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Literature on the History of Southern Africa
Zambia Moçambique
First posted in April 2002, last revised on November 17th 2013

History of Maravi/British Central Africa/Nyasaland/Malawi : Narrative . References : Online Secondary Sources . Online Primary Sources . Bibliographic and Print Sources

Maravi Confederacy . 1889-1907 . 1907-1953 . 1953-1963 . Since 1964

Maravi Confederacy
The Maravi Confedewracy was established by Bantu people immmigrating into the valley of the Shire River (flowing out of Lake Nyassa) around 1480 A.D. It flourished into the 18th century, extending into stretches now belonging to Zambia and Mocambique.
In the 19th century the neighbouring Yao raided on them, selling captive Maravi on the slave markets of Kilwa and Zanzibar. In the 1860es, Islam was introduced into the area through contact with Swahili slave traders.
In 1859 the region was visited by David Livingstone; protestant missionaries established stations in 1873. A British consul was sent there in 1883.

British Central Africa Protectorate, 1889-1907
A British Consul for the territories north of the Zambezi, Captain Foote, was present in the Maravi Federation since 1883, stationed at Blantyre. There was a conflict with Mlozi, an Arab slave trader, and the Yao tribes under his influence. In 1885, the African Lakes Company began acquiring treaties which granted them far reaching rights over the area. In 1889, with the Portuguese also undertaking expecitions in the area, Britain declares the Shire Highlands Protectorate, which was extended in 1891 to form the Nyasaland Districts Protectorate (including the Ngonde Kingdom further north and the Chikulambyene in the South), in 1893 rechristened the British Central Africa Protectorate (until 1907). In 1891 an expedition was undertaken against Yao chiefs and slave raiders Mohandanji and Mponda; in 1897 the protectorate was regarded pacified. Commissioner, between 1891 and 1897, was Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston; he established the protectorate's administration, police force, signed treaties with indigenous chiefs. He pursued a policy of granting land to prospective plantation farmers and mining entrepreneurs/companies, which was to provide an economic structure capable to supply the proitectorate with a revenue basis. This land policy deprived the natives of the best lands, took advantage of the natives' inexperience with legal procedures. In addition, the natives were burdened with a hut tax. Resistance was organized on the tribal level, ineffective, and easily suppressed; the last Jumbe (Swahili chief, residing at Nkhotakota), was deported in 1905.
Meanwhile the missionaries had had some success; some natives were ordained ministers, among them John Chilembwe who even was sent to the US to study theology. Appalled by the racism of the white settler community, many of these native ministers founded separate communities for African christians.
H.H. Johnston received a salary from Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company, which had acquired a majority of shares in the African Lakes Company. In 1904 British Central Africa was placed under the administration of the Colonial Office.
Blantyre was the economic and cultural center of the protectorate; it had been established as a mission station in 1876. Zomba in the Shire Highlands was selected as residence of the governor and administrative center of the protectorate. Plantations were established, where coffee was grown. A railway was built, connecting the protectorate with the Portuguese port city of Beira (Mocambique) completed only in 1935.

Nyasaland Protectorate, 1907-1953
In 1907, the British Central Africa Protectorate was renamed into Nyasaland. The administration was seated at Zomba. The Executive Council and the Legislative Council were established, the latter a consultative body (the authority to make decisions lay solely with the governor), consisting of ex-officio and appointed members, all white and male. Charged with the representation of African interests was a (white) missionary.
In 1908 Blantyre was connected by rail with Nsanje (a port on the Shire river, accessible by seagoing ships through the lower Zambezi), a connecting the European community in Nyasaland had looked forward to.
In 1912 the colony became self-supporting for the first time and balanced its budget throughout the first World War. The main export products were cotton, tobacco, rubber and coffee. A poor harvest (the best lands being planted with crops for export) caused famine among the native population. In 1914, c. 40,000 Nyasalanders worked abroad, mostly in the mines of South Africa and Rhodesia.
The seat of administration and residence of the British governor was Zomba, in the Shire Highlands. The Central African Coumcil, formed of representatives from Northern, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, functioned as an advisory and consultative body. Further there were Executive and Legislative Councils nominated by the crown (since 1907).
