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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
South Africa Swaziland
First posted in April 2002, last revised on November 21st 2013







History of Lesotho : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
until 1868 . 1868-1884 . 1884-1966 . since 1966



Until 1868
The Basuto Kingdom was established by King Moshoeshoe (ruler since 1831) , who reorganized remnants of Sesotho-speaking tribes dispersed by raids of the Zulu and Matabele. Moshoeshoe is regarded the founder of a nation with a common language, religion, common social institutions, a judicial court, a council and a powerful army. He selected Maseru, an easily defensible mountaintop natural fortress his capital.
In 1842, Moshoeshoe I. invited French missionaries from the Paris Evangelical Fraternity; they established a station at Morija. In that year, Moshoeshoe I. for the first time applied to the Cape Colony administration for a treaty of protection, which was not granted. A first treaty, though not of protection, was signed in 1843. Soon they came in contact, and often in conflict with Boers settling the Orange river area. In 1854, the sale of alcoholic beverages was forbidden by law. From 1854 to 1859, Basutoland for the first time was a British protectorate. An 1859 law forbade the permanent settlement of Europeans in Basutoland. In 1864 a land conflict between the Orange Free State and Basutoland over territory broke out; the Cape Colony administration refused to side with Basutoland. The Boer-Basuto War (1864-1866) was terminated by the Treaty of Thaba Bosia, in which the Basuto ceded the disputed land; at Boer insistance, the French missionaries were expelled. In 1867, the Basuto again took up arms against the Boers. In 1868, Basutoland was proclaimed a British protectorate.

1868-1884
Since 1868 a British Protectorate, Basutoland was annexed by the Cape Colony in 1871, without the Basutos being consulted. Cape rule was resented, and in 1880/1881 the Basuto rebelled (the Gun War). The Cape Colony decision to disarm the Basuto had sparked the rebellion. In 1882 the government in London was asked to take over the administration. In 1884, Britain placed Basutoland under direct British rule (the Colonial Office).

1884-1966
In 1884, Basutoland was placed under a High Commissioner, who in 1885 also became responsible for Bechuanaland and in 1906 also for Swaziland. British administration was minimalistic; the two British officials were advised to do nothing in excess of the revenue (from local taxation). In effect little was done beyond keeoping law and order. Alcoholism spread, and suppression of the natives by their own chiefs was another problem.
In 1891, Basutoland had a population of 218,000, in 1904 of 349,000. In 1903 a National Council was established.
The Boer War (1899-1902) found Basutoland, though a British protectorate, caught between the fronts.
In 1910, the Union of South Africa was formed. Basutoland was completely surrounded by it. The Union several times applied for the integration of Basutoland and Swaziland; the Colonial Office rejected it every time. In 1910 Basutoland was given a colonial constitution; the Laws of Leronthodi (traditional laws) were codified.
In 1932 to 1934 Basutoland suffered through a drought crisis. As Basutoland did not have many plantations, it was only indirectly affected by the Great Depression. The Pim Report of 1934 criticized abuses by an increasing number of native chiefs, pointed out the necessity of soil conservation, criticized the British policy of non-interference. In 1938 the Native Administration and Native Courts Proclamation was to address that problem. The native chiefs were placed under the supervision of the High Commissioner; 1340 chief courts were replaced by 122 magistral courts.
Basutoland remained under the administration of the High Commissioner for Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland. The monarchy was left intact; authority, however, lay with the High Commissioner. In 1946 a national treasury was established.

Independence, since 1966
In 1966, the country was released into independence. It took on the name Lesotho.






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS
Article : Lesotho, from Wikipedia
Historical P. Duncan, Basutoland in Transition 1959
R.P. Stevens, The South African Threat to the Independence of Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland 1966
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; Category : Lesotho, from Wikipedia
Lesotho Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Lesotho, from Wikipedia
Organizations Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
Lesotho Heritage Network
Historical Dictionaries P.E. Raper, Dictionary of Southern African Placenames n.d.
