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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Zambia Moçambique
First posted in April 2002, last revised on November 17th 2013







History of Maravi/British Central Africa/Nyasaland/Malawi : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources



NARRATIVE
Maravi Confederacy . 1889-1907 . 1907-1953 . 1953-1963 . Since 1964



Maravi Confederacy
The Maravi Confedewracy was established by Bantu people immmigrating into the valley of the Shire River (flowing out of Lake Nyassa) around 1480 A.D. It flourished into the 18th century, extending into stretches now belonging to Zambia and Mocambique.
In the 19th century the neighbouring Yao raided on them, selling captive Maravi on the slave markets of Kilwa and Zanzibar. In the 1860es, Islam was introduced into the area through contact with Swahili slave traders.
In 1859 the region was visited by David Livingstone; protestant missionaries established stations in 1873. A British consul was sent there in 1883.

British Central Africa Protectorate, 1889-1907
A British Consul for the territories north of the Zambezi, Captain Foote, was present in the Maravi Federation since 1883, stationed at Blantyre. There was a conflict with Mlozi, an Arab slave trader, and the Yao tribes under his influence. In 1885, the African Lakes Company began acquiring treaties which granted them far reaching rights over the area. In 1889, with the Portuguese also undertaking expecitions in the area, Britain declares the Shire Highlands Protectorate, which was extended in 1891 to form the Nyasaland Districts Protectorate (including the Ngonde Kingdom further north and the Chikulambyene in the South), in 1893 rechristened the British Central Africa Protectorate (until 1907). In 1891 an expedition was undertaken against Yao chiefs and slave raiders Mohandanji and Mponda; in 1897 the protectorate was regarded pacified. Commissioner, between 1891 and 1897, was Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston; he established the protectorate's administration, police force, signed treaties with indigenous chiefs. He pursued a policy of granting land to prospective plantation farmers and mining entrepreneurs/companies, which was to provide an economic structure capable to supply the proitectorate with a revenue basis. This land policy deprived the natives of the best lands, took advantage of the natives' inexperience with legal procedures. In addition, the natives were burdened with a hut tax. Resistance was organized on the tribal level, ineffective, and easily suppressed; the last Jumbe (Swahili chief, residing at Nkhotakota), was deported in 1905.
Meanwhile the missionaries had had some success; some natives were ordained ministers, among them John Chilembwe who even was sent to the US to study theology. Appalled by the racism of the white settler community, many of these native ministers founded separate communities for African christians.
H.H. Johnston received a salary from Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, which had acquired a majority of shares in the African Lakes Company. In 1904 British Central Africa was placed under the administration of the Colonial Office.
Blantyre was the economic and cultural center of the protectorate; it had been established as a mission station in 1876. Zomba in the Shire Highlands was selected as residence of the governor and administrative center of the protectorate. Plantations were established, where coffee was grown. A railway was built, connecting the protectorate with the Portuguese port city of Beira (Mocambique) completed only in 1935.

Nyasaland Protectorate, 1907-1953
In 1907, the British Central Africa Protectorate was renamed into Nyasaland. The administration was seated at Zomba. The Executive Council and the Legislative Council were established, the latter a consultative body (the authority to make decisions lay solely with the governor), consisting of ex-officio and appointed members, all white and male. Charged with the representation of African interests was a (white) missionary.
In 1908 Blantyre was connected by rail with Nsanje (a port on the Shire river, accessible by seagoing ships through the lower Zambezi), a connecting the European community in Nyasaland had looked forward to.
In 1912 the colony became self-supporting for the first time and balanced its budget throughout the first World War. The main export products were cotton, tobacco, rubber and coffee. A poor harvest (the best lands being planted with crops for export) caused famine among the native population. In 1914, c. 40,000 Nyasalanders worked abroad, mostly in the mines of South Africa and Rhodesia.
The seat of administration and residence of the British governor was Zomba, in the Shire Highlands. The Central African Coumcil, formed of representatives from Northern, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, functioned as an advisory and consultative body. Further there were Executive and Legislative Councils nominated by the crown (since 1907).
The principal exports were Tobacco and tea. Since 1935, the protectorate was connected by railway with the port of Beira in Portuguese Mocambique. In a 1945 census, the population was established at 2,044,707 Africans, 2,940 Asiatics and 1,948 Europeans, the latter mostly British nationals. In 1949 (SEAYb. p.873) wages for native labour were given as follows : farm boys 12s. 6d. per month plus food, house boys 12s. 6d. to 20s., cooks 15s. to 30s., skilled artisans 20s. to 150s., clerks 25s. to 250s. Native labour was praised as "the best in Southern Africa", but at the same time "hardly sufficient to maintain local industries". Educational institutions were insufficient in number and equipment; the British administration invested little in the infrastructure, as it was keen to balance the colony's revenues and expenses.

