R.S. Ehlers, This Land is Ours!" The Shaping of Xhosa Resistance to European Expansion Along the Cape Colony's Eastern Frontier, 1770-1820, thesis Univ. of Florida 1992
G. Nanni, The colonization of time: ritual, routine and resistance in the 19th-century Cape Colony and Victoria. thesis Melbourne 2006
Beaufort West, The History of the Xhosa in the Central Karoo
R. Ross, Status and Respectability in the Cape Colony, 1750-1870. A Tragedy of Manners (1999) 2004
Asian J.S. Mason, On the Malays of Cape Town, 1855, GB
South African History Online, Anti-Indian Legislation 1800s-1959
White German Immigrants to the Dutch Cape Colony 1652-1806, from German South Africa Resource Page
K.V. Jensen, Under Construction. Afrikaner Identities in Contemporary South Africa Approached through Discourse theory and the discourse-historical approach, thesis Aalborg 2008
Religion Article Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk, Afrikaner Calvinism, from Wikipedia
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
W.G. Mills, The Roots of African Nationalism in the Cape Colony : Temperance, 1866-1898 n.d.
W.G. Mills, The Taylor Revival of 1866 and the Roots of African Nationalism in the Cape Colony, Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. VIII, facs. 2, pp.105-122
RICSA, The Social History of Christianity in South Africa 1487 to 1994 1995
History of Regions Article Griqualand West, Stellaland, from Wikipedia
Local History History of Cape Town from Wikipedia
A Brief History of Cape Town, from Cape Town 2004
Institutions
Cultural History A.M. Gray, Vocal music of the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) : insights into processes of affect and meaning in music, thesis Univ. of Pretoria 2004
Biographies W.H. Wills et al., The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book 1905, IA
Catherine Radziwill, Cecil Rhodes, Man and Empire-Maker (1918), posted online by Gutenberg Library Online
Environmental History B.M. Bennett, Locality and Empire: Networks of Forestry in Australia, India, and South Africa, 1843-1948, thesis Univ. of Texas 2010; author, for the period prior to 1910, keeps refering to 'South Africa'
Others Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
L.G. Robson, The Royal Engineers and settlement planning in the Cape Colony 1806 - 1872 : approach, methodology and impact, thesis Pretoria 2011

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from Cape Colony by Ben Cahoon
Regnal Chronologies : Southern Africa, scroll down for Minor Boer States (the chieftaincies listed there, in fact, were no Boer states, but Griqua etc. polities); scroll sown for Xhosa, kwaZulu
Governors of Dutch Empire, Cape Colony, from Wikibooks
Lists of Consuls Political Graveyard, South Africa, has incomplete list of U.S. consuls in Cape Town since 1799; see also East London, Kimberley, Port Elizabeth, Simon's Town
Lists of Bishops List of (Anglican) Bishops and Archbishops of Cape Town, from Wikipedia
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cape Town : List of Ordinaries of Cape Town, from Wikipedia
Population Figures South Africa, historical demographical data by administrative division, from Population Statistics by Jan Lahmeyer
Statistical Register of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 1887, 1902, 1905 posted on Internet Archive
Documents Historical Newspapers De Gereformeerde kerkbode in Zuid-Afrika vol.1 1848, vol.2 1850, vol.3 1851, vol.4 1853, vol.5, vol.6 1854, vol.7 1855, vol.8 1856, vol.17 1865, GB
Online Yearbooks - Cape Colony Entries Historiesch Schoutooneel van 's Waerlds Lotgewallen in het jaar ... vol.1 : 1791 1792, pp.413-414, in Dutch, GB
Statesman's Year-Book, Cape of Good Hope 1886, pp.699-708, IA, 1887, pp.723-734, IA, 1888, pp.727-736, IA, 1889, pp.732-841, IA, 1890, pp.165-174, IA, 1891, pp.168-178, IA, 1892, pp.168-177, IA, 1894, pp.167-177, IA, 1895, pp.168-177, IA, 1896, pp.168-177, IA, 1898, pp.168-178, IA, 1899, pp.182-192, IA, 1903, pp.193-203, IA, Union of South Africa - Cape of Good Hope 1913, pp.208-213, IA, 1919, pp.219-224, IA, 1921, pp.225-230, IA