The principal exports were Tobacco and tea. Since 1935, the protectorate was connected by railway with the port of Beira in Portuguese Mocambique. In a 1945 census, the population was established at 2,044,707 Africans, 2,940 Asiatics and 1,948 Europeans, the latter mostly British nationals. In 1949 (SEAYb. p.873) wages for native labour were given as follows : farm boys 12s. 6d. per month plus food, house boys 12s. 6d. to 20s., cooks 15s. to 30s., skilled artisans 20s. to 150s., clerks 25s. to 250s. Native labour was praised as "the best in Southern Africa", but at the same time "hardly sufficient to maintain local industries". Educational institutions were insufficient in number and equipment; the British administration invested little in the infrastructure, as it was keen to balance the colony's revenues and expenses.

Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1953-1963
In 1953, the British Colonial Office decided to establish the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, with it's seat of administration in Salisbury (modern Harare, Zimbabwe), a measure which was described in 1949 as "desired by the European population, resented by the Asiatic and native population" (SEAYb 1949 p.873). This measure was carried through, despite the protest of the people of Nyasaland.
African political organizations were founded, most importantly the NAC (1944, Nyasaland African Congress) and the MCP (1959, Malawi Congress Party); African Provincial Councils (est. 1944-1945) the first consultative bodies to which native representatives could be elected. In 1949 the first native and the first Asian representatives were appointed to the Legislative Council, in 1959 the first native to the Executive Council.
1959 was a year of crisis, as the MCP, pressing for independence, organized non-violent resistance and the government declared state of emergency. Countrywide elections in 1961 were won by the candidates of the MCP. Dr. Kamuzu Banda was appointed prime minister in 1963. In 1963, the federation was dissolved; in 1964, independence declared. Nyasaland became the Republic of Malawi.

Independence, 1964-
Domestic Policy . In 1964, Malawi proclaimed independence. In 1966 the constitution of a republic was adopted. As the country's first president, Hastings Kamuzu Banda was elected (-1994). His rule turned authoritarian; still as p.m., in the September 1964 Cabinet Crisis he broke with several cabinet ministers. Factually, Malawi was a one-party-state; in the 1966 elections the ruling party candidates ran unopposed. In 1971 the elections were cancelled by president Kamuzu Banda, who simply appointed the members of parliament and assumed presidency for life.
1965 and 1967 rebellions were suppressed. In 1975 the nation's capital was moved from Zomba to Lilongwe.
Dr. Banda is described as one of Africa's few conservative politicians in that period. Many white settlers remained in the country; their representation in parliament, until 1973, was guaranteed by a representative appointed by the president. Malawi entertained good relations with South Africa.
The Economy . Economic policy of independent Malawi focussed on the improvement of the infrastructure, the development of the nation's education system, on developing agriculture. Malawi did not enter any experiments in the direction of establishing a socialist society. However, an economic Africanization policy targeted Malawi's Asian minority (of c. 12,000), which controlled many of the nation's businesses. A 1978 law limited their residence to urban areas.
Political turmoil in neighbouring Moçambique caused the influx of refugees; the closure of the border with Moçambique had a serious impact on landlocked Malawi.
Upon independence in 1964, Malawi had a population of 3.79 million; a 1977 census counted 5.54 million, by 1998 the figure reached 10.5 million (Lahmeyer), the estimated figure for 2009 is 15.9 million (Wikipedia); an almost 3-fold increase since independence. In 2005 Malawi proclaimed a national disaster - the Malawian Food Crisis, still ongoing.
Foreign Policy . Malawi entertained good relations with South Africa and Taiwan and received foreign aid from many western nations as well as Taiwan. Malawi's reluctance to join the proposed African boycott of Apartheid South Africa resulted in the deterioration of her relations with neighbouring African nations, Zambia, Tanzania, and, since 1975, Moçambique.
The war for independence and the succeeding civil war in Moçambique had an impact on the landlocked nation, as her supply lines through Moçambique were jeopardized, a refugee problem emerged and the combattants at times violated her borders.
Since 1975 Malawi was surrounded by states hostile to the South African Apartheid regime; the small nation of Malawi, however, did not alter her South Africa policy.
Recent Developments . Malawi is a multiethnic state where a number of languages are spoken, Chichewa, Lomwe, Yao, Sena. The government promotes the use of Chichewa as language of administration and education. In addition, English is spoken.
In a referendum in 1993, multiparty democracy was introduced. A year later, Banda was voted out of office.