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1953-1963
In 1953, the British Colonial Office decided to establish the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, with it's seat of administration in Salisbury (modern Harare, Zimbabwe), a measure which was described in 1949 as "desired by the European population, resented by the Asiatic and native population" (SEAYb 1949 p.873). This measure was carried through, despite the protest of the people of Nyasaland.
African political organizations were founded, most importantly the NAC (1944, Nyasaland African Congress) and the MCP (1959, Malawi Congress Party); African Provincial Councils (est. 1944-1945) the first consultative bodies to which native representatives could be elected. In 1949 the first native and the first Asian representatives were appointed to the Legislative Council, in 1959 the first native to the Executive Council.
1959 was a year of crisis, as the MCP, pressing for independence, organized non-violent resistance and the government declared state of emergency. Countrywide elections in 1961 were won by the candidates of the MCP. Dr. Kamuzu Banda was appointed prime minister in 1963. In 1963, the federation was dissolved; in 1964, independence declared. Nyasaland became the Republic of Malawi.

Independence, 1964-
Domestic Policy . In 1964, Malawi proclaimed independence. In 1966 the constitution of a republic was adopted. As the country's first president, Hastings Kamuzu Banda was elected (-1994). His rule turned authoritarian; still as p.m., in the September 1964 Cabinet Crisis he broke with several cabinet ministers. Factually, Malawi was a one-party-state; in the 1966 elections the ruling party candidates ran unopposed. In 1971 the elections were cancelled by president Kamuzu Banda, who simply appointed the members of parliament and assumed presidency for life.
1965 and 1967 rebellions were suppressed. In 1975 the nation's capital was moved from Zomba to Lilongwe.
Dr. Banda is described as one of Africa's few conservative politicians in that period. Many white settlers remained in the country; their representation in parliament, until 1973, was guaranteed by a representative appointed by the president. Malawi entertained good relations with South Africa.
The Economy . Economic policy of independent Malawi focussed on the improvement of the infrastructure, the development of the nation's education system, on developing agriculture. Malawi did not enter any experiments in the direction of establishing a socialist society. However, an economic Africanization policy targeted Malawi's Asian minority (of c. 12,000), which controlled many of the nation's businesses. A 1978 law limited their residence to urban areas.
Political turmoil in neighbouring Moçambique caused the influx of refugees; the closure of the border with Moçambique had a serious impact on landlocked Malawi.
Upon independence in 1964, Malawi had a population of 3.79 million; a 1977 census counted 5.54 million, by 1998 the figure reached 10.5 million (Lahmeyer), the estimated figure for 2009 is 15.9 million (Wikipedia); an almost 3-fold increase since independence. In 2005 Malawi proclaimed a national disaster - the Malawian Food Crisis, still ongoing.
Foreign Policy . Malawi entertained good relations with South Africa and Taiwan and received foreign aid from many western nations as well as Taiwan. Malawi's reluctance to join the proposed African boycott of Apartheid South Africa resulted in the deterioration of her relations with neighbouring African nations, Zambia, Tanzania, and, since 1975, Moçambique.
The war for independence and the succeeding civil war in Moçambique had an impact on the landlocked nation, as her supply lines through Moçambique were jeopardized, a refugee problem emerged and the combattants at times violated her borders.
Since 1975 Malawi was surrounded by states hostile to the South African Apartheid regime; the small nation of Malawi, however, did not alter her South Africa policy.
Recent Developments . Malawi is a multiethnic state where a number of languages are spoken, Chichewa, Lomwe, Yao, Sena. The government promotes the use of Chichewa as language of administration and education. In addition, English is spoken.
In a referendum in 1993, multiparty democracy was introduced. A year later, Banda was voted out of office.