Staatskalender African Court Calendar / Africaansche Staats Almanak 1807 GB, IA, 1809 GB, 1811 GB, 1814 GB
African Court Calendar and Directory 1822, GB
Colonial Office List : Cape of Good Hope, 1862 pp.50-56, 1867 pp.29-35, GB
British Online Archives, Cape of Good Hope Blue Books 1821-1909
Image Databanks Search University of Johannesburg Digispace for Cape Colony
Search Atlas of Mutual Heritage for Cape Town
Search ingenious for "Cape", click see
Search Scripophily for Cape Colony, Cape Town
From British Military Medals : Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal 1880-1897, Queen's South Africa Medal, 1899-1901, King's South Africa Medal, 1901-1902, Defence of Kimberley Star, 1899-1900
Old Photographs : Cape Town, Kimberley, East London, Port Elizabeth (commercial site)
Archival Deposits Cape Colony Collections Resolutions of the Council of Policy of Cape of Good Hope, TANAP
Inventories of the Orphan Chamber of the Cape of Good Hope, TANAP
Stadsarchief Amsterdam, 213: Archief van de Evangelisch-Lutherse Gemeente te Amsterdam; Kerkenraad en Ouderlingen, position 5: Archiefstukken betreffende de oprichting van, later betreffende de kerkelijke zaken in de gemeente Batavia en Kaap de Gode Hoop, van 1776-1820. Archief van de commissie voor kerkelijke zaken in Oost-Indië
University of Johannesburg, South African Law Reports listed according to Shelf (Subject) Code in the Law Library, scroll down for Cape, Eastern Cape, Northern and Southeastern Cape
UNISA Library, German Africana Collection : Gotthilf Ernst Westphal & Carl Theodor Gotthilf Gotthardt Westphal Papers 1884-1965 Inventory (1989) 2011
Archives holding docs. on C.C. Nationaalarchief, NL
National Archives, UK
Constitutions Cape of Good Hope, pp.149-159 in A. Mills, Colonial constitutions : an outline of the constitutional history and existing government of the British dependencies 1856, GB
Laws Statutes of the Cape of Good Hope, 1868, GB
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Northern Cape)
Cape Colony Law Reports: Cases Decided in the Eastern Districts' Court vol.9 1895, vol.10 1896, IA
A.F.S. Maasdorp, The institutes of Cape law; being a compendium of the common law, decided cases, and statute law of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope vol.1 1907, vol.2 1907, vol.3 pt.2,3, 1907, IA
Laws regulating the relative rights and duties of masters, servants, and apprentices in the Cape Colony : annotated with decisions under the different sections 1890, IA
Cape of Good Hope. Supreme court. Cases decided in the Supreme court of the Cape of Good Hope 1893, IA
W.M. Seymour, Native law and custom; being a compendium of the recognised native customs in force in the native territories of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, together with legislative amendments, and reports of some of the more important decisions of the native appeal court of Griqualand East, 1901-1909 1911, IA
Treaties South African Treaties, Conventions, Agreements and State Papers (1898(, posted on Internet Archive
Treaties Entered into by Governors of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope and Other British Authorities with Native Chieftains and Others beyond the Border of the Colony between the Years 1803 and 1854 (1857), IA
Historiography
Document Surveys Ch.12 : De Scriptoribus Rerum Africanarum et Americanarum, pp.263-273, in B.G. Struve, Selecta bibliotheca historica, 1705, in Latin, GB ; a catalogue of narrative historical sources
Scriptores de rebus Hottentotticis et Belgicis in Promontorio bonae spei pp.187-203 in vol.3 pt.1 of B.G. Struve/J.G. Meusel, Bibliotheca historica 1787, in Latin, GB
Document Collections Until 1652
The African Rock Art Digital Archive, Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape