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws; Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Lesotho, from Kirken i Norge
Accounts of History Modern History of Lesotho, from Wikipedia; from The African Executive
Historical
Specific Periods G. McCall Theal, A Fragment of Basuto History, 1854 to 1871 1886, IA
R.O. Mekenye, The African Role in the Failure of South African Colonialism, 1902-1910: the Case of Lesotho, draft 2000
R.O. Mekenye, Re-Examination of the Lekhotla La Bafo's Challenge to Imperialism in Lesotho, 1919-1966 International Journal of Humanities and Social Science vol.2 no.10 [Special Issue - May 2012]
EISA : Lesotho: Human settlement before the Kingdom 2007
EISA : Lesotho: Rise and consolidation of the Kingdom (1820-1868) 2007
EISA : Lesotho: Early British protectorate (1868-1913) 2007
EISA : Lesotho: Late British protectorate (1913-1966) 2007
EISA : Lesotho: One party rule (1966-1986) 2007
EISA : Lesotho: Military rule (1986-1993) 2007
EISA : Lesotho: Democracy and instability (1993-1998) 2007
EISA : Lesotho: Constitutional reform and stability (1998-2006) 2007
Politics Politics of Lesotho, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Lesotho; Governments on the WWW : Lesotho
Category : Elections in Lesotho, from Wikipedia; Election History of Lesotho, from Independent Election Commission
Entry Lesotho, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
DADM : Lesotho, 1966-present
H.M. Glass, South African policy towards Basutoland 1966
A. Lissoni, The Pan-African Congress in Basutoland, 1962-1965 South African Historical Journal, vol.62 no.1 pp.54-77, 2010
H. Masemola, An Analysis and Appraisal of Restructuring in SADCC/SADC since 1990, thesis Univ. of South Africa 2005
K. Matlosa, Aid, Development and Democracy in Lesotho, 1966-1996 1999
Military Wars of Lesotho 1800-1999, from ACED
Orders, Decorations and Medals of Lesotho, from ODM
Norman Clother, The Erinpura : Basotho Tragedy, from Military History Journal vol.8 5
Lesotho Civil War and Intervention (1998), posted on History Guy
Kh. Matiosa, From a destabilising factor to a de-politicised and professional force: The military in Lesotho, ch.4, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
M.G. Tilden, Basutoland Roll of Honour 1851-1881, Military History Journal vol.1 no.5 December 1969
Victoria Cross by Campaign : Basuto War, 1879-1882, from Victoria Cross Reference
Economy & Finances Global History of Currencies : Lesotho; Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Lesotho
Category : Economy of Lesotho, from Wikipedia
History, from Letseng Diamonds
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Lesotho
R. Grynberg et al., SACU Revenue Sharing Formula: The History of An Equation n.d.
World Bank, Basutoland - The Economy, Report 1965
P. Phoofolo, In Time of Plague : The Basotho and the Rinderpest 1896-1898, thesis Rhodes Univ. 1999
Social History General
Labour E. Maloka, Basotho and the Mines: a Social History of Labour Migrancy in Lesotho and South Africa, c.1890-1940, CODESRIA 2004
G.W. Strom, Migration and Development. Dependence on South Africa. A Study of Lesotho Uppsala (1976) 1986
C. Boehm, The Social Life of Fields : Labour Market and Agrarian Change in Lesotho, Paideusis - Journal for Interdisciplinary and Cross-Cultural Studies: Volume 3 / 2003
Law, Crime & Punishment Lesotho, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
T.C.L. Lenka, A Historical and Comparative Study of Human Rights Violations in Criminal Investigations in Lesotho, thesis Univ. of the Free State 2010
V.V. Palmer, From Lerotholi to Lando: Some Examples of Comparative Law Methodology, Global Jurist Frontiers 4/2 2004
L. Juma, The Laws of Lerotholi: Role and Status of Codified Rules of Custom in the Kingdom of Lesotho, Pace International Law Review 23 4 2011
Education E.B. Sargant, Report on education in Basutoland, 1905-1906, IA
S.H. D'Souza, The Impact of the Derby Day Meeting on African Education in Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Nigeria, 1923-1939, thesis Manchester 1973
Class R. Leys, Some Observations on Class Differentiation and Class Conflict within the Labour Reserve of Basutoland, Univ. of London, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Collected Seminar Papers on the Societies of Southern Africa in the 19th and 20th centuries 11 2012. pp.87-95
Housing F. Frescura, A Case Of Hopeless Failure - The Role Of Missionaries In The Transformation Of Southern Africa's Indigenous Architecture
Ethnography Languages of Lesotho (2), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Lesotho, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Lesotho
UNHCR : Lesotho
Migration Information Source : Lesotho
E.A.T. Dutton, The Basuto of Basutoland, 1923, IA
S. Wallman, The Communication of Measurement in Basutoland, Human Organization 24/3 1965 pp.236-243
G. Lagden, The Basutos; the mountaineers & their country; being a narrative of events relating to the tribe from its formation early in the nineteenth century to the present day, vol.1 1909, vol.2 1909, IA
M. Martin, Basutoland, its Legends and Customs (1903), IA
M. Guma, The Cultural Meaning of Names among Basotho of Southern Africa : Historical and Linguistic Analysis, Nordic Journal of African Studies 10(3): pp.265-279 (2001)
Institutionalized Ethnicity : Lesotho
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Lesotho, from Kirken i Norge
Catholic Hierarchy, Archdiocese of Maseru
Category : Religion in Lesotho, from Wikipedia