Historical Atlas, Malawi Page .. British East Africa Page






WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNAL SECONDARY SOURCES
Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
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Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS
Article : Malawi, from Wikipedia
Historical H.H. Johnston, British Central Africa : an attempt to give some account of a portion of the territories under British influence north of the Zambesi 1897, IA
H.L. Duff, Nyasaland under the Foreign Office, 1906, IA
S.S. Murray, A Handbook of Nyasaland 1922, IA
Know your Rhodesia and know your Nyasaland, by N.S. Ferris, online edition of 1956 book
Africa Today Pamphlets : The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1959
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; Category : Malawi, from Wikipedia
Malawi Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Malawi, from Wikipedia
Organizations Society of Malawi
Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Malawi, from Kirken i Norge
Accounts of History Modern Article : History of Malawi, from Wikipedia; from History World; from Malawi, the Warm Heart of Africa
T. Lambert, A Brief History of Malawi
Historical
Specific Periods Article : British Central Africa Protectorate, Wikipedia
Article : Nyasaland, Wikipedia
H. Walter, The title-deeds to Nyassa-land 1887, IA
F.J.D. Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire: Early Efforts in Nyasaland and Uganda, vol.1 1893, vol.2 1893, IA
EISA : Malawi: Pre-history to early state formation (c.2.5 million BP-c.1550 CE) (2010)
EISA : The Maravi Confederacy and the Ngulube kingdoms (1550-1800) (2010)
EISA : Malawi: Invasions from all sides - the Swahili to the British (1800-1891) (2010)
EISA : Malawi: The Colonial Period (1891-1964) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: Era of One Party Rule (1964-1992) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: Pressures for a MultiParty System (1992) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: Run Up to the Referendum (1992-1993) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: The Referendum Results (1993) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: Campaigning for MultiParty Elections (1993-1994) (2002)
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Politics Category : Politics of Malawi, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Malawi; Governments on the WWW : Malawi
Category : Elections in Malawi, from Wikipedia
Entry Malawi, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
DADM : British Nyasaland, 1907-1964, Malawi, 1964-present
Parliament of Malawi : History
H.M. Rakotomanga, Democratic Transition in Madagascar, Malawi and Mozambique, thesis Texas State 2011
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
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M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Malawi, Banda Regime 1964-1994
The soldier's burden, The Angoniland Rebellion, 1898-1899
ODM : United Kingdom: Central Africa Medal 1891-98
Anglo-Portuguese Crisis of 1889-1890, from OnWar.com
Economy & Finances Global History of Currencies : Malawi; Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Malawi
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Global Integrity : Malawi 2007
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Malawi
Article : British Central Africa Company, Wikipedia
R.L. Kettlewell, Agricultural Change in Nyasaland 1945-1960, FRIS 1965
K.M.G. Ularo, Food Inflation in Malawi : Implications for the Economy, thesis Univ. of Malawi 2010
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Central African Airlines, The Story of the CAA 1946-1961 1961, IA
R.W. Johnson, Tobacco production and trade in southern Africa, 1975, IA on Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, The Malagasy Republic, Zaire, The Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Angola
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and trade : selected African countries 1971, IA Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Republic of South Africa
Social History Malawi, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Malawi, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
R.J. MacDonald, A history of African education in Nyasaland, 1875-1945 thesis Edinburgh 1968
C. Kalebe-Nyamongo, Elites Attitudes towards the Poor and Pro-Poor Policies in Malawi, thesis Univ. of Birmingham 2012
UNESCO World Heritage Center, Malawi Slave Routes and Dr. David Livingstone Trail
G.H. Wilson, A missionary's life in Nyasaland 1920, IA
G.H. Kamwendo, The Bumpy Road to Mother Tongue Instruction in Malawi, 2008
Ethnography Languages of Malawi (15), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Malawi, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Malawi
Refugee Studies Circle : Contesting and Reinforcing Patriarchy : An Analysis of Domestic Violence in the Dzaleka Refugee Camp 2005, from Forced Migration Online
M. Read, Children of their fathers: growing up among the Ngoni of Nyasaland 1960, IA
D. Fraser, Winning a primitive people ; sixteen years' work among the warlike tribe of the Ngoni and the Senga and Tumbuka peoples of Central Africa 1922, IA
W.A. Elmslie, Among the wild Ngoni; being some chapters in the history of the Livingstonia mission in British Central Africa 1899, IA
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Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Malawi, from Kirken i Norge
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Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database, Escaping the Holocaust : The Route to Nyasaland