V.O.C. Rule, 1652-1803
A collection of VOC Cape of Good Hope land grants, slave grants, debentures, etc., from Paulus Swaen, a commercial site
Records of the Cape Colony from February vol.1 1793-1796 (1897), vol.2 1796-1799 (1898), vol.3 1799-1802 (1898), vol.4 1801-1803 (1899), vol.5 1800-1806 (1899), IA
H.C.V. Leibbrandt, Rambles through the archives of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, 1688-1700 (1887), IA
Echte stukken betreffende het volbragt onderzoek der verrichtingen van de Generale commissie in den jare 1791 benoemd geweest over de O.I. bezittingen van den staat en de Kaab de Goede Hoop, benevens den finalen uitslag van hetzelve, 1803, in Dutch, GB
Family Search, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Records, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Registers 1660-1970
G. McCall Thiel, Belangrijke historische dokumenten : verzameld in de Kaap Kolonie en elders 1896, IA; Belangrijke historische dokumenten over Zuid Afrika : verzameld in den Haag en Berlijn 1911
G. McCall Theal, Chronicles of Cape commanders; or, an abstract of original manuscripts in the archives of the Cape Colony, dating from 1651 to 1691, compared with printed accounts of the settlement by various visitors during that time. Also four short papers upon subjects connected with the East India Company's government at a later period, reprinted from colonial periodicals, and notes on English, Dutch, and French books published before 1796, containing references to South Africa 1882
British Rule, 1803-1910
Records of the Cape Colony from February vol.7, vol.8, vol.9 1812-1814 (1901), vol.10 1814-1815 (1902), vol.11 1815-1818 (1902), vol.12 1818-1820 (1902), vol.13 1820-1821 (1902), vol.14 1821-1822 (1902), vol.15, vol.16, vol.17, vol.18, vol.19 1824-1825 (1904), vol.20, vol.21 1825 (1904), vol.22 1825 (1904), vol.23 1825 (1904), vol.24, vol.25 1826 (1905), vol.26 1826 (1905), vol.27 1826 (1905), vol.28 1826 (1905), vol.30 1827 (1905), vol.31 1827 (1905), vol.32 1827 (1905), vol.33 1827 (1905), vol.34 1827 (1905), vol.35 1827-1831 (1905), vol.36 index, 1905, IA
Natal & Cape of Good Hope : Further despatches from the lieut.-governor of Natal & the governor of the Cape of Good Hope, on the subject of the recognition of Moshesh, chief of the Basutos, & of his tribe, as British subjects. (In continuation of papers presented May, 1869.) Presented to both houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty, 21 February, 1870 , 1870, Gb
A plea for our own coast and our Cape colony, 1852, GB
Cape of Good Hope, Government and Legislature Considered, 1851, GB
Papers relative to the establishment of a representative legislature at the Cape of Good Hope , 1851, GB
The recall of his excellency Sir George Grey: governor of the Cape of Good Hope; correspondence respecting the recall of Governor Sir George Grey from the Cape of Good Hope, and his subsequent reappointment to the government of that colony. Reprinted from papers ordered by the House, 1860, GB
Cape of Good Hope, Proclamations, advertisements and other official notices, 1827, GB
F. Marryat, G.B. Richardson, The universal code of signals for the mercantile marine of all nations, 1869, GB; search for Cape Town
Search ingenious for "Cape", click read
Family Search, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Records, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Registers 1660-1970
G.W. Eybers, Select constitutional documents illustrating South African history, 1795-1910, 1918, IA
Union/Republic of South Africa, 1910-
Family Search, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Records, South Africa, Dutch Reformed Church Registers 1660-1970
Truth and Reconciliation Commission, TRC Reports vol.3 : Chapter 2: Regional Profile Eastern Cape, Chapter 5: Regional Profile Western Cape
Historical Maps Map Issuing Institutions Republic of South Africa, Chief Surveyor General