Basutoland, from Roman Catholic Hierarchy
V. Ellenberger, Century of mission work in Basutoland (1833-1933) 1938, IA
W.B. Beckner, Eugene Casalis and the French Mission to Basutoland (1833-1856): A Case Study of Lamin Sanneh's Mission-by-Translation Paradigm in Nineteenth Century Southern Africa, draft 2013
F. Laydevant, Religious or Sacred Plants of Basutoland, Bantu Studies, vol.6, pp.65-69, 1932
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
History of Regions Article Districts of Lesotho, from Wikipedia
Districts of Lesotho, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : Colony of Basutoland 1900-07-08, 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Kingdom of Lesotho 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
C.C. Eloff, Die sogenaamde verowerde gebied: omstrede grensstreek tussen die Oranje-Vrystaat en Lesotho (Basoetoland)., thesis North-West Univ. 1978
Local History List of Cities in Lesotho, from Wikipedia
Articles : Maseru : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions Lesotho, from Airline History
Lesotho National Broadcasting Services, Radio, from Broadcasting HIV Africa
National University of Lesotho : History, from SARUA
Structurae : Lesotho
Cultural History Articles Lesotho at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
W.H. Wills et al., The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book 1905, IA
Environmental History Disaster History : Lesotho, from Relief Web
Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
M. Singh, Basutoland. A Historical Journey into the Environment, Environment and History 6/1 2006 pp.31-70
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Lesotho

WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Regnal Chronologies : Southern Africa, scroll down for Lesotho/Basuto
Lists of Ambassadors Article : High Commissioner for Southern Africa (British), from Wikipedia; has office holders 1847-1964
Chinese Ambassadors to Lesotho, from PRC MOFA
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops Catholic Hierarchy, Archdiocese of Maseru
Statistical Data Responsible Institution Lesotho Bureau of Statistics
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile, Lesotho
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1966
Inflation Rate Index Mundi, Lesotho Inflation Rate 1998-2011
Trading Economics, Lesotho Inflation Rate 2002-
Unemployment Rate Index Mundi, Lesotho Unemployment Rate 2000-2002
Election Results Psephos (since 1994)
from IFES Election Guide
EISA : Lesotho Election Archive
African Elections Database : Elections in Lesotho
Search IPU Parline for "Lesotho"
Documents Historical Newspapers The London Gazette Archive
Historic Newspaper Articles The Tablet, 2 Sept. 1893 : A Missioner in Basutoland
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Lesotho, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Basutoland/Lesotho Entries Statesman's Year-Book, Basutoland 1890, pp.161-162, IA, 1891, pp.161-162, IA, 1892, pp.166-167, IA, 1894, pp.166-167, IA, 1895, pp.166-167, IA, 1896, pp.166-167, IA, 1898, pp.166-167, IA, 1899, pp.180-181, IA, 1903, pp.190-192, IA, South Africa - Basutoland 1913, pp.192-193, IA, 1919, pp.198-200, IA, 1921, pp.201-202, IA
UN Yearbook Collection, 1946-2007
Questions Concerning Lesotho 1978, Matters Concerning Lesotho 1979, Relations between Lesotho and South Africa 1980, Lesotho-South Africa Armed Incidents and Dispute 1983, Lesotho-South Africa Dispute 1984, 1985, 1986
Staatskalender Digitized Books from Basutoland 1890-1938 (Lesotho), Digitized Books from the Library of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
British Online Archives, Basutoland Annual Blue Books 1926-1946
British Geological Service, Basutoland, Colonial Annual Report 1953 (ToC, Excerpt)
Newsreel British Pathe : Basutoland - Towards Self Government 1959
Historic Films Colonial Film : Basutoland
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Accidental Collections Magnum Photos : George Rodger - SOUTH AFRICA. Basutoland (Lesotho). 1947, Ian Berry. Lesotho 1961, 1985, Martine Franck. Lesotho. 1981, Chris Steele-Perkins, Lesotho 1981, Tim Hetherington, Lesotho 2006
Postcardman, Lesotho/Basutoland, historical postcards' commercial site
Universal Collections
Items on Lesotho
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Lesotho
International Mission Photography Archive : Lesotho
Archival Deposits British Provenience
National Archives, UK
National Archives, UK : Colonial administration records (migrated archives): Basutoland (Lesotho) FCO 141/293 to 141/1021
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
SOAS, Archive Catalogue (Archives of the London Missionary Society, the Methodist Missionary Society, the Presbyterian Church of England Foreign Missions Committee)
British Online Archives, Universities' Mission to Central Africa
Microform Academic Publishers, Guides, Central Africa 1883-1964. The Monthly Magazine of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, introduction by R.G. Stuart
Adam Matthews Publications, African Missionaries' Collections
U.S. Provenience
Indiana University Library, African Pamphlets Collection Index
University of Chicago Library, Guide to the Lloyd A. Fallers Papers 1937-1977
South African Provenience
Methodist Church of South Africa Archives
Dutch Provenience
African Studies Centre, Leiden : Development Plans, Basutoland
Laws South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Lesotho etc.)