J. Stuart, Scottish missionaries and the end of empire: the case of Nyasaland Historical Research Aug. 2003 pp.411-430, King's College London
J.W. Jack, Daybreak In Livingstonia The Story Of The Livingstonia Mission British Central Africa, n.d., IA
Malawi : Early History, from New Testament Church (on the early history of christianity in Malawi; described the internment of white missionaries suspected of having aided the rebels, their observations, their history)
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J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : British Central Africa Protectorate 1900-07-08, Nyasaland Protectorate 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Republic of Malawi 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Malawi, from Wikipedia
Articles : Lilongwe : History, Blantyre : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions Malawi, Rhodesia & Nyasaland, from Airline History
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Structurae : Malawi
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Nyassagebiet, pp.94-101
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T.E. Mason, Narratives and reality for tree planting in Southern Malawi, thesis Univ. of Oregon 1971
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WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . EXTERNALLY POSTED PRIMARY SOURCES
Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of High Commissioners from the United Kingdom to Malawi, Wikipedia
Article : U.S. Ambassador to Malawi, Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Central Africa (Anglican), from Wikipedia
Catholic Hierarchy : Malawi, all bishops
Category : Bishops of Nyasaland, Bishops of Northern Malawi, Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Statistical Office of Malawi
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile, Malawi
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1964
Inflation Rate Index Mundi, Malawi Inflation Rate 1999-2011
Trading Economics, Malawi Inflation Rate 2007-
Election Results from Psephos (since 1994); from IFES Election Guide
EISA : Malawi Elections Archive
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Documents Historical Newspapers Northern Rhodesia and Zambia : Central African Examiner March 1961
The London Gazette Archive
Historic Newspaper Articles History of Malawi, from World History Archives
The London Gazette Sept. 3 1907
The Spectator 14 Juni 1951, British Central Africa ?, Spectator Archive
The Spectator 27 Feb. 1959, And now Nyasaland, Spectator Archive
J. Callaghan, Central Africa (V) : Federation and the British Labour Party 12 July 1958
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Malawi, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Malawi Entries Nyasaland in 1920, from South and East African Year Book and Guide, 26th ed., 1920
Statesman's Year-Book, Nyassaland 1890, p.185, IA, British Zambesia and Nyasaland 1891, pp.166-168, IA, Zambesia and Nyasaland, British 1892, pp.195-198, IA, Central Africa, British 1894, pp.177-179, IA, 1895, pp.177-180, IA, 1896, pp.177-180, IA, 1898, pp.178-180, IA, 1899, pp.192-194, IA, 1903, pp.203-206, IA, Nyasaland Protectorate 1913, pp.185-188, IA, 1919, pp.192-194, IA, 1921, pp.195-197, IA
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Historic Films Colonial Film : Nyasaland
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
General
Systematic Collections
Specialist
Kings Collections : I Speak of Africa : Nyasaland
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Malawi
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Malawi
International Mission Photography Archive : Malawi
Archival Deposits British Provenience
National Archives, UK
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
Cambridge University Libraries : Diary of Luke Norman in Central Africa, 1868-1870, E. Steere, A Walk to the Nyassa Country, 1875-1876, Nyasaland diaries of David Lawson, 1932-1981, Royal Commonwealth Society Collections : Nyasaland Publicity Bureau, Postcard Collection, c.1950, GRaphael Tuck & Sons, Postcard Collection, 1924, Federal Information Department, Nyasaland, Photographs, c.1955, Views of Nyasaland 1885-1886, Central Office of Information Photograph Collection, Janus
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African Studies Centre, Leiden : Development Plans, Nyasaland
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Legislation UK, Rhodesia And Nyasaland Act 1963
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Treaties
Consular Reports
Historiography
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Document Collections
Individual Documents K. Chiume, Nyasaland demands Secession and Independence, pamphlet 1960, IA
Historical Maps responsible institutions National Spatial Data Centre National Mapping Agencies in Africa
Surveys Department, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Malawi Malawi Maps, PCL, UTexas
David Rumsey Map Collection, Malawi
Category : Old Maps of Malawi, Maps of the History of Malawi, Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
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Africa 1913, Zonu
Malawi, Modern
Malawi, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 45. Livingstonia 1885, 45. Livingstonia 1888, 45. Livingstonia 1893, 46. Kiloua 1885, 46. Kiloua 1889 46. Kiloua 1893, 50. Tete 1884, 50. Tete 1890, 50. Tete 1893, 51. Quilimane 1884, 51. Quilimane 1889, 51. Quilimane 1892, Gallica
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Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1960, Wikipedia
H.H. Johnston, British Central Africa Protectorate 1895, Univ. of Illinois
detail, hindsight/modern