R. Wonnacott, 90 years of surveying and mapping, 2010
General Collections David Rumsey Map Collection
Atlas of South Africa, from Wikimedia Commons
South Africa Maps, from PCL, UTexas
Category : Old Maps of South Africa, from Wikipedia
C. Board, The Imperial Map Cape Colony and later military maps of the Cape Colony, South Africa.
Search Atlas of Mutual Heritage for Cape Town
Whole Country, Modern Map of the Cape Colony, from Historical and Political Maps of the Modern Age
Map : South Africa 1899-1910, from Le Web Pedagogique
Whole Country, Historical Cape Colony 1906, from Probert Encyclopedia
Cape Colony 1911 (Britannica), from Wikimedia Commons
Cape Colony 1809, from Wikipedia
Detail, Modern
Detail, Historical Map of Cape Town c.1890, from Meyers Konversationsatlas, posted by Wikimedia Commons
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
General Articles Cape Colony, Cape Province, Cape Town, Stellenbosch, Graham's Town, Simon's Town, Kimberley, EB 1911, from Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Kapland, Kapstadt, Griqualand, Kimberley, Meyers Konversationslexikon 4th ed. 1885-1892, Retrobibliothek
Religious Articles Western Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope, Eastern Vicariate of the Cape of Good Hope, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Cape Colony, from New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
Südafrika, pp.658-661 in vol.2 of C.Fr. Staeudlin, Kirchliche Geographie u. Statistik, 1804, in German, GB
Cape Colony, pp.83-84 in W. Chapin, Missionary Gazetteer, 1825, GB
Cape Colony, p.151 in Ch. Williams, Missionary Gazetteer, 1828, GB
Cape Colony, p.125 in B.B. Edwards, Missionary Gazetteer, 1832, GB
Cape Colony, p.221 in H. Newcomb, A Cyclopedia of Missions, 1855, GB
Economic Cape of Good Hope, pp.34-54 in W. Milburn, Oriental commerce, 1813, GB
Cape of Good Hope, pp.28-34 in W. Milburn, Oriental commerce, 1825, GB
Cape of Good Hope, pp.507-508 in J. Blunt, The shipmaster's assistant, and commercial digest, 1837, GB
Ch. Pope, The yearly journal of trade, 1837-8 : comprising laws of customs and excise, treaties and conventions with foreign powers, tariffs of United Kingdom, Russia, Monte Video ... parliamentary speeches and papers, proclamations, orders in Council and of government boards, reports of law cases, translations of foreign documents (1838), posted on Internet Archive, on Cape of Good Hope pp.306-307
Cape of Good Hope, p.154 in W. Waterston, A manual of commerce, 1840, GB
Das Kapland, pp.174-178 in Grosses Adressbuch der Kaufleute, Fabrikanten und handelnden Gewerbsleute von Europa und den Hauptpl?en der fremden Welttheile vol.23 : Griechenland, T?kei, Asien, Afrika und Australien, 1845, in German, GB
W.H. Weed, The Copper Mines of the World 1907, Cape Colony pp.129-133
Geographical Cape Colony, pp.126-129 in J. Conder, A dictionary of geography, ancient and modern, 1834, GB
Cape Colony, Natal and Kafraria, pp.562-566 in A. Mackay, Manual of modern geography, mathematical, physical, and political, 1861, GB
W.H.P. Greswell, Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi 1892, IA; The Provinces of the Cape Colony pp.100-254
C.P. Lucas, Geography of South and East Africa 1904, IA; Cape Colony pp.4-38
G.T. Warner, A Geography of British South Africa< 1904, IA; Cape Colony pp.59-92
Ethnographical The Cape Colony, pp.297-299 in M.E. Darton, The earth and its inhabitants, 1868, GB
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : The Cape Colony and its Dependencies pp.118-178
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; The Cape Colony and its Dependencies pp.118-178
Historical De Kaap de Goede Hoop, pp.478-479 in T. Salmon, Hedendaagsche historie of tegenwoordige staat der Vereenigde Nederlanden, 1739, in Dutch, GB
Cape of Good Hope, pp.512-543 in vol.15 of The modern part of an universal history, 1760, GB
Cape Colony, pp.156-174 in H.R.F. Bourne, The story of our colonies, 1869, GB
W. Douglas MacKenzie, South Africa, its History, its Heroes and Wars 1900, IA; Cape Colony pp.37-41, 126-139
Parliamentary Debates Search Hansard (UK) for Cape Colony
Parliament of the Republic of South Africa Hansard 1999-
Postal Routes etc. Search Bradshaw's continental railway, steam transit, and general guide 1853, 1859, 1861, 1862, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, GB, for Cape of Good Hope