Historical Atlas, Malawi Page .. British East Africa Page

Country Profiles . Links . Organizations . Accounts of History . Politics . Military History . Economic History . Social History . Ethnography
History of Religion . Regional History . Local History . Institutions . Culture . Biography . Environmental History . Others
Country Profiles Modern from CIA World Factbook; BBC Country Profiles; World Desk Reference; Index Mundi, Nations Encyclopedia; from ISS
Article : Malawi, from Wikipedia
Historical H.H. Johnston, British Central Africa : an attempt to give some account of a portion of the territories under British influence north of the Zambesi 1897, IA
H.L. Duff, Nyasaland under the Foreign Office, 1906, IA
S.S. Murray, A Handbook of Nyasaland 1922, IA
Know your Rhodesia and know your Nyasaland, by N.S. Ferris, online edition of 1956 book
Africa Today Pamphlets : The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1959
Links General from Library of Congress, Portals to the World; from BUBL; Category : Malawi, from Wikipedia
Malawi Page, from African Studies at UPenn; from Africa South of the Sahara at Stanford
on History from Virtual Library History; Category : History of Malawi, from Wikipedia
Organizations Society of Malawi
Southern African Historical Society
Economic History Society of Southern Africa
Church History Society of Southern Africa
The Philatelic Society for Greater Southern Africa
Historical Dictionaries
Timelines from BBC News; from timelines.ws
Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Malawi, from Kirken i Norge
Accounts of History Modern Article : History of Malawi, from Wikipedia; from History World; from Malawi, the Warm Heart of Africa
T. Lambert, A Brief History of Malawi
Specific Periods Article : British Central Africa Protectorate, Wikipedia
Article : Nyasaland, Wikipedia
H. Walter, The title-deeds to Nyassa-land 1887, IA
F.J.D. Lugard, The Rise of Our East African Empire: Early Efforts in Nyasaland and Uganda, vol.1 1893, vol.2 1893, IA
EISA : Malawi: Pre-history to early state formation (c.2.5 million BP-c.1550 CE) (2010)
EISA : The Maravi Confederacy and the Ngulube kingdoms (1550-1800) (2010)
EISA : Malawi: Invasions from all sides - the Swahili to the British (1800-1891) (2010)
EISA : Malawi: The Colonial Period (1891-1964) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: Era of One Party Rule (1964-1992) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: Pressures for a MultiParty System (1992) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: Run Up to the Referendum (1992-1993) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: The Referendum Results (1993) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: Campaigning for MultiParty Elections (1993-1994) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: May 1994 Elections: A Watershed (1994-1998) (2002)
EISA : Malawi: 1999 Elections (1998-1999) (2002)
Historiography IPPG, The Joys and Pitfalls of Doing Historical Institutionalist Research in Malawi, 2009
Politics Category : Politics of Malawi, from Wikipedia; Political Resources on the Net : Malawi; Governments on the WWW : Malawi
Category : Elections in Malawi, from Wikipedia
Entry Malawi, from EISA Web Encyclopedia
DADM : British Nyasaland, 1907-1964, Malawi, 1964-present
Parliament of Malawi : History
H.M. Rakotomanga, Democratic Transition in Madagascar, Malawi and Mozambique, thesis Texas State 2011
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland : The Party System in 1950-1956 and 1957-1962, in : Kenneth Janda, Political Parties : A Cross-National Survey
Global Nonviolent Action Database : Malawians bring down 30-year dictator, 1992-1993
Freedom House : Malawi Report 2013 (reports for 1999, 2001-2013 available)
Military Orders, Decorations and Medals of Malawi, from ODM
M. Rupiya, The odd man out: A history of the Malawi army since July 1964 , ch.5, in M. Rupiya (ed.), Evolutions and Revolutions, A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa, ISS 2005