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Historical
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles British Central Africa, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
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Economic Nyasaland pp.337-338 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
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G.T. Warner, A Geography of British South Africa< 1904, IA; British Central Africa pp.167-176
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E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; British Central Africa pp.271-281
Historical
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
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Residence Memoirs A. Ambali, Thirty Years in Nyasaland, 1923, IA
Institutions Archives National Archives of Malawi
Musea Museums in Africa : Malawi
Monuments
Libraries
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, of Malawi, from World Currency Museum; of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, of Malawi from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Malawi Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for British Central Africa, Nyasaland, Malawi
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BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PRINT SOURCES
Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Malawi survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
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general bibliographies pp.119-169 in C.A. Crosby, Historical Dictionary of Malawi, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1980 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Northern Malawi Bibliography
I am Yawo Project, Published Academic Works, English Resources
Dissertations on Religion in Malawi
serial publications Central Africana Limited
Society of Malawi Publications
Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
Malawi entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Malawi-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
booksellers
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Malawi Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
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Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
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H.L. Duff, Nyasaland under the Foreign Office (1903), IA
K. Chiume, Nyasaland demands Secession and Independence (1960), IA
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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.890-894 Article Southern Africa : Malawi. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
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Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Nyasaland, 1913 p. 646 [G]
British East Africa, 1944 p.127, 1945 pp.124-125, 1946 pp.146-147, 1947 pp.149-150, 1948 pp.139-140, 1949 pp.118-120 [G]
Nyasaland, 1950 p.505, 1951 pp.514-515, 1952 p.518, 1953 p.518, 1954 p.524 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1954 pp.612-613; 1955 pp.661-662, 1956 p.599, 1957 pp.660-661, 1958 pp.595-596, 1959 pp.593-594, 1960 pp.595-596, 1961 pp.603-604, 1962 pp.594-595 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1963 pp.697-699 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1963 pp.284-286, 1964 pp.268-269 [G]
Malawi, 1965 pp.511-512, 1966 pp.488-489, 1967 pp.498-499, 1968 pp.498-499, 1969 pp.483-484, 1970 p.488, 1971 p.471, 1972 pp.443-444, 1973 pp.441-442, 1974 pp.444-445, 1975 pp.471-472, 1976 p.500, 1977 p.500, 1978 p.531, 1979 p.519, 1980 p.519, 1981 p.523, 1982 p.523, 1983 p.517, 1984 p.514, 1985 pp.469, 730, 1986 pp.463, 728, 1988 pp.392-393, 648, 1989 pp.392, 649, 1990 pp.410, 664, 1993 pp.364, 660, 1994 pp.363, 661, 1995 pp.440-441, 660 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook British Central Africa, 1895 pp.177-179 [G]
Central Africa Protectorate, 1898 pp.178-180, 1901 pp.193-194, 1905 pp.206-208 [G]
Nyasaland Protectorate, 1910 pp.182-183, 1919 pp.192-194, 1924 pp.201-203, 1925 pp.205-207, 1926 pp.209-211, 1928 pp.207-209, 1929 pp.208-209, 1932 pp.211-213, 1937 pp.230-232, 1943 pp.222-224 [G]
Malawi, 1970-1971 pp.474-476, 1975-1976 pp.410-412, 1978-1979 pp.806-809, 1980-1981 pp.813-817, 1983-1984 pp.809-813, 1984-1985 pp.809-813, 1985-1986 pp.811-815, 1987-1988 pp.815-818, 1988-1989 pp.817-820, 1989-1990 pp.884-887, 1990-1991 pp.827-830, 1991-1992 pp.828-831, 1992-1993 pp.911-914, 1993-1994 pp.908-911, 1994-1995 pp.906-909, 1995-1996 pp.970-973, 1996-1997 pp.853-855, 1997-1998 pp.865-868, 1998-1999 pp.929-932, 2000 pp.1059-1063, 2001 pp.1035-1039, 2002 pp.1076-1080, 2003 pp.1079-1083, 2004 pp.1085-1089, 2005 pp.1092-1096 [G]
Americana Annual Nyasaland, 1927 pp.640-641, 1928 p.594, 1930 p.585, 1931 p.567, 1932 p.540, 1933 pp.571-572, 1934 p.447, 1935 p.532, 1936 p.536, 1937 p.525, 1938 p.514, 1939 p.585, 1940 pp.591-592, 1943 pp.561-562, 1944 p.537, 1945 p.548 [G]
Nyasaland Protectorate, 1946 pp.562-563, 1947 p.514 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1957 pp.674-676, 1961 pp.644-646, 1962 pp.649-651, 1963 pp.576-578 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1964 pp.572-575 [G]
Malawi, 1965 pp.436-437, 1967 p.424, 1968 p.420, 1969 p.430, 1970 pp.426-427, 1971 p.433, 1972 p.431, 1973 p.432 [G]
Other Article : British Central Africa Protectorate, in : International Year Book 1898 p.134 [G]
Article : East Africa - Nyasaland, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 pp.247-248 [G]
South and East African Year Book and Guide, 49th edition 1949, pp.765-766, 867-881 [G]
Nyasaland p.126, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]