Travelogues B. Stout, Cape of Good Hope and its dependencies: An accurate and truly interesting description of those delightful regions, situated five hundred miles north of the Cape, formerly in possession of the Dutch, but lately ceded to the Crown of England; and which are to be colonized, with every possible despatch ... Likewise a luminous and affecting detail of Captain Stout's travels through the deserts of Caffraria and the Christian settlements, to the Cape, 1820, GB
Notes on the Cape of Good Hope: made during an excursion in that colony in the year 1820 , 1821, GB
B. Shaw, Memorials of South Africa, 1840, GB
J.T. Arbousset, F. Daumas, Narrative of an exploratory tour to the north-east of the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, 1846, GB
E.H.D.E. Napier, Excursions in Southern Africa: Including a History of the Cape Colony (1849), IA
Tour Guides J.F. Ingram, The land of gold, diamonds and ivory; being a comprehensive handbook and guide to the colonies, states and republics of South and East Africa 1889, IA, Cape Colony pp.13-53
Residence Memoirs C.J.F. Bunbury, Journal of a residence at the Cape of Good Hope, 1848, GB
H. Ward, The Cape and the Kaffirs : a diary of five years' residence in Kaffirland ; with a chapter of advice to emigrants, based on the latest official returns, and the most recent information regarding the colony, 1851, GB
R. Gray, Cape of Good Hope: journals of two visitations in 1848 and 1850, 1852, GB
M. Reed, The bush-boys: or, The history and adventures of a Cape farmer and his family in the wild karoos of Southern Africa, 1856, GB
Reminiscences of a frontier armed & mounted police officer in South Africa, 1866, GB
Exhibition Catalogues South Africa, pp.949-952 in vol.4 of Official descriptive and illustrated catalogue , Great Exhibition of 1851, GB
Cape of Good Hope. General committee instituted for the Universal exhibition of 1855, Universal exhibition, 1855, colony of the Cape of Good Hope: vademecum, 1855, GB
Cape of Good Hope, p.113 in Official catalogue of the industrial department , London Exhibition, 1862
Catalogue of the Exhibits of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope 1886, IA
Institutions Archives South African History Online : Archives
National Archives and Records Service, South Africa
Western Cape Archives and Records Service
National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, Offices which form part of the National Archives and Records Service of South Africa, scroll down for Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Northern Cape Provincial Archives
National Archives of South Africa, Directory Entries of Archival Repositories 1999 page 1 : Archives of the Afrikaanse Protestantse Kerk, Pretoria, page 3 : Archives Repository of the Dutch Reformed Church of Africa, Pretoria, page 6 : National Archives Repository, Pretoria, Archives of the Reformed Church of South Africa, Potchefstroom
National Archives of South Africa, Directory Entries of Archival Repositories 1999 page 1 : Africana Library, Kimberley, page 2 : Cape Town Archives Repository, Cory Library for Historical Research, Grahamstown, page 3 : Dutch Reformed Church Archives (Western, Northern and Eastern Cape), Cape Town, page 5 : Library of Parliament, Cape Town, page 7 : South African Library, Cape Town
Musea Iziko Museums of Cape Town
Monuments List of Heritage Sites in Eastern Cape, List of Heritage Sites in Western Cape, Wikipedia
Libraries National Library of South Africa
National Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Arms; from Armoria Patriae
Coins, Banknotes Search Coin Archives for Cape of Good Hope
Stamps Rare Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Griqualand West, Stellaland Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Cape of Good Hope, Griqualand, Stellaland Stamps, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Cape Colony national, official
general, other Catalogue of books and pamphlets relating to Africa south of the Zambesi, in the English, Dutch, French, and Portuguese languages, in the collection of George McCall Theal ... to which have been added several hundred titles of volumes in those languages and in German in the library of the British Museum, London, the South African Public Library, Capetown, and a few others. With notes upon those published before 1872 ... and upon several of a more recent date 1912, IA