M. White, Death Tolls for the Multicides of the Twentieth Century, Malawi, Banda Regime 1964-1994
The soldier's burden, The Angoniland Rebellion, 1898-1899
ODM : United Kingdom: Central Africa Medal 1891-98
Anglo-Portuguese Crisis of 1889-1890, from OnWar.com
Economy & Finances Global History of Currencies : Malawi; Tables of Modern Monetary History : Africa, from www.dollarization.org, scroll down for Malawi
Category : Economy of Malawi, from Wikipedia
Global Integrity : Malawi 2007
Wharton Financial Institutions Center : Malawi
Article : British Central Africa Company, Wikipedia
R.L. Kettlewell, Agricultural Change in Nyasaland 1945-1960, FRIS 1965
K.M.G. Ularo, Food Inflation in Malawi : Implications for the Economy, thesis Univ. of Malawi 2010
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and marketing in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Nyasaland 1964, IA
Central African Airlines, The Story of the CAA 1946-1961 1961, IA
R.W. Johnson, Tobacco production and trade in southern Africa, 1975, IA on Rhodesia, Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, The Malagasy Republic, Zaire, The Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, Angola
A.B. Davis, Tobacco production and trade : selected African countries 1971, IA Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia, Republic of South Africa
Social History Malawi, from Alcohol and Drugs History Society
Malawi, from Crime and Society. a Comparative Criminology Tour of the World by R. Winslow
R.J. MacDonald, A history of African education in Nyasaland, 1875-1945 thesis Edinburgh 1968
C. Kalebe-Nyamongo, Elites Attitudes towards the Poor and Pro-Poor Policies in Malawi, thesis Univ. of Birmingham 2012
UNESCO World Heritage Center, Malawi Slave Routes and Dr. David Livingstone Trail
G.H. Wilson, A missionary's life in Nyasaland 1920, IA
G.H. Kamwendo, The Bumpy Road to Mother Tongue Instruction in Malawi, 2008
Ethnography Languages of Malawi (15), from Ethnologue
Category Languages of Malawi, from Wikipedia
World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples : Malawi
Refugee Studies Circle : Contesting and Reinforcing Patriarchy : An Analysis of Domestic Violence in the Dzaleka Refugee Camp 2005, from Forced Migration Online
M. Read, Children of their fathers: growing up among the Ngoni of Nyasaland 1960, IA
D. Fraser, Winning a primitive people ; sixteen years' work among the warlike tribe of the Ngoni and the Senga and Tumbuka peoples of Central Africa 1922, IA
W.A. Elmslie, Among the wild Ngoni; being some chapters in the history of the Livingstonia mission in British Central Africa 1899, IA
Institutionalized Ethnicity : Malawi
Religion Chronology of Catholic Dioceses : Malawi, from Kirken i Norge
Category : Religion in Malawi, from Wikipedia
Holocaust Survivors and Victims Database, Escaping the Holocaust : The Route to Nyasaland
J. Stuart, Scottish missionaries and the end of empire: the case of Nyasaland Historical Research Aug. 2003 pp.411-430, King's College London
J.W. Jack, Daybreak In Livingstonia The Story Of The Livingstonia Mission British Central Africa, n.d., IA
Malawi : Early History, from New Testament Church (on the early history of christianity in Malawi; described the internment of white missionaries suspected of having aided the rebels, their observations, their history)
Franco Frescura, List of Mission Stations in Southern Africa
History of Regions Category : Districts of Malawi, from Wikipedia
Districts of Malawi, from www.statoids.com
J.M. Merklin, Countries and Territories of the 20th Century, 2009 : British Central Africa Protectorate 1900-07-08, Nyasaland Protectorate 1908-07-08, 1918-07-08, 1928-07-08, 1938-07-08, 1948-07-08, 1958-07-08, Republic of Malawi 1968-07-08, 1978-07-08, 1988-07-08, 1998-07-08, 2008-07-08
Local History List of Cities in Malawi, from Wikipedia
Articles : Lilongwe : History, Blantyre : History, from Wikipedia
Institutions Malawi, Rhodesia & Nyasaland, from Airline History
University of Malawi
Article Malawi Railways, from Wikipedia