Lesotho Legal Information Institute
Treaties
Consular Reports
Historiography
Document Surveys British Library, Lesotho Official Publications
Document Collections History of Lesotho, from World History Archives
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Lesotho, from ILO, 23 docs. since 1960
Search Hansard for Basutoland, Lesotho
Great Britain, Office of Commonwealth Relations, Basutoland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland; history of discussions with the Union of South Africa, 1909-1939 1952, IA
Basutoland Records: Copies of Official Documents of Various Kinds, Accounts ... 1883, IA
South African Rock Art Digital Archive, Analysis Rock Art Lesotho
Individual Documents Modern History Sourcebook : Moshweshewe: Letter to Sir George Grey, 1858 [The establishment of Basutoland]
AHG (Assembly of Heads of State and Governments) Resolution 12/1, The Territorial Integrity of Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland, 1964, African Union
Southern African Customs Union, 1910 Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Agreement
Historical Maps responsible institutions Dept of Lands, Surveys & Physical Planning, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Lesotho Lesotho Maps, from David Rumsey Map Collection
Lesotho Maps, from PCL, UTexas
Atlas of Lesotho, from Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Lesotho, Modern Basutoland 1868, sahistory.org.za
Lesotho, contemporary Weller, Basutoland c.1870, WDL
R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 54. Kourouman 1882, 54. Kourouman 1883, 54. Vryburg 1897, 55. Pretoria 1882, 55. Pretoria 1896, 55. Pretoria 1899, 59. Ville du Cap 1881, 59. Ville du Cap 1884, 59. Ville du Cap 1899, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1881, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1883, 60. Pietermaritzburg 1897, Gallica
South Africa 1:250,000 (U.S. Army, Map Service, 1954-) SH 35 3 : Bethlehem, SH 35.4 : Ladysmith, SH 35.7 : Ladybrand, SH 35.8 : Estcourt, SH 35.11 : Zastron, SH 35.12 Kokstad, PCL, UTexas
Detail, modern
Detail, contemporary
Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles Basutoland, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Articles Basutoland, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885-1892, in German
Religious Articles Basutoland, from Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 edition
Economic Basutoland p.333 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Geographical Basutoland, pp.677-678 in G.G. Chisholm, The world as it is; a popular account of the countries and peoples of the earth 1884, IA
W.H.P. Greswell, Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi 1892, IA; Native States and Protectorates pp.285-307; Basutoland pp.292-296
C.P. Lucas, Geography of South and East Africa 1904, IA; Basutoland pp.38-48
G.T. Warner, A Geography of British South Africa< 1904, IA; The Switzerland of South Africa pp.47-52
Historical W. Douglas MacKenzie, South Africa, its History, its Heroes and Wars 1900, IA; Basutoland pp.91-99
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues J.F. Ingram, The land of gold, diamonds and ivory; being a comprehensive handbook and guide to the colonies, states and republics of South and East Africa 1889, IA, Orange River Free State and Basutoland pp.79-84
Residence Memoirs E.A. Casalis, My life in Basuto Land 1889, IA
J. Widdicombe, Fourteen years in Basutoland: a sketch of African mission life 1891, IA
F.A. Barkly, Among Boers and Basutos: The Story of Our Life on the Frontier 1894, IA
M.S.B. Burton, Happy Days in Basutoland (1902), IA
R. Willoughby, My Barefoot Childhood: Life with the Basutoland Mounted Police - and the Oldest Man I Ever Knew 2013
Institutions Archives National Archives of Lesotho, from ICA
Royal Archives and Museum, Lesotho
Morija Archives, Lesotho
Musea Royal Archives and Museum, Lesotho
Morija Museum, Lesotho
Monuments
Libraries National University of Lesotho Library
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Lesotho, from World Currency Museum, from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Lesotho coins from Collections of Coins, bilingual Russian and English page