D. Curtis, Cape Colonies bibliography, n.d.
specialist Y.G.M. Lulat, U.S. Relations with South Africa : Books, documents, reports, and monographs, 1991, GB
Slavery at the Cape. South African bibliography on slavery at the Cape of Good Hope
serial publications van Riebeeck Society Publiucations
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; e-corpus
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Digitale Sammlungen; Staatsbibliothek Berlin, Digitalisierte Sammlungen
International Boundary Studies, search for South Africa
On Cape Colony Anglo-Boer War Society : Books
Search Aluka for Cape Colony
African Digital Library
Thesis Server IR Space, Search South African & African research repositories
Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown; Stellenbosch University, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, University of South Africa, Cape Town
Registry of Open Access Repositories : South Africa
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
African Journal Archive
South African Military History Society, Military History Journal 1967-; all but the last few issues freely accessible online
Historical Association of South Africa, Historia
Review of African Political Economy 1974-
General Accounts Robert Ross, A Concise History of South Africa, Cambridge Concise Histories, 1999, 219 pp.
Charles H. Feinstein, An Economic History of South Africa, Cambridge : UP 2005
Readers Digest Illustrated History of South Africa, Pleasantville NY : Readers Digest, 1988 [G]
Christopher Saunders and Iain R. Smith, Southern Africa 1795-1910, pp.597-623 in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Specific Topics J.S. Marais, Maynier and the First Boer Republic, Cape Town : Maskew Miller (1944) 1961 [G]
M.S. Geen, The Making of the Union of South Africa, a brief history 1487-1939, London : Longmans 1946 [G]
Christopher Saunders and Iain R. Smith, Southern Africa 1795-1910, pp.597-623 in : Andrew Porter (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol.III : The Nineteenth Century, Oxford : UP 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign. 909.0971241 O98o v.3
Historical Dictionaries
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year
Statesman's Yearbook Article : Cape Colony, in : Statesman's Year Book 1878 pp.624-631, 1895 pp.168-177, 1898 pp.168-177, 1901 pp.183-193, 1905 pp.195-206 [G]
Americana Annual Article : Cape of Good Hope Province, in : Americana Annual 1927 pp.153-154, 1928 p.137, 1930 p.152, 1931 p.142, 1932 pp.140-141, 1933 pp.135-136, 1934 p.133, 1935 p.127, 1936 p.119, 1937 p.108, 1943 p.135, 1944 p.129 [G]
Other Article : Cape Colony, in : International Year Book 1898 pp.160-163, 1899 pp.159-162, 1900 pp.171-175 [G]
Article : Cape Colony, in : New International Year Book 1907 pp.143-145, 1908 pp.132-134, 1909 pp.136-137, 1910 pp.136-137 [G]
Article : Cape Colony, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1886 pp.133-136, 1894 pp.100-102 [G]