Structurae : Malawi
Hans Meyer, Die Eisenbahnen im Tropischen Afrika (The Railroads in Tropical Africa), Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot 1902, in German, posted by DTBSWS, chapter Nyassagebiet, pp.94-101
Commercial Motor 17 June 1919, Motor Transport in British Central Africa
EngRailHistory from the 1930es, Pioneering in Nyasaland. An Important Link with the East African Coast
Cultural History Articles Malawi at the Olympics, from Wikipedia
Biographies List of Malawians, from Wikipedia
African Women Bibliographic Database
Dictionary of African Christian Biography
W.H. Wills et al., The Anglo-African who's who and biographical sketch-book 1905, IA
W.P. Livingstone, Laws of Livingstonia : a narrative of missionary adventure and achievement 1923, IA
B.W. Randolph, Arthur Douglas, missionary on Lake Nyasa : the story of his life, 1920, IA
Biography of John Chilembwe, from chilembwe.net, illustrated; posted by gospelcom.net (An African Biographical Dictionary)
Biography of Joseph Booth (mentor of John Chilembwe), from BBKL, in German; another one from Watchtower Information Service, in English
Environmental History Disaster History : Malawi, from Relief Web
Afrotropic Ecoregion, from WWF
T.E. Mason, Narratives and reality for tree planting in Southern Malawi, thesis Univ. of Oregon 1971
Others International Boundary Studies, search for Malawi

Historical Data . Statistical Data . Documents Newspapers . Yearbooks . Image Databanks . Archival Deposits . Laws . Historiography
Document Collections . Historical Maps . Historical Encyclopedia Articles . Travelogues . Institutions . National Symbols
Historical Data Lists of Statesmen from World Statesmen (B. Cahoon), from Rulers (B. Schemmel), from World Rulers (E. Schulz, illustrated)
Lists of Ambassadors List of High Commissioners from the United Kingdom to Malawi, Wikipedia
Article : U.S. Ambassador to Malawi, Wikipedia
Lists of Consuls
Lists of Bishops List of Archbishops of Central Africa (Anglican), from Wikipedia
Catholic Hierarchy : Malawi, all bishops
Category : Bishops of Nyasaland, Bishops of Northern Malawi, Wikipedia
Statistical Data Responsible Institution National Statistical Office of Malawi
Population Figures from Population Statistics (J. Lahmeyer)
World Life Expectancy : Health Profile, Malawi
Exchange Rates Historical Exchange Rates, from Oanda, since 1990
Historical Exchange Rates, from FXTop, since 1964
Inflation Rate Index Mundi, Malawi Inflation Rate 1999-2011
Trading Economics, Malawi Inflation Rate 2007-
Election Results from Psephos (since 1994); from IFES Election Guide
EISA : Malawi Elections Archive
African Elections Database : Elections in Malawi
Search IPU Parline for "Malawi"
Documents Historical Newspapers Northern Rhodesia and Zambia : Central African Examiner March 1961
The London Gazette Archive
Historic Newspaper Articles History of Malawi, from World History Archives
The London Gazette Sept. 3 1907
The Spectator 14 Juni 1951, British Central Africa ?, Spectator Archive
The Spectator 27 Feb. 1959, And now Nyasaland, Spectator Archive
J. Callaghan, Central Africa (V) : Federation and the British Labour Party 12 July 1958
Modern Newspapers Newspapers and News Media : Malawi, from ABYZ; from Online Newspapers, from World Newspapers (links)
Online Yearbooks - Malawi Entries Nyasaland in 1920, from South and East African Year Book and Guide, 26th ed., 1920
Statesman's Year-Book, Nyassaland 1890, p.185, IA, British Zambesia and Nyasaland 1891, pp.166-168, IA, Zambesia and Nyasaland, British 1892, pp.195-198, IA, Central Africa, British 1894, pp.177-179, IA, 1895, pp.177-180, IA, 1896, pp.177-180, IA, 1898, pp.178-180, IA, 1899, pp.192-194, IA, 1903, pp.203-206, IA, Nyasaland Protectorate 1913, pp.185-188, IA, 1919, pp.192-194, IA, 1921, pp.195-197, IA
Staatskalender Colonial Reports, Annual, British Central Africa Protectorate, 1904-1905, 1905-1906, 1906-1907, Colonial Reports, Annual, Nyasaland Protectorate 1907-1908, 1908-1909, 1909-1910, 1910-1911, 1911-1912, 1912-1913, 1913-1914, 1914-1915, 1915-1916, 1916-1917, 1917-1918, 1918-1919, 1919-1920, 1920, 1921 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champlain, Library