Lesotho Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for Basutoland, Lesotho
Stamps Rare Basutoland Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Lesotho survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
general bibliographies Lesotho Bibliography, anonymous
pp.185-223 in G. Haliburton, Historical Dictionary of Lesotho, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
pp.407-450 in S. Rosenberg et al., Historical Dictionary of Lesotho, Lanham MD L Scarecrow 2004 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies L. and D. Switzer, The Black Press in South Africa and Lesotho. A descriptive bibliographic guide to African, Coloured and Indian newspapers, newsletters and magazines 1836-1976
serial publications Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
Lesotho entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Lesotho-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Lesotho Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Registry of Open Access Repositories : Lesotho
Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts Zdenek Cervenka et al., Botswana - Lesotho - Swaziland, Bonn : Deutsche Afrika-Gesellschaft, 1974, in German
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.886-890 Article Southern Africa : Lesotho. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Specific Topics Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Chapter 28 : Medicine Murder in Basutoland, pp.568-584, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Gordon Haliburton, Historical Dictionary of Lesotho, Metuchen N.J. : Scarecrow 1977 [G]
S. Rosenberg et al., Historical Dictionary of Lesotho, Lanham MD L Scarecrow 2004 [G]
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Basutoland, 1913 p.706 [G]
British South African Protectorates, 1944 p.130, 1945 p.128, 1946 pp.150-151, 1947 p.153, 1948 p.142, 1949 pp.125-126, 1950 p.130, 1951 pp.125-126, 1952 p.124 [G]
British South African Territories, 1953 pp.124-125, 1954 p.125, 1955 p.184, 1956 p.123, 1957 p.183, 1958 p.121, 1959 p.122, 1960 p.123, 1961 p.122, 1962 pp.109-110, 1963 p.224 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1964 pp.268-269 [G]
Colonies and Other Dependencies, 1965 p.252, 1966 p.203 [G]
Lesotho, 1967 p.476, 1968 pp.474-475, 1969 p.462, 1970 pp.465-466, 1971 pp.447-448, 1973 p.412, 1978 pp.493-494, 1979 pp.487-487, 1981 p.490, 1982 pp.490-491, 1984 p.483, 1985 pp.468, 723, 1988 pp.391-392, 641, 1990 pp.408-409, 657, 1993 pp.363, 651, 1994 pp.361-362, 652, 1995 pp.437-438, 652 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook Basutoland, 1895 pp.166-167, 1898 pp.166-167, 1901 pp.181-182, 1905 pp.192-194, 1910 pp.187-188, 1919 pp.198-200, 1924 pp.207-209, 1925 pp.211-213, 1926 pp.215-217, 1928 pp.213-215, 1929 pp.214-216, 1932 pp.217-219, 1937 pp.237-239, 1943 pp.229-231 [G]
Lesotho, 1970-1971 pp.500-502, 1975-1976 pp.407-410, 1978-1979 pp.779-782, 1980-1981 pp.786-789, 1983-1984 pp.783-786, 1984-1985 pp.785-789, 1985-1986 pp.788-790, 1987-1988 pp.792-794, 1988-1989 pp.794-796, 1989-1990 pp.803-805, 1990-1991 pp.804-806, 1991-1992 pp.805-808, 1992-1993 pp.885-887, 1993-1994 pp.879-882, 1994-1995 pp.873-876, 1995-1996 pp.869-872, 1996-1997 pp.818-821, 1997-1998 pp.831-834, 1998-1999 pp.891-894, 2000 pp.1017-1020, 2001 pp.993-996, 2002 pp.1035-1038, 2003 pp.1037-1040, 2004 pp.1043-1046, 2005 pp.1049-1053 [G]
Americana Annual Basutoland, 1927 p.93, 1928 p.83, 1930 p.98, 1931 p.101, 1932 p.99, 1933 p.90, 1934 p.105, 1935 p.92, 1936 p.83, 1937 p.70, 1938 p.75, 1939 p.80, 1940 p.75, 1943 p.93, 1944 p.86, 1945 p.87, 1946 p.94, 1947 pp.73-74, 1957 p.83 [G]
British South African Territories : Basutoland, 1961 p.97, 1962 pp.95-96, 1963 pp.103-104, 1964 pp.103-104 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1965 pp.183-185 [G]
Lesotho, 1967 p.411, 1968 pp.408-409, 1969 pp.418-419, 1970 pp.415-416, 1971 p.407, 1972 p.406, 1973 p.406 [G]
Other Article : Basutoland, in : The International Year Book 1898 p.90, 1899 p.105 [G]