Annual Report on the Social and Economic Progress of the People of Nyasaland 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champlain, Library
British Online Archives, Nyasaland Blue Books 1904-1938
Newsreels British Pathe, Queen Mother in Nyasaland, 1957
Historic Films Colonial Film : Nyasaland
Image Databanks Systematic Collections
Systematic Collections
Kings Collections : I Speak of Africa : Nyasaland
Accidental Collections
Universal Collections
Items on Malawi
License Plates, from Francoplaque, from License Plates around the World
Airline Timetable Images : Malawi
International Mission Photography Archive : Malawi
Archival Deposits British Provenience
National Archives, UK
Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Archive Records
Cambridge University Libraries : Diary of Luke Norman in Central Africa, 1868-1870, E. Steere, A Walk to the Nyassa Country, 1875-1876, Nyasaland diaries of David Lawson, 1932-1981, Royal Commonwealth Society Collections : Nyasaland Publicity Bureau, Postcard Collection, c.1950, GRaphael Tuck & Sons, Postcard Collection, 1924, Federal Information Department, Nyasaland, Photographs, c.1955, Views of Nyasaland 1885-1886, Central Office of Information Photograph Collection, Janus
National Library of Scotland, Manuscripts Division, Laws Papers, 1875-1934 , Mundus
Edinburgh Univ., New College Library, Laws, Robert, 1875-1934, Mundus
Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House, Universities' Mission to Central Africa 1828-1982, Mundus; British Online Archives, Universities' Mission to Central Africa
SOAS, Archive Catalogue (Archives of the London Missionary Society, the Methodist Missionary Society, the Presbyterian Church of England Foreign Missions Committee)
Microform Academic Publishers, Guides, Central Africa 1883-1964. The Monthly Magazine of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, introduction by R.G. Stuart
Adam Matthews Publications, African Missionaries' Collections
Other Provenience
African Studies Centre, Leiden : Development Plans, Nyasaland
Indiana University Library, African Pamphlets Collection Index
University of Chicago. Library. Microfilm collection of manuscripts on American Cultural Anthropology : Center for Research Libraries, Reference Folder : Nyasaland
Constitutions ICRC, Constitution of the Republic of Malawi 1994
Laws Malawi Legal Information Institute, Databases
South African Legal Information Institute, Databases (scroll down for Malawi etc.)
Legislation UK, Rhodesia And Nyasaland Act 1963
List of Ratifications of International Labour Conventions by Malawi, from ILO, 29 docs. since 1965
Consular Reports
Document Surveys British Library, Malawi Official Publications
Colonial Film, Central African Film Unit
Document Collections
Individual Documents K. Chiume, Nyasaland demands Secession and Independence, pamphlet 1960, IA
Historical Maps responsible institutions National Spatial Data Centre National Mapping Agencies in Africa
Surveys Department, National Mapping Agencies in Africa
collections : Africa Historical Maps of Africa, University of Alabama
collections : Malawi Malawi Maps, PCL, UTexas
David Rumsey Map Collection, Malawi
Category : Old Maps of Malawi, Maps of the History of Malawi, Wikimedia Commons
Africa, Modern Africa 1905, 1912, 1938, 1959, 1967, 1993, J. de Salas Vara del Rey
Africa, Contemporary Historical Map of Africa 1885, Nations Online Project
Africa 1885, PCL, UTexas
Africa 1909, World Maps Online
Africa 1910, Emerson Kent
Africa 1913, Zonu
Malawi, Modern
Malawi, Contemporary R. de Lannoy de Bissy, Carte de l'Afrique a l'echelle de 1:2 000 000 45. Livingstonia 1885, 45. Livingstonia 1888, 45. Livingstonia 1893, 46. Kiloua 1885, 46. Kiloua 1889 46. Kiloua 1893, 50. Tete 1884, 50. Tete 1890, 50. Tete 1893, 51. Quilimane 1884, 51. Quilimane 1889, 51. Quilimane 1892, Gallica
Africa 1:2.000.000, U.S. Army Map Service, sheet sheet 28 Dar es Salaam (1969), sheet 31 Salisbury (1970), PCL, UTexas
1895 Map of British Central Africa, Big Blue
British Central Africa 1906, Nyasaland Protectorate 1922, 1932, Probert Encyclopedia
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1960, Wikipedia
H.H. Johnston, British Central Africa Protectorate 1895, Univ. of Illinois
detail, hindsight/modern
detail, contemporary Map of the Shire Highlands District of British Central Africa 1899, Digital Public Library of America
Encyclopedia Entries
Secular Articles British Central Africa, EB 1911, Classic Encyclopedia, Internet Archive Wayback Machine
Religious Article Nyassa, Vicariate Apostolic, from Catholic Encyclopedia 1907-1912 edition
Economic Nyasaland pp.337-338 in J. MacFarlane, Economic geography, c. 1910, GB
Geographical C.P. Lucas, Geography of South and East Africa 1904, IA; British Central Africa pp.100-121
G.T. Warner, A Geography of British South Africa< 1904, IA; British Central Africa pp.167-176
Ethnographical E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, The Earth and its Inhabitants Africa vol.4 : South and East Africa, 1890, IA : Zambese and Ku-Bango Basins pp.235-281
E. Reclus, A.H. Keane, Africa and its Inhabitants vol.4 1899, IA; British Central Africa pp.271-281
Parliamentary Debates Hansard (British Parliament)
Travelogues E.D. Young, Nyassa; a journal of adventures whilst exploring Lake Nyassa, Central Africa, and establishing the settlement of "Livingstonia", 1877, IA
Residence Memoirs A. Ambali, Thirty Years in Nyasaland, 1923, IA
Institutions Archives National Archives of Malawi
Musea Museums in Africa : Malawi
Official Symbols Flags, Coats of Arms Flag, from FOTW; Coat of Arms, from International Civic Heraldry
National Anthem, from David's National Anthem Reference Page
Coins, Banknotes Banknotes of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, of Malawi, from World Currency Museum; of Rhodesia & Nyasaland, of Malawi from Ron Wise's World Paper Money
Malawi Coins, from World Coin Gallery
Search Coin Archives for British Central Africa, Nyasaland, Malawi
Stamps Rare British Central Africa, Nyasaland Stamps, from Sandafayre Stamps Gallery; Stamps British Central Africa/Nyasaland Stamps 1891-1913, from Stamps Catalogue 1840-1920 by Evert Klaseboer

Bibliographies . Online Libraries . Thesis Servers . Online Journals . General Accounts . Specific Topics . Historical Dictionaries . Statistical Data . Yearbooks
Bibliographies general Search ISBN Database
RHS Bibliography
UK National Archive Online Library
on Malawi survey of bibliographies
bibliographic database AfricaBib : Africana Periodical Literature, African Women, Women Travelers, Explorers and Missionaries to Africa
African Borderlands Research Network : Bibliography
National Archives of Malawi : Bibliography
general bibliographies pp.119-169 in C.A. Crosby, Historical Dictionary of Malawi, Metuchen NJ : Scarecrow 1980 [G]
annual bibliographies
specialist bibliographies Northern Malawi Bibliography
I am Yawo Project, Published Academic Works, English Resources
Dissertations on Religion in Malawi
serial publications Central Africana Limited
Society of Malawi Publications
Queens University, Southern African Research Centre, graduate theses
general bibliographies
Malawi entries
J. Gay, Bibliographie des ouvrages relatifs a l'Afrique et a l'Arabie : catalogue methodique de tous les ouvrages français et des principaux en langues etrangeres traitant de la geographie, de l'histoire, du commerce, des lettres et des arts de l'Afrique et de l'Arabie 1875, in French, Gallica
Roots Institute, Bibliography of Published Primary Sources in African History (English Language)
Malawi-Bibliographie, from Afrika-Handbuch, at Univ. of Vienna
Online Libraries general Google Books; Internet Archives; Gutenberg Library Online; HathiTrust; Gallica
International Boundary Studies
on Malawi Aluka, African Online Digital Library (AODL), African Digital Library (ADL)
Thesis Server Open Access Theses and Dissertations
Online Journals Directory of Open Access Journals
General Accounts H.H. Johnston, British Central Africa: An Attempt to Give Some Account of a Portion of the .. (1898), IA
H.L. Duff, Nyasaland under the Foreign Office (1903), IA
K. Chiume, Nyasaland demands Secession and Independence (1960), IA
Specific Topics Jonathan Crush, Cheap Gold : Mine Labour in Southern Africa, pp.172-177 in : Robin Cohen, The Cambridge Survey of World Migration, Cambridge : UP 1995, KMLA Lib.Sign. 304.809 C678c
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, Macropaedia, Vol.28, pp.890-894 Article Southern Africa : Malawi. KMLA Lib.Sign. R 032 B862h v.28
Chapter 30 : The Rhodesias and the Central African Federation, pp.602-619; 31 : More about Rhodesia and Nyasaland, pp.620-645, in : John Gunther, Inside Africa, NY : Harper & Bros. (1953) 1955 [G]
Historical Dictionaries Cynthia A. Crosby, Historical Dictionary of Malawi, Metuchen : Scarecrow 1980
Statistical Data IHS : B.R. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000, London : Palgrave 2003 [G]
Yearbook Entries Britannica Book of the Year Nyasaland, 1913 p. 646 [G]
British East Africa, 1944 p.127, 1945 pp.124-125, 1946 pp.146-147, 1947 pp.149-150, 1948 pp.139-140, 1949 pp.118-120 [G]
Nyasaland, 1950 p.505, 1951 pp.514-515, 1952 p.518, 1953 p.518, 1954 p.524 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1954 pp.612-613; 1955 pp.661-662, 1956 p.599, 1957 pp.660-661, 1958 pp.595-596, 1959 pp.593-594, 1960 pp.595-596, 1961 pp.603-604, 1962 pp.594-595 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1963 pp.697-699 [G]
Commonwealth of Nations, 1963 pp.284-286, 1964 pp.268-269 [G]
Malawi, 1965 pp.511-512, 1966 pp.488-489, 1967 pp.498-499, 1968 pp.498-499, 1969 pp.483-484, 1970 p.488, 1971 p.471, 1972 pp.443-444, 1973 pp.441-442, 1974 pp.444-445, 1975 pp.471-472, 1976 p.500, 1977 p.500, 1978 p.531, 1979 p.519, 1980 p.519, 1981 p.523, 1982 p.523, 1983 p.517, 1984 p.514, 1985 pp.469, 730, 1986 pp.463, 728, 1988 pp.392-393, 648, 1989 pp.392, 649, 1990 pp.410, 664, 1993 pp.364, 660, 1994 pp.363, 661, 1995 pp.440-441, 660 [G]
Statesman's Yearbook British Central Africa, 1895 pp.177-179 [G]
Central Africa Protectorate, 1898 pp.178-180, 1901 pp.193-194, 1905 pp.206-208 [G]
Nyasaland Protectorate, 1910 pp.182-183, 1919 pp.192-194, 1924 pp.201-203, 1925 pp.205-207, 1926 pp.209-211, 1928 pp.207-209, 1929 pp.208-209, 1932 pp.211-213, 1937 pp.230-232, 1943 pp.222-224 [G]
Malawi, 1970-1971 pp.474-476, 1975-1976 pp.410-412, 1978-1979 pp.806-809, 1980-1981 pp.813-817, 1983-1984 pp.809-813, 1984-1985 pp.809-813, 1985-1986 pp.811-815, 1987-1988 pp.815-818, 1988-1989 pp.817-820, 1989-1990 pp.884-887, 1990-1991 pp.827-830, 1991-1992 pp.828-831, 1992-1993 pp.911-914, 1993-1994 pp.908-911, 1994-1995 pp.906-909, 1995-1996 pp.970-973, 1996-1997 pp.853-855, 1997-1998 pp.865-868, 1998-1999 pp.929-932, 2000 pp.1059-1063, 2001 pp.1035-1039, 2002 pp.1076-1080, 2003 pp.1079-1083, 2004 pp.1085-1089, 2005 pp.1092-1096 [G]
Americana Annual Nyasaland, 1927 pp.640-641, 1928 p.594, 1930 p.585, 1931 p.567, 1932 p.540, 1933 pp.571-572, 1934 p.447, 1935 p.532, 1936 p.536, 1937 p.525, 1938 p.514, 1939 p.585, 1940 pp.591-592, 1943 pp.561-562, 1944 p.537, 1945 p.548 [G]
Nyasaland Protectorate, 1946 pp.562-563, 1947 p.514 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Federation of, 1957 pp.674-676, 1961 pp.644-646, 1962 pp.649-651, 1963 pp.576-578 [G]
Rhodesia and Nyasaland, 1964 pp.572-575 [G]
Malawi, 1965 pp.436-437, 1967 p.424, 1968 p.420, 1969 p.430, 1970 pp.426-427, 1971 p.433, 1972 p.431, 1973 p.432 [G]
Other Article : British Central Africa Protectorate, in : International Year Book 1898 p.134 [G]
Article : East Africa - Nyasaland, in : Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia and Register of Important Events 1894 pp.247-248 [G]
South and East African Year Book and Guide, 49th edition 1949, pp.765-766, 867-881 [G]
Nyasaland p.126, in : Year Book and Guide to East Africa 1963 [G]

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